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  • 1.
    Andershed, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Psykologiska och biologiska perspektiv på sociala anpassningsproblem2013In: Perspektiv på sociala problem / [ed] Meeuwisse, Anna & Swärd, Hans, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2013, 2, p. 242-261Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Andershed, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Utveckling av psykopati från barndom till vuxen ålder2016In: Psykopati / [ed] Mette K. F. Kreis, Helge Andreas Hoff, Henrik Belfrage & Stephen D. Hart, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 49-71Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Anneli
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Garcia-Argibay, Miguel
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Oskarsson, Sofi
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, United States.
    Ghirardi, Laura
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Larsson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Women Diagnosed with ADHD: A Population-Based Register StudyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Andersson, Anneli
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Garcia-Argibay, Miguel
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Viktorin, Alexander
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Ghirardi, Laura
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Butwicka, Agnieszka
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Department of Child Psychiatry, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland .
    Skoglund, Charlotte
    Department of clinical neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala Sweden.
    D’onofrio, Brian M.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; The Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences at Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, United States.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Depression and Anxiety Disorders During the Postpartum Period – in Women Diagnosed with ADHDManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Andersson, Anneli
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Garcia-Argibay, Miguel
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Viktorin, Alexander
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ghirardi, Laura
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Butwicka, Agnieszka
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Department of Child Psychiatry, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland; Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Stockholm, Stockholm Health Care Services, Region Stockholm, Sweden.
    Skoglund, Charlotte
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Madsen, Kathrine Bang
    National Centre for Register-based Research, Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark; iPSYCH, the Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, Denmark.
    D'onofrio, Brian M.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; The Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences at Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, United States.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Depression and anxiety disorders during the postpartum period in women diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder2023In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 325, p. 817-823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with an increased risk of poor mental health. However, the understanding of ADHD-related burden and impairments in women during the postpartum period is limited. The aim with the present study was to examine the risk of depression and anxiety disorders during the postpartum period among women with and without an ADHD diagnosis.

    METHODS: We used register-based data to identify women who gave birth to their first and/or second child between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden (n = 773,047), of which 0.5 % (n = 3515) had a diagnosis of ADHD prior to pregnancy. Diagnoses of depression and anxiety disorders up to one year after delivery were collected from the national patient register.

    RESULTS: A total of 16.76 % of the women with an ADHD diagnosis were also diagnosed with depression disorders in the postpartum period, prevalence ratio (PR) 5.09 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 4.68-5.54). A total of 24.92 % of the women with an ADHD diagnosis were also diagnosed with anxiety disorders in the postpartum period, PR 5.41 (5.06-5.78). Stratified results revealed that having a diagnosis of ADHD increased the risk for both depression and anxiety disorders postpartum, beyond other well-known risk factors.

    LIMITATIONS: There is a potential risk of surveillance bias as women diagnosed with ADHD are more likely to have repeated visits to psychiatric care and might have an enhanced likelihood of also being diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorders postpartum, compared to women without ADHD.

    CONCLUSIONS: ADHD is an important risk factor for both depression and anxiety disorders postpartum. Therefore, ADHD needs to be considered in the maternal care, regardless of sociodemographic factors and the presence of other psychiatric disorders.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Anneli
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Hegvik, Tor-Arne
    Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Chen, Qi
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Rosenqvist, Mina A.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Kvalvik, Liv Grimstvedt
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden; Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Almqvist, Catarina
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Solna, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Astrid Lindgren Childrens Hosp, Pediat Allergy & Pulmonol Unit, Solna, Sweden; Pediatric Allergy and Pulmonology Unitat Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    D'Onofrio, Brian M.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden; The Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences at Indiana University, Bloomington Indiana, United States of America.
    Hartman, Catharina
    Department of Psychiatry,University of Groningen University Medical Center, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Klungsøyr, Kari
    Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Division for Mental and PhysicalHealth, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway.
    Haavik, Jan
    Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Division of Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles California, United States of America.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and smoking habits in pregnant women2020In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 6, article id e0234561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with an increased risk of tobacco smoking, and more difficulties with smoking cessation compared to non-ADHD individuals. Women with ADHD may therefore show elevated rates of smoking during pregnancy.

    Aims: To examine the association between ADHD and smoking habits among pregnant women in Sweden and Norway.

    Methods: Women pregnant for the first time were identified in Sweden (n = 622,037), and Norway (n = 293,383), of which 1.2% (n = 7,444), and 1.7% (n = 4,951) were defined as having ADHD, respectively. Data on smoking habits were collected early and late in pregnancy.

    Results: In Sweden, ADHD was associated with an increased risk of smoking early in pregnancy, adjusted risk ratio (adjRR) 2.69 (95% confidence interval, 2.58-2.81), and late in pregnancy, adjRR 2.95 (2.80-3.10). Similar findings were observed in the Norwegian data, early in pregnancy, adjRR 2.31 (2.21-2.40), and late in pregnancy, adjRR 2.56 (2.42-2.70). Women with ADHD were more likely to continue smoking during pregnancy, compared to women without ADHD, both in Sweden adjRR 1.13 (1.10-1.17), and in Norway, adjRR 1.16 (1.12-1.20). Having a sibling diagnosed with ADHD was associated with an increased risk of smoking early and late in pregnancy, in both Sweden and Norway.

    Conclusions: Women with ADHD are considerably more likely to smoke early and late in (their first) pregnancy and are less likely to stop smoking between the two time points. Smoking, early and late in pregnancy, co-aggregates in families with ADHD. Smoking prevention and intervention programs should be targeted towards women with ADHD, specifically during their childbearing years, to ensure better mother and child outcomes.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Anneli
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Chen, Qi
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Du Rietz, Ebba
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Cortese, Samuele
    Centre for Innovation in Mental Health, School of Psychology, Faculty of Environmental and Life sciences & Clinical and Experimental Sciences (CNS and Psychiatry), Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; Solent NHS Trust, Southampton, UK; Division of Psychiatry and Applied Psychology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; New York University Child Study Center, New York, NY, USA.
    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Research Review: The strength of the genetic overlap between ADHD and other psychiatric symptoms - a systematic review and meta-analysis2020In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, ISSN 0021-9630, E-ISSN 1469-7610, Vol. 61, no 11, p. 1173-1183Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Twin studies have established that these co-occurrences are in part due to shared genetic risks. However, the strength of these genetic overlaps and the potential heterogeneity accounted for by type of psychiatric symptoms, age, and methods of assessment remain unclear. We conducted a systematic review to fill this gap.

    Methods: We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and Web of Science until March 07, 2019. Genetic correlations (r(g)) were used as effect size measures.

    Results: A total of 31 independent studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The pooled estimates showed that the associations between ADHD and other psychiatric symptoms were partly explained by shared genetic factors, with a pooled genetic correlation of 0.50, 95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.60. The genetic correlations (r(g)) between ADHD and externalizing (r(g) = .49 [0.37-0.61]), internalizing (r(g) = .50 [0.39-0.69]), and neurodevelopmental (r(g) = .56 [0.47-0.66]) symptoms were similar in magnitude. The genetic correlations in childhood and adulthood werer(g) = .53 (0.43-0.63) andr(g) = .51 (0.44-0.56), respectively. For methods of assessment, the genetic correlations were also similar in strength, self-reportsr(g) = .52 (0.47-0.58), other informantsr(g) = .55 (0.41-0.69), and combined ratersr(g) = .50 (0.33-0.65).

