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  • 1.
    Andershed, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Psykologiska och biologiska perspektiv på sociala anpassningsproblem2013In: Perspektiv på sociala problem / [ed] Meeuwisse, Anna & Swärd, Hans, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2013, 2, p. 242-261Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Andershed, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Utveckling av psykopati från barndom till vuxen ålder2016In: Psykopati / [ed] Mette K. F. Kreis, Helge Andreas Hoff, Henrik Belfrage & Stephen D. Hart, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 49-71Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Anneli
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Chen, Qi
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Du Rietz, Ebba
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Cortese, Samuele
    Centre for Innovation in Mental Health, School of Psychology, Faculty of Environmental and Life sciences & Clinical and Experimental Sciences (CNS and Psychiatry), Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; Solent NHS Trust, Southampton, UK; Division of Psychiatry and Applied Psychology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; New York University Child Study Center, New York, NY, USA.
    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Research Review: The strength of the genetic overlap between ADHD and other psychiatric symptoms - a systematic review and meta-analysis2020In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, ISSN 0021-9630, E-ISSN 1469-7610Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Twin studies have established that these co-occurrences are in part due to shared genetic risks. However, the strength of these genetic overlaps and the potential heterogeneity accounted for by type of psychiatric symptoms, age, and methods of assessment remain unclear. We conducted a systematic review to fill this gap.

    METHODS: ) were used as effect size measures.

    RESULTS:  = .50 (0.33-0.65).

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that the co-occurrence of externalizing, internalizing, and neurodevelopmental disorder symptoms in individuals with ADHD symptoms in part is due to a shared genetic risk.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Anneli
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. University of Southern California, Department of Psychology, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chen, Qi
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Genetic overlap between ADHD and externalizing, internalizing and neurodevelopmental disorder symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis2018In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 455-456Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder (Wilens, Biederman & Spencer 2002) and affects approximately 5% of children (Polanczyk, de Lima, Horta, Biederman & Rohde 2007). About half of those diagnosed in childhood continue to have the diagnosis and symptoms in adulthood (Kessler et al. 2006). The co-occurrence of ADHD with other psychiatric disorder symptoms (Burt et al. 2001; Cole et al. 2009; Polderman et al. 2014) has been suggested to be partly explained by a shared genetic vulnerability (Polderman et al. 2014). However, the strength of the genetic overlap is currently unclear. Also, no study has examined whether the genetic correlations differs between age groups (childhood versus adulthood), by rater (self-report, other informant, combined (parent-teacher, parent-twin, teacher-twin)), or by type of psychiatric disorder symptoms (externalizing, internalizing, neu-rodevelopmental). To address this gap, we conducted a systematic literature search to identify relevant twin studies, in PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE. A total of 31 articles were identified and included in the present study. The pooled estimates showed that the comorbidity between ADHD and diverse psychiatric disorder symptoms were explained by shared genetic effectsrg= 0.50 (0.43–0.56). A similar shared genetic overlap between ADHD and psychiatric disorder symptoms was observed in both childhood rg= 0.51(0.42–0.61) and adulthood rg= 0.47 (0.40–0.53). Similar results werealso found for self-reports rg= 0.49 (0.42–0.55), other informants rg= 0.50 (0.40–0.60), and combined raters rg= 0.51 (0.30–0.69). Further, the strength of the genetic correlations of ADHD with the externalizing rg= 0.49 (0.39–0.59), internalizing rg= 0.55 (0.40–0.68) and neurodevelopmental rg= 0.47 (0.40–0.53) spectrums were similar in magnitude. These findings emphasize the presence of a shared genetic liability between ADHD and externalizing, internalizing and neurodevelopmental disorder symptoms, independent of age and rater.

    References

    Burt, S. A., Krueger, R. F., McGue, M., Iacono, W. G. (2001).Sources of covariation among attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder: the importance ofshared environment.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 4, 516–525.

    Cole, J., Ball, H. A., Martin, N. C., Scourfield, J., McGuffin, P.(2009). Genetic overlap between measures of hyperactivity/inatten-tion and mood in children and adolescents.J Am Acad Child AdolescPsychiatry48, 1094–1101.

    Kessler, R. C., Adler, L., Barkley, R., Biederman, J., Conners, C.K., Demler, O., Faraone, S. V., Greenhill, L. L., Howes, M. J., Secnik,K., Spencer, T., Ustun, T. B., Walters, E. E., Zaslavsky, A. M. (2006).The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States:results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.Am JPsychiatry, 163, 716–723.