    Conclusions: These findings indicate that the co-occurrence of externalizing, internalizing, and neurodevelopmental disorder symptoms in individuals with ADHD symptoms in part is due to a shared genetic risk.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Anneli
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. University of Southern California, Department of Psychology, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chen, Qi
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Genetic overlap between ADHD and externalizing, internalizing and neurodevelopmental disorder symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis2018In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 455-456Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder (Wilens, Biederman & Spencer 2002) and affects approximately 5% of children (Polanczyk, de Lima, Horta, Biederman & Rohde 2007). About half of those diagnosed in childhood continue to have the diagnosis and symptoms in adulthood (Kessler et al. 2006). The co-occurrence of ADHD with other psychiatric disorder symptoms (Burt et al. 2001; Cole et al. 2009; Polderman et al. 2014) has been suggested to be partly explained by a shared genetic vulnerability (Polderman et al. 2014). However, the strength of the genetic overlap is currently unclear. Also, no study has examined whether the genetic correlations differs between age groups (childhood versus adulthood), by rater (self-report, other informant, combined (parent-teacher, parent-twin, teacher-twin)), or by type of psychiatric disorder symptoms (externalizing, internalizing, neu-rodevelopmental). To address this gap, we conducted a systematic literature search to identify relevant twin studies, in PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE. A total of 31 articles were identified and included in the present study. The pooled estimates showed that the comorbidity between ADHD and diverse psychiatric disorder symptoms were explained by shared genetic effectsrg= 0.50 (0.43–0.56). A similar shared genetic overlap between ADHD and psychiatric disorder symptoms was observed in both childhood rg= 0.51(0.42–0.61) and adulthood rg= 0.47 (0.40–0.53). Similar results werealso found for self-reports rg= 0.49 (0.42–0.55), other informants rg= 0.50 (0.40–0.60), and combined raters rg= 0.51 (0.30–0.69). Further, the strength of the genetic correlations of ADHD with the externalizing rg= 0.49 (0.39–0.59), internalizing rg= 0.55 (0.40–0.68) and neurodevelopmental rg= 0.47 (0.40–0.53) spectrums were similar in magnitude. These findings emphasize the presence of a shared genetic liability between ADHD and externalizing, internalizing and neurodevelopmental disorder symptoms, independent of age and rater.

    References

    Burt, S. A., Krueger, R. F., McGue, M., Iacono, W. G. (2001).Sources of covariation among attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder: the importance ofshared environment.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 4, 516–525.

    Cole, J., Ball, H. A., Martin, N. C., Scourfield, J., McGuffin, P.(2009). Genetic overlap between measures of hyperactivity/inatten-tion and mood in children and adolescents.J Am Acad Child AdolescPsychiatry48, 1094–1101.

    Kessler, R. C., Adler, L., Barkley, R., Biederman, J., Conners, C.K., Demler, O., Faraone, S. V., Greenhill, L. L., Howes, M. J., Secnik,K., Spencer, T., Ustun, T. B., Walters, E. E., Zaslavsky, A. M. (2006).The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States:results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.Am JPsychiatry, 163, 716–723.

    Polanczyk, G., de Lima, M. S., Horta, B. L., Biederman, J., Rohde,L. A. (2007). The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematicreview and metaregression analysis.Am J Psychiatry, 164, 942-8.

    Polderman, T. J., Hoekstra, R. A., Posthuma, D., Larsson, H.(2014). The co-occurrence of autistic and ADHD dimensions inadults: an etiological study in 17,770 twins.Transl Psychiatry2014;4: e435.

    Wilens, T. E., Biederman, J., Spencer, T. J. (2002). Attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan.Annual Review Med53:113–131.

  • 9.
    Baker, Laura A.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Bezdjian, Serena
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Raine, Adrian
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
    Antisocial behavior: gene-environment interplay2012In: Principles of psychiatric genetics / [ed] John I. Nurnberger, Jr, Wade Berrettini, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , 2012, p. 145-159Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Baker, Laura A.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, United States.
    Genetics and crime2010In: The SAGE handbook of criminological theory / [ed] Eugene McLaughlin and Tim Newburn, Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2010, p. 21-39Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Baker, Laura
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Niv, Sharon
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Raine, Adrian
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    The genetic and environmental etiology of internalizing and externalizing behavior in adolescent twins2011In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 927-927Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Comorbidity between internalizing (anxious, depressive) and externalizing (aggressive, delinquent) behavior is a well-established and common clinical reality throughout the lifespan, but perhaps becomes more significance in adolescence, when individuals are awarded more freedom. However, the genetic and environmental etiology of this comorbidity has rarely been examined in a behavioral genetic setting, especially during the period of adolescence. Additionally, research suggests that while caregivers may be more reliable reporters of externalizing behavior in youth, youth themselves are more reliable reporters of internalizing symptoms, raising the question of how different raters affect data patterns. Using the parent report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) as well as the youth report version (Youth Self Report—YSR), this research uses a twin study design to examine the etiology of coexisting internalizing and externalizing symptoms in mid adolescence (age 14–16 years) using a common pathway model that examined all data concurrently. Female comorbidity was accounted for by genetic and shared environmental influences, and male comorbidity by shared environmental influences, exclusively. Genetic influences emerged for all but self-report male externalizing behavior. Every scale showed unique influences as well, some of which were correlated between same-rater scales (e.g. parent report internalizing and externalizing), suggesting that some of the influences on covariation are rater-specific. These results contribute to our understanding of the nature of comorbid psychological disorders during adolescence, and suggest the importance of shared environment to the development of both internalizing and externalizing behavior

  • 12.
    Baker, Laura
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, 3620 South McClintock Avenue, Los Angeles, United States .
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, 3620 South McClintock Avenue, Los Angeles, United States .
    Reynolds, Chandra
    University of California, Riverside, United States.
    Zheng, Mo
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, 3620 South McClintock Avenue, Los Angeles, United States .
    Lozano, Dora Isabel
    Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, United States .
    Raine, Adrian
    University of Pennsylvania, United States .
    Resting heart rate and the development of antisocial behavior from age 9 to 14: genetic and environmental influences2009In: Development and psychopathology (Print), ISSN 0954-5794, E-ISSN 1469-2198, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 939-960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The genetic and environmental basis of a well-replicated association between antisocial behavior (ASB) and resting heart rate was investigated in a longitudinal twin study, based on two measurements between the ages of 9 and 14 years. ASB was defined as a broad continuum of externalizing behavior problems, assessed at each occasion through a composite measure based on parent ratings of trait aggression, delinquent behaviors, and psychopathic traits in their children. Parent ratings of ASB significantly decreased across age from childhood to early adolescence, although latent growth models indicated significant variation and twin similarity in the growth patterns, which were explained almost entirely by genetic influences. Resting heart rate at age 9-10 years old was inversely related to levels of ASB but not change patterns of ASB across age or occasions. Biometrical analyses indicated significant genetic influences on heart rate during childhood, as well as ASB throughout development from age 9 to 14. Both level and slope variation were significantly influenced by genetic factors. Of importance, the low resting heart rate and ASB association was significantly and entirely explained by their genetic covariation, although the heritable component of heart rate explained only a small portion (1-4%) of the substantial genetic variance in ASB. Although the effect size is small, children with low resting heart rate appear to be genetically predisposed toward externalizing behavior problems as early as age 9 years old.

  • 13.
    Baker, Laura
    et al.
    Department of Psychology (SGM 501), University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology (SGM 501), University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Wang, Pan
    Department of Psychology (SGM 501), University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Gomez, Karina
    Department of Psychology (SGM 501), University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Bezdjian, Serena
    Department of Psychology (SGM 501), University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Niv, Sharon
    Department of Psychology (SGM 501), University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology and Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, United States .
    The Southern California twin register at the University of Southern California: III2013In: Twin Research and Human Genetics, ISSN 1832-4274, E-ISSN 1839-2628, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 336-343Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Baker, Laura
    et al.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Wang, Pan
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Younan, Diana
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Franklin, Meredith
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Lurman, Fred
    Sonoma Technology Inc, Petaluma, USA.
    Wu, Jun
    Irvine College of Health Sciences, University of California, Irvine, USA.
    Chen, Jiu-Chiuan
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    The Relationship between IQ and PM2.5: Findings from the University of Southern California Twin Study2016In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 772-773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the longitudinal relationship between IQ and fine particulate matter (\2.5lm aerodynamic diameters; PM2.5) exposure in urban-dwelling children, using prospective longitudinal data from the USC Twin Study of Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior (RFAB; Baker et al. 2013). Residential addresses were collected via selfreports. Verbal and Performance IQ during childhood (age 9–10) and young adulthood (age 19–20) were evaluated by the Wechsler Abbreviated Intelligence Scale (Wechsler, 1999) using four subtests: VIQ=Vocabulary Similarities; PIQ=Block Design Matrices. Based on residential addresses and spatiotemporal generalized additive model of local monitoring data for PM2.5, we estimated 1-year average exposure before each assessment. A three-level mixed effects model regressing IQ scores at each assessment on time-varying air pollution exposures, accounting for both within-family (random intercepts) and within-individual (random slopes) was used. PM2.5 exposure had significant adverse effects on PIQ (95 % CI of b:-7.29 to-1.01, p\.05) but not VIQ (95 % CI of b:-4.50 to-1.96). Adverse effects of PM2.5 exposure remained significant after adjusting for age, family SES, sex, race/ethnicity, parental cognitive abilities, neighborhood SES, neighborhood quality and neighborhood greenness; the association was still significant after further adjusting for traffic distance (300 m), temperature, humidity and annual NOx. PM2.5 exposure confers stronger adverse effects on PIQ in low SES families, males, and during pre-adolescence. Our findings reveal social disparities and sexual dimorphism in the adverse PM2.5 exposure effects on PIQ. Baker, L., Tuvblad, C., Wang, P., Gomez, K., Bezdjian, S., Niv, S., & Raine, A. (2013). The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California: III. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16(1), 336–343; Wechsler, D. (1999). Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). San Antonio, Texas: Harcourt Assessment.

  • 15.
    Beckley, Amber L.
    et al.
    Department of Social Work and Criminology, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden; Department of Criminology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rocque, Michael
    Department of Sociology, Bates College, Lewiston ME, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Piquero, Alex R.
    University of Miami, Coral Gables FL, USA; Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Maturing Out of Victimization: Extending the Theory of Psychosocial Maturation to Victimization2021In: Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology, ISSN 2199-4641, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 543-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescents are at a relatively high risk of victimization. Within criminology, victimization has been largely attributed to risky behaviors and low self-control. Yet, these factors explain only a modest amount of victimization, suggesting that other theoretical predictors may offer additional insight. One factor that may predict victimization, as well as decreasing victimization risk after adolescence, is psychosocial maturation. Using data from the longitudinal Pathways to Desistance study, this study tested the association between psychosocial maturation and victimization. The analytic sample for this study (1087 individuals; 5681 yearly observations) included participants under 18 years at study recruitment. On average, each participant contributed 6 years of data. The victimization measure captured different types of threats and assaults (including rape and gunshot). Results showed 978 (17.2%) observations during which participants reported victimization. On average, psychosocial maturation increased with age while victimization risk decreased. Crude and adjusted models of the between-individual effect showed that a one standard deviation increase in psychosocial maturation was associated with 39% and 20% lower odds of victimization, respectively. Crude and adjusted models of the within-individual effect showed that a one standard deviation increase in psychosocial maturation was associated with 22% and 17% lower odds of victimization, respectively. Psychosocial maturation appears to be a relevant predictor of victimization and aids in our understanding of victimization risk throughout adolescence and early adulthood.

  • 16.
    Bertoldi, Bridget
    et al.
    Florida State University, Tallahassee FL, USA.
    LaManna, Rachel
    Florida State University, Tallahassee FL, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Oskarsson, Sofi
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Raine, Adrian
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, USA.
    Baker, Laura
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Patrick, Christopher
    Florida State University, Tallahassee FL, USA.
    RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN AUTONOMIC RESPONSES TO FEAR CONDITIONING AND THE TRIARCHIC MODEL OF PSYCHOPATHY: THE MODERATING ROLES OF BOLDNESS2021In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 58, no Suppl. 1, p. S45-S45Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a longstanding interest in relationships between autonomic activity during fear conditioning paradigms and antisocial behavior and psychopathy. A considerable body of work has explored electrodermal and cardiovascular responses both in anticipation of, and in response to, fear conditioning paradigms in antisocial participants (Hare 1965; Hare & Quinn, 1976). However, there is a lack of work exploring these associations in adolescent populations, and how these associations may relate to the triarchic model of psychopathy (Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009). The current study examined relationships between skin conductance responses (SCRs) and heart rate reactivity (HRR) to a countdown task at ages 9– 10, and the triarchic psychopathy traits at ages 9– 10, 14– 15, and 19– 20 in a longitudinal sample (N = 695) of twins from the Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior (RFAB; Baker et al., 2013) project. Children and adolescents high in boldness, both rated by themselves and their parents, demonstrated reduced skin conductance both in anticipation of and in reaction to the loud blast. Similar patterns were also demonstrated for heart rate (HR); children and adolescents high in boldness had less HR change during the countdown, and reduced HRR to the blast itself. Implications of these findings for our understanding of the role of boldness in autonomic reactivity to fear conditioning paradigms will be discussed.

  • 17.
    Bertoldi, Bridget M.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, United States of America.
    Evans, Brittany
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Oskarsson, Sofi
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Joyner, Keanan
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, United States of America.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Baker, Laura A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, United States of America.
    Raine, Adrian
    Department of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, United States of America.
    Schwartz, Joseph A.
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, United States of America.
    Patrick, Christopher J.
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, United States of America.
    Relationship between resting heart rate and law enforcement involvement: The moderating role of socioeconomic status in a sample of urban youth2022In: Journal of criminal justice, ISSN 0047-2352, E-ISSN 1873-6203, Vol. 82, article id 102004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Resting heart rate (RHR) is a well-established biological risk factor for criminal behavior. However, potential moderating effects of social risk factors like socioeconomic status on this relationship remain unclear. The current study sought to clarify the moderating impact of socioeconomic status on the relation between low RHR in childhood and adolescence and subsequent legal system involvement by young adulthood.

    Methods: A subset of twins and triplets from the Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior (RFAB) project (N = 347) were utilized to test hypotheses. Logistic regression analyses were performed to test for a moderating effect of socioeconomic status on the relationship between RHR and later law enforcement involvement (trouble with police, arrest).

    Results: Resting HR and SES were individually associated with an increased likelihood of being in trouble with the police and being arrested. In addition, RHR and SES in adolescence interacted to predict trouble with the police and arrest history by young adulthood, such that low RHR predicted these outcomes among adolescents who remained in low SES backgrounds.

    Conclusions: Adolescents who remain in low socioeconomic backgrounds from childhood will be a particularly important group to target in terms of treatment efforts to prevent criminal behavior.

  • 18.
    Bertoldi, Bridget M.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA.
    Perkins, Emily R.
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Oskarsson, Sofi
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kramer, Mark D.
    School of Law, Psychology, and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Latzman, Robert D.
    Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Baker, Laura A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Patrick, Christopher J.
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA.
    Pursuing the developmental aims of the triarchic model of psychopathy: Creation and validation of triarchic scales for use in the USC2022In: Development and psychopathology (Print), ISSN 0954-5794, E-ISSN 1469-2198, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 1088-1103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The triarchic model was advanced as an integrative, trait-based framework for investigating psychopathy using different assessment methods and across developmental periods. Recent research has shown that the triarchic traits of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition can be operationalized effectively in youth, but longitudinal research is needed to realize the model's potential to advance developmental understanding of psychopathy. We report on the creation and validation of scale measures of the triarchic traits using questionnaire items available in the University of Southern California Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior (RFAB) project, a large-scale longitudinal study of the development of antisocial behavior that includes measures from multiple modalities (self-report, informant rating, clinical-diagnostic, task-behavioral, physiological). Using a construct-rating and psychometric refinement approach, we developed triarchic scales that showed acceptable reliability, expected intercorrelations, and good temporal stability. The scales showed theory-consistent relations with external criteria including measures of psychopathy, internalizing/externalizing psychopathology, antisocial behavior, and substance use. Findings demonstrate the viability of measuring triarchic traits in the RFAB sample, extend the known nomological network of these traits into the developmental realm, and provide a foundation for follow-up studies examining the etiology of psychopathic traits and their relations with multimodal measures of cognitive-affective function and proneness to clinical problems.