    Polanczyk, G., de Lima, M. S., Horta, B. L., Biederman, J., Rohde,L. A. (2007). The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematicreview and metaregression analysis.Am J Psychiatry, 164, 942-8.

    Polderman, T. J., Hoekstra, R. A., Posthuma, D., Larsson, H.(2014). The co-occurrence of autistic and ADHD dimensions inadults: an etiological study in 17,770 twins.Transl Psychiatry2014;4: e435.

    Wilens, T. E., Biederman, J., Spencer, T. J. (2002). Attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan.Annual Review Med53:113–131.

  • 5.
    Baker, Laura A.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Bezdjian, Serena
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Raine, Adrian
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
    Antisocial behavior: gene-environment interplay2012In: Principles of psychiatric genetics / [ed] John I. Nurnberger, Jr, Wade Berrettini, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , 2012, p. 145-159Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Baker, Laura A.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, United States.
    Genetics and crime2010In: The SAGE handbook of criminological theory / [ed] Eugene McLaughlin and Tim Newburn, Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2010Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Baker, Laura
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Niv, Sharon
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Raine, Adrian
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    The genetic and environmental etiology of internalizing and externalizing behavior in adolescent twins2011In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 927-927Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Comorbidity between internalizing (anxious, depressive) and externalizing (aggressive, delinquent) behavior is a well-established and common clinical reality throughout the lifespan, but perhaps becomes more significance in adolescence, when individuals are awarded more freedom. However, the genetic and environmental etiology of this comorbidity has rarely been examined in a behavioral genetic setting, especially during the period of adolescence. Additionally, research suggests that while caregivers may be more reliable reporters of externalizing behavior in youth, youth themselves are more reliable reporters of internalizing symptoms, raising the question of how different raters affect data patterns. Using the parent report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) as well as the youth report version (Youth Self Report—YSR), this research uses a twin study design to examine the etiology of coexisting internalizing and externalizing symptoms in mid adolescence (age 14–16 years) using a common pathway model that examined all data concurrently. Female comorbidity was accounted for by genetic and shared environmental influences, and male comorbidity by shared environmental influences, exclusively. Genetic influences emerged for all but self-report male externalizing behavior. Every scale showed unique influences as well, some of which were correlated between same-rater scales (e.g. parent report internalizing and externalizing), suggesting that some of the influences on covariation are rater-specific. These results contribute to our understanding of the nature of comorbid psychological disorders during adolescence, and suggest the importance of shared environment to the development of both internalizing and externalizing behavior

  • 8.
    Baker, Laura
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, 3620 South McClintock Avenue, Los Angeles, United States .
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, 3620 South McClintock Avenue, Los Angeles, United States .
    Reynolds, Chandra
    University of California, Riverside, United States.
    Zheng, Mo
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, 3620 South McClintock Avenue, Los Angeles, United States .
    Lozano, Dora Isabel
    Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, United States .
    Raine, Adrian
    University of Pennsylvania, United States .
    Resting heart rate and the development of antisocial behavior from age 9 to 14: genetic and environmental influences2009In: Development and psychopathology (Print), ISSN 0954-5794, E-ISSN 1469-2198, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 939-960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The genetic and environmental basis of a well-replicated association between antisocial behavior (ASB) and resting heart rate was investigated in a longitudinal twin study, based on two measurements between the ages of 9 and 14 years. ASB was defined as a broad continuum of externalizing behavior problems, assessed at each occasion through a composite measure based on parent ratings of trait aggression, delinquent behaviors, and psychopathic traits in their children. Parent ratings of ASB significantly decreased across age from childhood to early adolescence, although latent growth models indicated significant variation and twin similarity in the growth patterns, which were explained almost entirely by genetic influences. Resting heart rate at age 9-10 years old was inversely related to levels of ASB but not change patterns of ASB across age or occasions. Biometrical analyses indicated significant genetic influences on heart rate during childhood, as well as ASB throughout development from age 9 to 14. Both level and slope variation were significantly influenced by genetic factors. Of importance, the low resting heart rate and ASB association was significantly and entirely explained by their genetic covariation, although the heritable component of heart rate explained only a small portion (1-4%) of the substantial genetic variance in ASB. Although the effect size is small, children with low resting heart rate appear to be genetically predisposed toward externalizing behavior problems as early as age 9 years old.