  • 19.
    Bertoldi, Bridget M.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee FL, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Joyner, Keanan J.
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee FL, USA.
    Ganley, Colleen
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee FL, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Department of Criminology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, USA; Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, USA.
    Baker, Laura
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Latvala, Antti
    Institute of Criminology and Legal Policy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Oskarsson, Sofi
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Patrick, Christopher J.
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee FL, USA.
    Role of Triarchic Traits in Relations of Early Resting Heart Rate With Antisocial Behavior and Broad Psychopathology Dimensions in Later Life2023In: Clinical Psychological Science, ISSN 2167-7026, E-ISSN 2167-7034, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 90-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low resting heart rate (HR) is a known risk indicator for the development of antisocial behavior (ASB) and other clinical problems. Stimulation seeking and fearlessness have been explored as factors underlying the HR/ASB relationship, but these have often been conflated, which has complicated interpretation. We examined HR's associations with ASB and other outcomes in terms of biobehavioral traits described by the triarchic model of psychopathy using data (N = 710) from a longitudinal study of ASB risk. Low resting HR in childhood was related to adult ASB, and covariance between ASB and traits of disinhibition and boldness largely accounted for this association. In addition, low childhood HR was related to greater externalizing problems and fewer internalizing problems in adulthood; disinhibition accounted for the former association, and boldness accounted for the latter. Findings indicate a role for both disinhibition and boldness in associations between early HR and later clinical outcomes and have implications for theory and practice.

  • 20.
    Bertoldi, Bridget
    et al.
    Florida State University, Tallahassee FL, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Oskarsson, Sofi
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Raine, Adrian
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, USA.
    Baker, Laura
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Patrick, Christopher
    Florida State University, Tallahassee FL, USA.
    DISPOSITIONAL FACTORS ACCOUNTING FOR THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOW RESTING HEART RATE IN CHILDHOOD AND LATER ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR: A TRIARCHIC MODEL ANALYSIS USING LONGITUDINAL-STUDY DATA2020In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 57, no S1, p. S76-S76Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a longstanding interest in autonomic activity in relation to criminal deviancy, antisocial behavior (ASB), and psychopathy. Among the autonomic measures studied to date, considerable evidence supports low rest-ing heart rate (HR) early in life as one of the most robust predictors of later ASB (Farrington, 1997). Some studies have examined stimulation seeking and fearlessness as possible trait factors accounting for the low HR/ASB rela-tionship (Hammerton et al., 2017; Portnoy et al., 2014; Sijstema et al., 2010), but the individual difference basis of this relationship remains unclear. The current study tested for associations of resting HR at ages 9–10 with triarchic psychopathy traits of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition along with ASB later in life (ages 19–20) among participants (N = 687) from a longitudinal investigation, the Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior (RFAB; Baker et al., 2013) project. Resting HR was negatively associated with both violent and nonviolent behavior, and with externalizing problems more broadly. It was also related negatively to triarchic traits of boldness and disinhibition, with the relationship somewhat stronger for boldness. Importantly, boldness and disinhibition each accounted for significant variance in associations of low resting HR with particular types of ASB. Implications of these findings for our understanding of the nature and bases of the low HR–antisocial behavior relationship will be discussed.

  • 21.
    Bezdjian, Serena
    et al.
    Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis MO, USA.
    Baker, Laura
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Genetic and environmental influences on impulsivity: a meta-analysis of twin, family and adoption studies2011In: Clinical Psychology Review, ISSN 0272-7358, E-ISSN 1873-7811, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 1209-1223Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A meta-analysis of twin, family and adoption studies was conducted to estimate the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on impulsivity. The best fitting model for 41 key studies (58 independent samples from 14. month old infants to adults; N = 27,147) included equal proportions of variance due to genetic (0.50) and non-shared environmental (0.50) influences, with genetic effects being both additive (0.38) and non-additive (0.12). Shared environmental effects were unimportant in explaining individual differences in impulsivity. Age, sex, and study design (twin vs. adoption) were all significant moderators of the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on impulsivity. The relative contribution of genetic effects (broad sense heritability) and unique environmental effects were also found to be important throughout development from childhood to adulthood. Total genetic effects were found to be important for all ages, but appeared to be strongest in children. Analyses also demonstrated that genetic effects appeared to be stronger in males than in females. Method of assessment (laboratory tasks vs. questionnaires), however, was not a significant moderator of the genetic and environmental influences on impulsivity. These results provide a structured synthesis of existing behavior genetic studies on impulsivity by providing a clearer understanding of the relative genetic and environmental contributions in impulsive traits through various stages of development.

  • 22.
    Bezdjian, Serena
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, United States.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, United States.
    Baker, Laura
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    The association between parental substance use and antisocial behaviors in adolescent twins2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Bezdjian, Serena
    et al.
    Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis MO, United States .
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States .
    Raine, Adrian
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, United States .
    Baker, Laura
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States .
    The genetic and environmental covariation among psychopathic personality traits, and reactive and proactive aggression in childhood2011In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 82, no 4, p. 1267-1281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the genetic and environmental covariance between psychopathic personality traits with reactive and proactive aggression in 9- to 10-year-old twins (N=1,219). Psychopathic personality traits were assessed with the Child Psychopathy Scale (D. R. Lynam, 1997), while aggressive behaviors were assessed using the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (A. Raine et al., 2006). Significant common genetic influences were found to be shared by psychopathic personality traits and aggressive behaviors using both caregiver (mainly mother) and child self-reports. Significant genetic and nonshared environmental influences specific to psychopathic personality traits and reactive and proactive aggression were also found, suggesting etiological independence among these phenotypes. Additionally, the genetic relation between psychopathic personality traits and aggression was significantly stronger for proactive than reactive aggression when using child self-reports.

  • 24.
    Bezdjian, Serena
    et al.
    University of Southern California, Seaside California, USA; Department of Defense Center-Monterey Bay, Seaside California, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Dept Psychol, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Wang, Pan
    Dept Psychol, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Dept Criminol, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA; Dept Psychiat, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA; Dept Psychol, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
    Baker, Laura A.
    Dept Psychol, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Motor Impulsivity During Childhood and Adolescence: A Longitudinal Biometric Analysis of the Go/No-Go Task in 9- to 18-Year-Old Twins2014In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 50, no 11, p. 2549-2557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we investigated genetic and environmental effects on motor impulsivity fromchildhood to late adolescence using a longitudinal sample of twins from ages 9 to 18 years. Motorimpulsivity was assessed using errors of commission (no-go errors) in a visual go/no-go task at 4 timepoints: ages 9–10, 11–13, 14–15, and 16–18 years. Significant genetic and nonshared environmentaleffects on motor impulsivity were found at each of the 4 waves of assessment with genetic factorsexplaining 22%–41% of the variance within each of the 4 waves. Phenotypically, children’s averageperformance improved across age (i.e., fewer no-go errors during later assessments). Multivariatebiometric analyses revealed that common genetic factors influenced 12%–40% of the variance in motorimpulsivity across development, whereas nonshared environmental factors common to all time pointscontributed to 2%–52% of the variance. Nonshared environmental influences specific to each time pointalso significantly influenced motor impulsivity. Overall, results demonstrated that although geneticfactors were critical to motor impulsivity across development, both common and specific nonsharedenvironmental factors played a strong role in the development of motor impulsivity across age.

  • 25.
    Björkenstam, Charlotte
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björkenstam, Emma
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljung, Rickard
    Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Department of Social Work, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Suicidal behavior among delinquent former child welfare clients2013In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 349-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Child welfare clients represent a high-risk group for delinquency and adult criminality, but also for future suicidal behavior. We examine associations between delinquency and suicidal behavior in a national child welfare population. This register-based cohort study is based on data for all Swedish former child welfare clients born between 1972 and 1981 that experienced interventions before their adolescent years. We followed 27,228 individuals from age 20 years until 31 December 2006. Juvenile delinquency was defined as being convicted of at least one crime between age 15 and 19. The risk of suicidal behavior was calculated as incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Fifteen percent of the women and 40 % of the men had at least one conviction between the age 15 and 19. The adjusted risk of suicidal behavior among women with five or more convictions was 3.5 (95 % CI 2.0-6.2); corresponding IRR for men was 3.9 (95 % CI 3.1-4.9). Child welfare experience - specifically of out-of-home care - in combination with delinquency is a potent risk factor for suicidal behavior among young adults. However, we cannot exclude that some of this association is an epiphenomenon of uncontrolled confounders, such as impulsivity or severity of psychiatric disease. Despite this caveat, results should be disseminated to practitioners in the health and correction services.

  • 26.
    Bogl, Leonie H.
    et al.
    Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, United States.
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Does the sex of one's co-twin affect height and BMI in adulthood?: A study of dizygotic adult twins from 31 cohorts2017In: Biology of Sex Differences, ISSN 2042-6410, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The comparison of traits in twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) dizygotic twin pairs is considered a proxy measure of prenatal hormone exposure. To examine possible prenatal hormonal influences on anthropometric traits, we compared mean height, body mass index (BMI), and the prevalence of being overweight or obese between men and women from OS and SS dizygotic twin pairs.

    Methods: The data were derived from the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) database, and included 68,494 SS and 53,808 OS dizygotic twin individuals above the age of 20 years from 31 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. Zygosity was determined by questionnaires or DNA genotyping depending on the study. Multiple regression and logistic regression models adjusted for cohort, age, and birth year with the twin type as a predictor were carried out to compare height and BMI in twins from OS pairs with those from SS pairs and to calculate the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for being overweight or obese.

    Results: OS females were, on average, 0.31 cm (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20, 0.41) taller than SS females. OS males were also, on average, taller than SS males, but this difference was only 0.14 cm (95% CI 0.02, 0.27). Mean BMI and the prevalence of overweight or obesity did not differ between males and females from SS and OS twin pairs. The statistically significant differences between OS and SS twins for height were small and appeared to reflect our large sample size rather than meaningful differences of public health relevance.

    Conclusions: We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that prenatal hormonal exposure or postnatal socialization (i.e., having grown up with a twin of the opposite sex) has a major impact on height and BMI in adulthood.

  • 27.
    Chan, Elizabeth S. M.
    et al.
    Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.
    Perkins, Emily R.
    Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Bertoldi, Bridget M.
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA.
    Lowman, Kelsey L.
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA.
    Soto, Elia F.
    Department of Psychology, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Oskarsson, Sofi
    Örebro University, School of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Baker, Laura A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Patrick, Christopher J.
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA.
    Triarchic traits as risk versus protective factors for ADHD symptomatology: A prospective longitudinal investigation2024In: Development and psychopathology (Print), ISSN 0954-5794, E-ISSN 1469-2198, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are associated with myriad adverse outcomes, including interpersonal difficulties, but factors that moderate the developmental course and functional impact of ADHD over time are not well understood. The present study evaluated developmental contributions of the triarchic neurobehavioral traits (boldness, meanness, and disinhibition) to ADHD symptomatology and its subdimensions from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were twins and triplets assessed at ages 14, 17, and 19 (initial N = 1,185, 51.2% female). Path analyses using negative binomial regression revealed that boldness at age 14 was associated with more ADHD symptoms cross-sectionally (especially hyperactivity/impulsivity), but fewer symptoms (especially inattention) at age 19 in the prospective analysis. Notably, inclusion of interpersonal problems at ages 14 and 17 as covariates reduced the latter effect to nonsignificant. Disinhibition concurrently and prospectively predicted higher levels of ADHD symptoms, including both subdimensions, and the prospective effects were partially mediated by greater social impairment at age 17. Meanness prospectively (but not concurrently) predicted higher levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms. Sex moderated certain associations of meanness and disinhibition with ADHD symptoms. These findings highlight how fundamental neurobehavioral traits shape both psychopathology and adaptive outcomes in the developmental course of ADHD.

  • 28.
    Dhamija, Devika
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Dawson, Michael
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, USA.
    Baker, Laura A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Heritability of startle reactivity and affect modified startle2017In: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 115, p. 57-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Startle reflex and affect-modified startle reflex are used as indicators of defensive reactivity and emotional processing, respectively. The present study investigated the heritability of both the startle blink reflex and affect modification of this reflex in a community sample of 772 twins ages 14–15 years old. Subjects were shown affective picture slides falling in three valence categories: negative, positive and neutral; crossed with two arousal categories: high arousal and low arousal. Some of these slides were accompanied with a loud startling noise. Results suggestedsex differences in meanlevels of startle reflex as well as in proportions of variance explained by genetic and environmental factors. Females had higher mean startle blink amplitudes for each valence-arousal slide category, indicating greater baseline defensive reactivity compared to males. Startle blink reflex in males was significantly heritable (49%), whereas in females, variance was explained primarily by shared environmental factors (53%) and non-shared environmental factors (41%). Heritability of affect modified startle (AMS) was found to be negligible in both males and females. These results suggest sex differences in the etiology of startle reactivity, while questioning the utility of the startle paradigm for understanding the genetic basis of emotional processing.

  • 29.
    Ericson, Marissa
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Baker, Laura
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Genetic and environmental overlap among schizophrenia spectrum endophenotypes and schizophrenia liability during childhood and adolescence2008In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 625-625Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In recent years, the p50, p300 amplitude and latency, and Mismatch Negativity (MMN) event related potential components have been proposed as potential endophenoytpes for schizophrenia spectrum disorders on the basis of twin and family studies. To date, there have been no previous studies investigating the genetic overlap between event-related potential indices and schizophenia liability in childhood and adolescence.

    Method: P50 sensory gating, p300 amplitude and latency, MMN, and schizotypal traits were measured in a community sample of 605 9–11 year old twin pairs. Structural equation modeling was used to quantify the genetic and environmental contributions to the covariance between schizotypal personality and each of the event-related potential endophenotypes.

    Preliminary Results: Moderate phenotypic correlations were found among the measures, ranging between 0.19 and 0.24, considered for psychophysiological data to be quite strong. Subsequent analyses are currently in progress.

  • 30.
    Ericson, Marissa
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry and Psychol- ogy, University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Baker, Laura
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Heritability and longitudinal stability of schizotypal traits during adolescence and early adulthood2009In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 649-649Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study attempted to clarify further the genetic and environmental etiology of schizotypal personality traits in a sample of MZ and DZ twins drawn from the general population. Though twins were assessed using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire- Child version (SPQ-C), amongst a wealth of other cognitive, psychophysiological, and behavioral measures on four occasions (Wave 1: age 9–11; Wave 2: age 11–12; Wave 3: age 14–15; Wave 4: age 16–18) of an ongoing, longitudinal twin study of personality and aggressive behavior, the current study utilized data from waves 2 and 3.