  • 9.
    Baker, Laura
    et al.
    Department of Psychology (SGM 501), University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology (SGM 501), University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Wang, Pan
    Department of Psychology (SGM 501), University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Gomez, Karina
    Department of Psychology (SGM 501), University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Bezdjian, Serena
    Department of Psychology (SGM 501), University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Niv, Sharon
    Department of Psychology (SGM 501), University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology and Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, United States .
    The southern california twin register at the University of Southern California: III2013In: Twin Research and Human Genetics, ISSN 1832-4274, E-ISSN 1839-2628, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 336-343Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Baker, Laura
    et al.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Wang, Pan
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Younan, Diana
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Franklin, Meredith
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Lurman, Fred
    Sonoma Technology Inc, Petaluma, USA.
    Wu, Jun
    Irvine College of Health Sciences, University of California, Irvine, USA.
    Chen, Jiu-Chiuan
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    The Relationship between IQ and PM2.5: Findings from the University of Southern California Twin Study2016In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 772-773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the longitudinal relationship between IQ and fine particulate matter (\2.5lm aerodynamic diameters; PM2.5) exposure in urban-dwelling children, using prospective longitudinal data from the USC Twin Study of Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior (RFAB; Baker et al. 2013). Residential addresses were collected via selfreports. Verbal and Performance IQ during childhood (age 9–10) and young adulthood (age 19–20) were evaluated by the Wechsler Abbreviated Intelligence Scale (Wechsler, 1999) using four subtests: VIQ=Vocabulary Similarities; PIQ=Block Design Matrices. Based on residential addresses and spatiotemporal generalized additive model of local monitoring data for PM2.5, we estimated 1-year average exposure before each assessment. A three-level mixed effects model regressing IQ scores at each assessment on time-varying air pollution exposures, accounting for both within-family (random intercepts) and within-individual (random slopes) was used. PM2.5 exposure had significant adverse effects on PIQ (95 % CI of b:-7.29 to-1.01, p\.05) but not VIQ (95 % CI of b:-4.50 to-1.96). Adverse effects of PM2.5 exposure remained significant after adjusting for age, family SES, sex, race/ethnicity, parental cognitive abilities, neighborhood SES, neighborhood quality and neighborhood greenness; the association was still significant after further adjusting for traffic distance (300 m), temperature, humidity and annual NOx. PM2.5 exposure confers stronger adverse effects on PIQ in low SES families, males, and during pre-adolescence. Our findings reveal social disparities and sexual dimorphism in the adverse PM2.5 exposure effects on PIQ. Baker, L., Tuvblad, C., Wang, P., Gomez, K., Bezdjian, S., Niv, S., & Raine, A. (2013). The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California: III. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16(1), 336–343; Wechsler, D. (1999). Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). San Antonio, Texas: Harcourt Assessment.

  • 11.
    Bezdjian, Serena
    et al.
    Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis MO, USA.
    Baker, Laura
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Genetic and environmental influences on impulsivity: a meta-analysis of twin, family and adoption studies2011In: Clinical Psychology Review, ISSN 0272-7358, E-ISSN 1873-7811, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 1209-1223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A meta-analysis of twin, family and adoption studies was conducted to estimate the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on impulsivity. The best fitting model for 41 key studies (58 independent samples from 14. month old infants to adults; N = 27,147) included equal proportions of variance due to genetic (0.50) and non-shared environmental (0.50) influences, with genetic effects being both additive (0.38) and non-additive (0.12). Shared environmental effects were unimportant in explaining individual differences in impulsivity. Age, sex, and study design (twin vs. adoption) were all significant moderators of the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on impulsivity. The relative contribution of genetic effects (broad sense heritability) and unique environmental effects were also found to be important throughout development from childhood to adulthood. Total genetic effects were found to be important for all ages, but appeared to be strongest in children. Analyses also demonstrated that genetic effects appeared to be stronger in males than in females. Method of assessment (laboratory tasks vs. questionnaires), however, was not a significant moderator of the genetic and environmental influences on impulsivity. These results provide a structured synthesis of existing behavior genetic studies on impulsivity by providing a clearer understanding of the relative genetic and environmental contributions in impulsive traits through various stages of development.