    For wave 2, univariate genetic analyses revealed that schizotypal traits are modestly heritable (additive genetic effects ranging from 35 to 49%). Multivariate genetic model fitting results indicated that additive genetic and unique environmental influences acted through a single common latent pathway for cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal-affective and disorganization symptom dimensions of schizotypal personality during early adolescent development. The covariation among the three schizotypy sub-factors could be accounted for by a common ‘schizotypy’ latent factor which was significantly heritable, with additive genetic factors explaining 60% of the latent factor variance. Biometric analyses of wave 3 data are currently in progress. In addition, a significant dearth exists in regards to the longitudinal stability of schizotypy during development. The current study will also estimate the stability of schizotypal traits over approximately 4 years, during a critical time in adolescent development, with the aim of addressing this shortage in the literature

  • 31.
    Ericson, Marissa
    et al.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Baker, Laura
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    The relationship between executive function and antisocial behavior from age 9-16: a longitudinal twin study2011In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 904-904Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral disinhibition and executive dysfunction (EDF) are two key aspects of self-regulation that serve as risk factors for the development of antisocial behavior (ASB). In spite of the well established correlation between EDF and ASB, we do not yet know (1) the direction of the relationship itself, i.e., whether ASB may be result or cause of EF deficits during development, and (2) the extent to which the relationship is mediated by genetic and environmental factors. Cross-lagged regression models were used to investigate these questions in a longitudinal twin study based on data from two occasions when the twins were age 9–10 (Time 1) and age14–16 (Time 2). Preliminary phenotypic results demonstrated a strong association between EF and ASB at Time 1 (r=.27,p\.01), Time 2 (r=.29,p\.01), and longitudinally (r=.25,p\.01). In addition, ASB at Time 1 also correlated with future EF at Time 2 (r=.24,p\.01), which is, at the very least, suggestive of bi-directional effects. A fully cross-lagged model was found to best fit the data, such that deficits in early EF led to higher rates of later ASB (b12=0.12, Est./S.E.=2.318), and early ASB affected later EF (b21=0.10, Est./S.E.=2.58) while controlling for their pre-existing relationships and stabilities over time. Genetic factors contributed to the variation in EF from ages 9–16 (Time 1: 26%; Time 2: 29%), with no effect of shared environment. For ASB, genetic factors accounted for 43% of the variance during Time 1 and 55% of the variance during Time 2, with the remaining variance being comprised of shared environmental (Time 1: 20%; Time 2: 16%) and non-shared environmental factors (Time 1: 37%; Time 2: 29%). Biometric cross-lagged analyses will be used to examine the genetic and environmental contributions to the direction of effects between EF and ASB; these analyses are currently underway.

  • 32.
    Ericson, Marissa
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, United States.
    Young-Wolff, Kelly
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Baker, Laura A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Heritability and longitudinal stability of schizotypal traits during adolescence2011In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 499-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated the genetic and environmental etiology of schizotypal personality traits in a non-selected sample of adolescent twins, measured on two occasions between the ages of 11 and 16 years old. The 22-item Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire- Child version (SPQ-C) was found to be factorially similar to the adult version of this instrument, with three underlying factors (Cognitive-Perceptual, Interpersonal-Affective, and Disorganization). Each factor was heritable at age 11-13 years (h 2 = 42-53%) and 14-16 years old (h 2 = 38-57%). Additive genetic and unique environmental influences for these three dimensions of schizotypal personality acted in part through a single common latent factor, with additional genetic effects specific to both Interpersonal-Affective and Disorganization subscales at each occasion. The longitudinal correlation between the latent schizotypy factor was r = 0.58, and genetic influences explained most of the stability in this latent factor over time (81%). These longitudinal data demonstrate significant genetic variance in schizotypal traits, with moderate stability between early to middle adolescence. In addition to common influences between the two assessments, there were new genetic and non-shared environmental effects that played a role at the later assessment, indicating significant change in schizotypal traits and their etiologies throughout adolescence.

  • 33.
    Evans, Brittany E.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Urban living and mental health2023In: Nature Medicine, ISSN 1078-8956, E-ISSN 1546-170X, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 1322-1323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Urban living and mental health
  • 34.
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Kyranides, Melina N.
    Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Georgiou, Giorgos
    Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Petridou, Maria
    Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Colins, Olivier F.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Curium-Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Callous-unemotional, impulsive-irresponsible, and grandiose-manipulative traits: Distinct associations with heart rate, skin conductance, and startle responses to violent and erotic scenes2017In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 663-672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to examine whether callous-unemotional, grandiose-manipulative, and impulsive-irresponsible dimensions of psychopathy are differentially related to various affective and physiological measures, assessed at baseline and in response to violent and erotic movie scenes. Data were collected from young adults (N = 101) at differential risk for psychopathic traits. Findings from regression analyses revealed a unique predictive contribution of grandiose-manipulative traits in particular to higher ratings of positive valence for violent scenes. Callous-unemotional traits were uniquely associated with lower levels of sympathy toward victims and lower ratings of fear and sadness during violent scenes. All three psychopathy dimensions and the total psychopathy scale showed negative zero-order correlations with heart rate at baseline, but regression analyses revealed that only grandiose manipulation was uniquely predictive of lower baseline heart rate. Grandiose manipulation was also significantly associated with lower baseline skin conductance. Regarding autonomic activity, findings resulted in a unique negative association between grandiose manipulation and heart rate activity in response to violent scenes. In contrast, the impulsive-irresponsible dimension was positively related with heart rate activity to violent scenes. Finally, findings revealed that only callous-unemotional traits were negatively associated with startle potentiation in response to violent scenes. No associations during erotic scenes were identified. These findings point to unique associations between the three assessed dimensions of psychopathy with physiological measures, indicating that grandiose manipulation is associated with hypoarousal, impulsive irresponsibility with hyperarousal, and callous-unemotional traits with low emotional and fear responses to violent scenes.

  • 35.
    Fröberg, Sofi
    et al.
    Orebro University, Orebro, Sweden.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The genetic and environmental overlap between callous-unemotional traits and ADHD symptoms among five year old twins2019In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 522-522Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Disruptive behavior disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD], conduct disorder [CD]) affect 5–10% of youth and represent the primary reason for youth referrals to clinicians (APA, 2013). DSM-V includes callous-unemotional (CU) traits (specifier ‘with prosocial emotions’) to CD (APA, 2013; Frick et al. 2014). Research suggests an association between CU traits and ADHD symptoms (Graziano et al. 2016; Babinski et al. 2017; Haas et al. 2018). The genetic and environmental overlap between CU traits and ADHD symptoms were examined in a sample of 1189 five year-old children using teacher-ratings, the PrEschool Twin Study in Sweden (PETSS). The correlations between CU traits and hyperactivity/impulsivity, and between CU traits and inattention were rp = 0.53, p\0.05 and 0.44, p\0.05, respectively. For CU traits, genetic factors accounted for 25%, p\0.05 of the variance, the shared environment accounted for 48%, p\0.05, and the non-shared environment for 27%, p\0.05. For hyperactivity/impulsivity, genetic factors accounted for 85%, p\0.05 of the variance and the non-shared environment accounted for 15%, p\0.05. For inattention, genetic factors accounted for 43%, p\0.05 of the variance, the shared envi ronment accounted for 38%, p\0.05, and the non-shared environment for 19%, p\0.05. For CU traits and hyperactivity/impulsivity, rg = 0.58 (0.36, 0.88), rc= 0.84 (0.46, 1.00), re= 0.24 (0.10, 0.37). For CU traits and inattention, rg = 0.33 (0.00, 0.61), rc= 0.63 (0.43, 0.82), re= 0.30 (0.17, 0.43). These findings indicate that CU traits and ADHD symptoms partly share a common genetic and environmental etiology.

  • 36.
    Fröberg, Sofi
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Patrick, Christopher J
    Florida State University, Tallahassee FL, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles California, USA.
    The Role of the Startle Reflex in Psychopathic Personality from Childhood to Adulthood: A Systematic Review2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Fullerton, Angelica F.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA; Northwestern Univ, Feinberg Sch Med, Evanston IL, USA.
    Jackson, Nicholas J.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Univ Penn, Dept Criminol, Philadelphia PA, USA; Univ Penn, Dept Psychiat, Philadelphia PA, USA; Univ Penn, Dept Psychol, Philadelphia PA, USA.
    Baker, Laura A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Early Childhood Head Injury Attenuates Declines in Impulsivity and Aggression Across Adolescent Development in Twins2019In: Neuropsychology, ISSN 0894-4105, E-ISSN 1931-1559, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 1035-1044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Head injury during development has been associated with behavioral changes such as impulsivity and antisocial behavior. This study investigates the extent to which behavioral changes associated with childhood head injury are sustained through adolescence and emerging adulthood.