  • 12.
    Bezdjian, Serena
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, United States.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, United States.
    Baker, Laura
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    The association between parental substance use and antisocial behaviors in adolescent twins2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Bezdjian, Serena
    et al.
    Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis MO, United States .
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States .
    Raine, Adrian
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, United States .
    Baker, Laura
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States .
    The genetic and environmental covariation among psychopathic personality traits, and reactive and proactive aggression in childhood2011In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 82, no 4, p. 1267-1281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the genetic and environmental covariance between psychopathic personality traits with reactive and proactive aggression in 9- to 10-year-old twins (N=1,219). Psychopathic personality traits were assessed with the Child Psychopathy Scale (D. R. Lynam, 1997), while aggressive behaviors were assessed using the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (A. Raine et al., 2006). Significant common genetic influences were found to be shared by psychopathic personality traits and aggressive behaviors using both caregiver (mainly mother) and child self-reports. Significant genetic and nonshared environmental influences specific to psychopathic personality traits and reactive and proactive aggression were also found, suggesting etiological independence among these phenotypes. Additionally, the genetic relation between psychopathic personality traits and aggression was significantly stronger for proactive than reactive aggression when using child self-reports.

  • 14.
    Bezdjian, Serena
    et al.
    University of Southern California, Seaside California, USA; Department of Defense Center-Monterey Bay, Seaside California, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Dept Psychol, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Wang, Pan
    Dept Psychol, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Dept Criminol, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA; Dept Psychiat, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA; Dept Psychol, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
    Baker, Laura A.
    Dept Psychol, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Motor Impulsivity During Childhood and Adolescence: A Longitudinal Biometric Analysis of the Go/No-Go Task in 9- to 18-Year-Old Twins2014In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 50, no 11, p. 2549-2557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we investigated genetic and environmental effects on motor impulsivity fromchildhood to late adolescence using a longitudinal sample of twins from ages 9 to 18 years. Motorimpulsivity was assessed using errors of commission (no-go errors) in a visual go/no-go task at 4 timepoints: ages 9–10, 11–13, 14–15, and 16–18 years. Significant genetic and nonshared environmentaleffects on motor impulsivity were found at each of the 4 waves of assessment with genetic factorsexplaining 22%–41% of the variance within each of the 4 waves. Phenotypically, children’s averageperformance improved across age (i.e., fewer no-go errors during later assessments). Multivariatebiometric analyses revealed that common genetic factors influenced 12%–40% of the variance in motorimpulsivity across development, whereas nonshared environmental factors common to all time pointscontributed to 2%–52% of the variance. Nonshared environmental influences specific to each time pointalso significantly influenced motor impulsivity. Overall, results demonstrated that although geneticfactors were critical to motor impulsivity across development, both common and specific nonsharedenvironmental factors played a strong role in the development of motor impulsivity across age.

  • 15.
    Björkenstam, Charlotte
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björkenstam, Emma
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljung, Rickard
    Upper Gastrointestinal Research, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Department of Social Work, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Suicidal behavior among delinquent former child welfare clients2013In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 349-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Child welfare clients represent a high-risk group for delinquency and adult criminality, but also for future suicidal behavior. We examine associations between delinquency and suicidal behavior in a national child welfare population. This register-based cohort study is based on data for all Swedish former child welfare clients born between 1972 and 1981 that experienced interventions before their adolescent years. We followed 27,228 individuals from age 20 years until 31 December 2006. Juvenile delinquency was defined as being convicted of at least one crime between age 15 and 19. The risk of suicidal behavior was calculated as incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Fifteen percent of the women and 40 % of the men had at least one conviction between the age 15 and 19. The adjusted risk of suicidal behavior among women with five or more convictions was 3.5 (95 % CI 2.0-6.2); corresponding IRR for men was 3.9 (95 % CI 3.1-4.9). Child welfare experience - specifically of out-of-home care - in combination with delinquency is a potent risk factor for suicidal behavior among young adults. However, we cannot exclude that some of this association is an epiphenomenon of uncontrolled confounders, such as impulsivity or severity of psychiatric disease. Despite this caveat, results should be disseminated to practitioners in the health and correction services.