    Method: Survey data was collected at 5 waves spanning 12 years (ages 9-20) from the University of Southern California Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior twin study. Impulsivity was measured by errors of commission in a Go/NoGo behavioral task, and aggression was measured through youth self-report using the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire. Head injury was assessed retrospectively using caregiver questionnaires at twin ages 14-15 years and self-reported at ages 19-20 years.

    Results: Participants with a head injury in early childhood showed significant delay in the normative developmental decline of impulsivity relative to the noninjured by mid-adolescence (ages 14-15.) Moreover, earlier age at injury was related to a slower decrease in impulsivity and greater increase in reactive aggression scores. Finally, among discordant monozygotic twin pairs, the twin with a head injury experienced significantly less decline in impulsivity by ages 19-20 than the noninjured co-twin.

    Conclusions: These findings indicate early childhood head injury may play a significant role in blunting the decline in impulsivity across development, exposing an additional risk factor for antisocial behavior.

  • 38.
    Gao, Yu
    et al.
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, California, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Lozano, Dora Isabel
    Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ciudad Juárez, Mexico.
    Baker, Laura A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, California, USA.
    Genetic and environmental influences on frontal EEG asymmetry and alpha power in 9–10 -year-old twins2009In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 787-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modest genetic influences on frontal EEG asymmetry have been found in adults, but little is known about its genetic origins in children. Resting frontal asymmetry and alpha power were examined in 951 9-10-year-old twins. Results showed that in both males and females: (1) a modest but significant amount of variance in frontal asymmetry was accounted for by genetic factors (11-28%) with the remainder accounted for by non-shared environmental influences, and (2) alpha power were highly heritable, with 71-85% of the variance accounted for by genetic factors. Results suggest that the genetic architecture of frontal asymmetry and alpha power in late childhood are similar to that in adulthood and that the high non-shared environmental influences on frontal asymmetry may reflect environmentally influenced individual differences in the maturation of frontal cortex as well as state-dependent influences on specific measurements.

  • 39.
    Gao, Yu
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Brooklyn College and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles California, USA.
    Schell, Anne
    Department of Psychology, Occidental College, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Baker, Laura
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Skin conductance fear conditioning impairments and aggression: a longitudinal study2014In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 288-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior.

  • 40.
    Hultman, Christina
    et al.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University of Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Torrång, Anna
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Cnattingius, Sven
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Larsson, Jan-Olov
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Birth weight and attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms in childhood and early adolescence: a prospective Swedish twin study2007In: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 0890-8567, E-ISSN 1527-5418, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 370-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether low birth weight increases the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and early adolescence.

    METHOD: In a population-based sample of 1,480 twin pairs born in the period 1985-1986 ascertained from the Swedish Twin Registry, birth weight was collected prospectively through the Medical Birth Registry. ADHD symptoms were measured with a 14-item checklist covering DSM-III-R criteria (parental rating) at age 8 to 9 years and 13 to 14 years. We used both a dichotomous approach for birth weight (>400 g or 15% weight difference) and ADHD (eight or more symptoms) and continuous measures to investigate between- and within-twin pair effects.

    RESULTS: Our results showed that low birth weight was a risk factor for symptoms of ADHD and the associations did not diminish when we controlled for genetic influence. The lighter twin in birth weight-discordant pairs had on average 13% higher ADHD symptom score at age 8 to 9 years (p = .006) and 12% higher ADHD score at age 13 to 14 years (p = .018) compared with the heavier twin. The genetic correlations suggest modest or no genetic overlap between birth weight and ADHD.

    CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesis that low birth weight is associated with the development of ADHD symptoms was supported in this prospective twin study. Fetal growth restriction seems to represent a modest but fairly consistent environmental influence on the development of ADHD symptoms.

  • 41.
    Hur, Yoon-Mi
    et al.
    Department of Education, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam, South Korea.
    Bogl, Leonie H.
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ordoñana, Juan R.
    Department of Human Anatomy and Psychobiology and Murcia Institute for Biomedical Research (IMIB-ARRIXACA), University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Taylor, Jeanette
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA.
    Hart, Sara A.
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Ystrom, Eivind
    PROMENTA Research Center, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Department of Mental Disorders, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Dalgård, Christine
    Department of Public Health, Environmental Medicine, and Danish Twin Registry, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Skytthe, Axel
    Department of Public Health, and Danish Twin Registry, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Willemsen, Gonneke
    Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Twin Family Registries Worldwide: An Important Resource for Scientific Research2019In: Twin Research and Human Genetics, ISSN 1832-4274, E-ISSN 1839-2628, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 427-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much progress has been made in twin research since our last special issue on twin registries (Hur, Y.-M., & Craig, J. M. (2013). Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16, 1-12.). This special issue provides an update on the state of twin family registries around the world. This issue includes 61 papers on twin family registries from 25 countries, of which 3 describe consortia based on collaborations of several twin family registries. The articles included in this issue discuss the establishment and maintenance of twin registries, recruitment strategies, methods of zygosity assessment, research aims and major findings from twin family cohorts, as well as other important topics related to twin studies. The papers amount to approximately 1.3 million monozygotic, dizygotic twins and higher order multiples and their family members who participate in twin studies around the world. Nine new twin family registries have been established across the world since our last issue, which demonstrates that twin registers are increasingly important in studies of the determinants and correlates of complex traits from disease susceptibility to healthy development.

  • 42.
    Isakovic, Belma
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Bertoldi, Bridget
    Clinical Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Cucurachi, Sara
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Baker, Laura
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Ling, Shichun
    School of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; School of Criminal Justice and Criminalistics, California State University, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Evans, Brittany
    Örebro University, School of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsivity during adolescence in relation to psychopathic personality traits later in life2023In: Acta Psychologica, ISSN 0001-6918, E-ISSN 1873-6297, Vol. 241, article id 104055Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychopathic personality traits have been linked to low physiological arousal, particularly among high risk and forensic samples. A core indicator of physiological arousal is the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis; however, findings of a link between HPA axis functioning and psychopathic personality traits have been inconsistent. Furthermore, given sex differences in both HPA axis responsivity and psychopathic personality traits, the association may be expected to differ between men and women. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between HPA axis responsivity in mid-adolescence and psychopathic personality traits in early adulthood and determine whether the association was moderated by sex. We examined this link in a general population sample of twins (N = 556). Adolescents participated in a psychosocial stress task during which samples of salivary cortisol were collected (11-15 years) and reported psychopathic personality traits using the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (19-20 years). Multilevel linear regression models were estimated in which psychopathic personality traits (boldness, meanness and disinhibition), and their interactions with sex, were regressed on HPA axis responsivity. The study was pre-registered on the Open Science Framework (osf.io/gs2a8). Preliminary analyses showed that cortisol levels did not increase significantly during the stressor task but decreased during recovery. Results showed that there was no association between HPA axis responsivity in mid-adolescence and psychopathic personality traits in early adulthood. The associations were not moderated by sex. Findings suggest that HPA axis responsivity in mid-adolescence did not serve as a biological marker for psychopathic personality traits among young adults from the general population.