  • 16.
    Bogl, Leonie H.
    et al.
    Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, United States.
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Does the sex of one's co-twin affect height and BMI in adulthood?: A study of dizygotic adult twins from 31 cohorts2017In: Biology of Sex Differences, ISSN 2042-6410, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The comparison of traits in twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) dizygotic twin pairs is considered a proxy measure of prenatal hormone exposure. To examine possible prenatal hormonal influences on anthropometric traits, we compared mean height, body mass index (BMI), and the prevalence of being overweight or obese between men and women from OS and SS dizygotic twin pairs.

    Methods: The data were derived from the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) database, and included 68,494 SS and 53,808 OS dizygotic twin individuals above the age of 20 years from 31 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. Zygosity was determined by questionnaires or DNA genotyping depending on the study. Multiple regression and logistic regression models adjusted for cohort, age, and birth year with the twin type as a predictor were carried out to compare height and BMI in twins from OS pairs with those from SS pairs and to calculate the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for being overweight or obese.

    Results: OS females were, on average, 0.31 cm (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20, 0.41) taller than SS females. OS males were also, on average, taller than SS males, but this difference was only 0.14 cm (95% CI 0.02, 0.27). Mean BMI and the prevalence of overweight or obesity did not differ between males and females from SS and OS twin pairs. The statistically significant differences between OS and SS twins for height were small and appeared to reflect our large sample size rather than meaningful differences of public health relevance.

    Conclusions: We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that prenatal hormonal exposure or postnatal socialization (i.e., having grown up with a twin of the opposite sex) has a major impact on height and BMI in adulthood.

  • 17.
    Dhamija, Devika
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Dawson, Michael
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, USA.
    Baker, Laura A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Heritability of startle reactivity and affect modified startle2017In: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 115, p. 57-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Startle reflex and affect-modified startle reflex are used as indicators of defensive reactivity and emotional processing, respectively. The present study investigated the heritability of both the startle blink reflex and affect modification of this reflex in a community sample of 772 twins ages 14–15 years old. Subjects were shown affective picture slides falling in three valence categories: negative, positive and neutral; crossed with two arousal categories: high arousal and low arousal. Some of these slides were accompanied with a loud startling noise. Results suggestedsex differences in meanlevels of startle reflex as well as in proportions of variance explained by genetic and environmental factors. Females had higher mean startle blink amplitudes for each valence-arousal slide category, indicating greater baseline defensive reactivity compared to males. Startle blink reflex in males was significantly heritable (49%), whereas in females, variance was explained primarily by shared environmental factors (53%) and non-shared environmental factors (41%). Heritability of affect modified startle (AMS) was found to be negligible in both males and females. These results suggest sex differences in the etiology of startle reactivity, while questioning the utility of the startle paradigm for understanding the genetic basis of emotional processing.

  • 18.
    Ericson, Marissa
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Baker, Laura
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Genetic and environmental overlap among schizophrenia spectrum endophenotypes and schizophrenia liability during childhood and adolescence2008In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 625-625Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In recent years, the p50, p300 amplitude and latency, and Mismatch Negativity (MMN) event related potential components have been proposed as potential endophenoytpes for schizophrenia spectrum disorders on the basis of twin and family studies. To date, there have been no previous studies investigating the genetic overlap between event-related potential indices and schizophenia liability in childhood and adolescence.

    Method: P50 sensory gating, p300 amplitude and latency, MMN, and schizotypal traits were measured in a community sample of 605 9–11 year old twin pairs. Structural equation modeling was used to quantify the genetic and environmental contributions to the covariance between schizotypal personality and each of the event-related potential endophenotypes.

    Preliminary Results: Moderate phenotypic correlations were found among the measures, ranging between 0.19 and 0.24, considered for psychophysiological data to be quite strong. Subsequent analyses are currently in progress.

  • 19.
    Ericson, Marissa
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry and Psychol- ogy, University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Baker, Laura
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Heritability and longitudinal stability of schizotypal traits during adolescence and early adulthood2009In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 649-649Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study attempted to clarify further the genetic and environmental etiology of schizotypal personality traits in a sample of MZ and DZ twins drawn from the general population. Though twins were assessed using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire- Child version (SPQ-C), amongst a wealth of other cognitive, psychophysiological, and behavioral measures on four occasions (Wave 1: age 9–11; Wave 2: age 11–12; Wave 3: age 14–15; Wave 4: age 16–18) of an ongoing, longitudinal twin study of personality and aggressive behavior, the current study utilized data from waves 2 and 3.