  • 43.
    Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Pediatric Neuropsychiatry Unit, Center for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comasco, Erika
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Centre for Clinical Research, Västmanland County Hospital Västerås, Uppsala University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Rehn, Mattias
    Centre for Clinical Research, Västmanland County Hospital Västerås, Uppsala University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Centre for Clinical Research, Västmanland County Hospital Västerås, Uppsala University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Associations between the FKBP5 haplotype, exposure to violence and anxiety in females2016In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 72, p. 196-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gene that encodes the FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5) is regarded as a candidate for investigating how negative life events interact with a genetic predisposition to stress-related disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Given the role of FKBP5 as an important regulator of stress responses, we aimed to investigate if single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FKBP5-in the presence/absence of exposure to violence-are associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Data from two community-based samples of adolescents (n=1705) and young adults (n=1800) regarding ratings on depression, anxiety, exposure to violence and FKBP5 genotype were collected. A risk haplogenotype including the minor alleles of seven common SNPs in the FKBP5 (rs3800373, rs9296158, rs7748266, rs1360780, rs9394309, rs9470080 and rs4713916) conferred higher ratings on anxiety among females, but not males, in the presence of violence. Exposure to violence and female sex were associated with higher ratings on both depression and anxiety, with the exception of ratings on depression among young adults, on which sex had no effect. Ratings on depression were not associated with the haplogenotype. These findings may correspond to differences in the regulation of the HPA axis and with the higher vulnerability to anxiety in females.

  • 44.
    Isen, Joshua
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Baker, Laura
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry, Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, USA.
    Lozano, Dora I.
    Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Mexico.
    Heritability of skin conductance reactivity in children2008In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 632-632Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assessed the genetic covariance between various measures of phasic skin conductance activity, including response amplitude and frequency of responding. A few studies have investigated the etiology of skin conductance reactivity (e.g., Lykken et al. Psychophysiology 25:4–15, 1988), but none have been conducted with children. Given that deficits in skin conductance orienting are associated with psychosis-proneness and conduct problems, it is important to understand the genetic and environmental contributions to skin conductance reactivity in children. Subjects for this study were 800 male and female twins, aged 9–10, who passively listened to stimuli during an orienting task. The stimuli consisted of tones of moderate intensity (75 dB), as well as different types of socially meaningful sounds (e.g. baby cries and speech-like stimuli). Skin conductance response magnitude, averaged across all stimuli, was substantially heritable. Genetic modelfitting was used to determine if the variation in reactivity across the different types of stimuli can be explained by a single latent factor. Furthermore, there was a moderate phenotypic correlation between a continuous measure of reactivity (i.e. response amplitude) and a more categorical measure of skin conductance (i.e. frequency of responding). This association was not genetically mediated, suggesting a theoretical distinction between hyporeactivity and nonresponding.

  • 45.
    Isen, Joshua
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Younan, Diana
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Ericson, Marissa
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Baker, Laura A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Developmental Trajectories of Delinquent and Aggressive Behavior: Evidence for Differential Heritability2022In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 199-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The developmental course of antisocial behavior is often described in terms of qualitatively distinct trajectories. However, the genetic etiology of various trajectories is not well understood. We examined heterogeneity in the development of delinquent and aggressive behavior in 1532 twin youth using four waves of data collection, spanning ages 9-10 to 16-18. A latent class growth analysis was used to uncover relevant subgroups. For delinquent behavior, three latent classes emerged: Non-Delinquent, Low-Level Delinquent, and Persistent Delinquent. Liability for persistent delinquency had a substantial genetic origin (heritability = 67%), whereas genetic influences were negligible for lower-risk subgroups. Three classes of aggressive behavior were identified: Non-Aggressive, Moderate, and High. Moderate heritability spanned the entire continuum of risk for aggressive behavior. Thus, there are differences between aggressive behavior and non-aggressive delinquency with respect to heterogeneity of etiology. We conclude that persistent delinquency represents an etiologically distinct class of rule-breaking with strong genetic roots.

  • 46.
    Jackson, Nicholas J.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA; Department of Medicine Statistics Core, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Isen, Joshua D.
    Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.
    Khoddam, Rubin
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Irons, Daniel
    Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Iacono, William G.
    Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.
    McGue, Matt
    Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Department of Criminology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA; Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA .
    Baker, Laura A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Impact of adolescent marijuana use on intelligence: Results from two longitudinal twin studies2016In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 113, no 5, p. E500-E508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marijuana is one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, and use during adolescence-when the brain is still developing-has been proposed as a cause of poorer neurocognitive outcome. Nonetheless, research on this topic is scarce and often shows conflicting results, with some studies showing detrimental effects of marijuana use on cognitive functioning and others showing no significant long-term effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of marijuana use with changes in intellectual performance in two longitudinal studies of adolescent twins (n = 789 and n = 2,277). We used a quasiexperimental approach to adjust for participants' family background characteristics and genetic propensities, helping us to assess the causal nature of any potential associations. Standardized measures of intelligence were administered at ages 9-12 y, before marijuana involvement, and again at ages 17-20 y. Marijuana use was self-reported at the time of each cognitive assessment as well as during the intervening period. Marijuana users had lower test scores relative to nonusers and showed a significant decline in crystallized intelligence between preadolescence and late adolescence. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between frequency of use and intelligence quotient (IQ) change. Furthermore, marijuana-using twins failed to show significantly greater IQ decline relative to their abstinent siblings. Evidence from these two samples suggests that observed declines in measured IQ may not be a direct result of marijuana exposure but rather attributable to familial factors that underlie both marijuana initiation and low intellectual attainment.

  • 47.
    Jackson, Nicholas
    et al.
    Dept Psychol, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Dept Psychol, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Baker, Laura A.
    Dept Psychol, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Protective and risk factors for adolescent marijuana initiation2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Jelenkovic, Aline
    et al.
    Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Genetics, Physical Anthropology and Animal Physiology, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Leioa, Spain.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Silventoinen, Karri
    Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.
    Genetic and environmental influences on height from infancy to early adulthood: An individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts2016In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 28496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Height variation is known to be determined by both genetic and environmental factors, but a systematic description of how their influences differ by sex, age and global regions is lacking. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts from 20 countries, including 180,520 paired measurements at ages 1-19 years. The proportion of height variation explained by shared environmental factors was greatest in early childhood, but these effects remained present until early adulthood. Accordingly, the relative genetic contribution increased with age and was greatest in adolescence (up to 0.83 in boys and 0.76 in girls). Comparing geographic-cultural regions (Europe, North-America and Australia, and East-Asia), genetic variance was greatest in North-America and Australia and lowest in East-Asia, but the relative proportion of genetic variation was roughly similar across these regions. Our findings provide further insights into height variation during childhood and adolescence in populations representing different ethnicities and exposed to different environments.

  • 49.
    Jelenkovic, Aline
    et al.
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Nursing, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao, Spain; Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Silventoinen, Karri
    Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.
    Genetic and environmental influences on human height from infancy through adulthood at different levels of parental education2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 7974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic factors explain a major proportion of human height variation, but differences in mean stature have also been found between socio-economic categories suggesting a possible effect of environment. By utilizing a classical twin design which allows decomposing the variation of height into genetic and environmental components, we tested the hypothesis that environmental variation in height is greater in offspring of lower educated parents. Twin data from 29 cohorts including 65,978 complete twin pairs with information on height at ages 1 to 69 years and on parental education were pooled allowing the analyses at different ages and in three geographic-cultural regions (Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia). Parental education mostly showed a positive association with offspring height, with significant associations in mid-childhood and from adolescence onwards. In variance decomposition modeling, the genetic and environmental variance components of height did not show a consistent relation to parental education. A random-effects meta-regression analysis of the aggregate-level data showed a trend towards greater shared environmental variation of height in low parental education families. In conclusion, in our very large dataset from twin cohorts around the globe, these results provide only weak evidence for the study hypothesis.

  • 50.
    Jelenkovic, Aline
    et al.
    Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Genetics, Physical Anthropology and Animal Physiology, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Leioa, Spain.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Silventoinen, Karri
    Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.
    Zygosity differences in height and body mass index of twins from infancy to old age: a study of the CODATwins project2015In: Twin Research and Human Genetics, ISSN 1832-4274, E-ISSN 1839-2628, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 557-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m(2) in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m(2) in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.

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