    For wave 2, univariate genetic analyses revealed that schizotypal traits are modestly heritable (additive genetic effects ranging from 35 to 49%). Multivariate genetic model fitting results indicated that additive genetic and unique environmental influences acted through a single common latent pathway for cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal-affective and disorganization symptom dimensions of schizotypal personality during early adolescent development. The covariation among the three schizotypy sub-factors could be accounted for by a common ‘schizotypy’ latent factor which was significantly heritable, with additive genetic factors explaining 60% of the latent factor variance. Biometric analyses of wave 3 data are currently in progress. In addition, a significant dearth exists in regards to the longitudinal stability of schizotypy during development. The current study will also estimate the stability of schizotypal traits over approximately 4 years, during a critical time in adolescent development, with the aim of addressing this shortage in the literature

  • 20.
    Ericson, Marissa
    et al.
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Baker, Laura
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    The relationship between executive function and antisocial behavior from age 9-16: a longitudinal twin study2011In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 904-904Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral disinhibition and executive dysfunction (EDF) are two key aspects of self-regulation that serve as risk factors for the development of antisocial behavior (ASB). In spite of the well established correlation between EDF and ASB, we do not yet know (1) the direction of the relationship itself, i.e., whether ASB may be result or cause of EF deficits during development, and (2) the extent to which the relationship is mediated by genetic and environmental factors. Cross-lagged regression models were used to investigate these questions in a longitudinal twin study based on data from two occasions when the twins were age 9–10 (Time 1) and age14–16 (Time 2). Preliminary phenotypic results demonstrated a strong association between EF and ASB at Time 1 (r=.27,p\.01), Time 2 (r=.29,p\.01), and longitudinally (r=.25,p\.01). In addition, ASB at Time 1 also correlated with future EF at Time 2 (r=.24,p\.01), which is, at the very least, suggestive of bi-directional effects. A fully cross-lagged model was found to best fit the data, such that deficits in early EF led to higher rates of later ASB (b12=0.12, Est./S.E.=2.318), and early ASB affected later EF (b21=0.10, Est./S.E.=2.58) while controlling for their pre-existing relationships and stabilities over time. Genetic factors contributed to the variation in EF from ages 9–16 (Time 1: 26%; Time 2: 29%), with no effect of shared environment. For ASB, genetic factors accounted for 43% of the variance during Time 1 and 55% of the variance during Time 2, with the remaining variance being comprised of shared environmental (Time 1: 20%; Time 2: 16%) and non-shared environmental factors (Time 1: 37%; Time 2: 29%). Biometric cross-lagged analyses will be used to examine the genetic and environmental contributions to the direction of effects between EF and ASB; these analyses are currently underway.

  • 21.
    Ericson, Marissa
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, United States.
    Young-Wolff, Kelly
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Baker, Laura A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Heritability and longitudinal stability of schizotypal traits during adolescence2011In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 499-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated the genetic and environmental etiology of schizotypal personality traits in a non-selected sample of adolescent twins, measured on two occasions between the ages of 11 and 16 years old. The 22-item Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire- Child version (SPQ-C) was found to be factorially similar to the adult version of this instrument, with three underlying factors (Cognitive-Perceptual, Interpersonal-Affective, and Disorganization). Each factor was heritable at age 11-13 years (h 2 = 42-53%) and 14-16 years old (h 2 = 38-57%). Additive genetic and unique environmental influences for these three dimensions of schizotypal personality acted in part through a single common latent factor, with additional genetic effects specific to both Interpersonal-Affective and Disorganization subscales at each occasion. The longitudinal correlation between the latent schizotypy factor was r = 0.58, and genetic influences explained most of the stability in this latent factor over time (81%). These longitudinal data demonstrate significant genetic variance in schizotypal traits, with moderate stability between early to middle adolescence. In addition to common influences between the two assessments, there were new genetic and non-shared environmental effects that played a role at the later assessment, indicating significant change in schizotypal traits and their etiologies throughout adolescence.

  • 22.
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Kyranides, Melina N.
    Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Georgiou, Giorgos
    Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Petridou, Maria
    Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Colins, Olivier F.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Curium-Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Callous-unemotional, impulsive-irresponsible, and grandiose-manipulative traits: Distinct associations with heart rate, skin conductance, and startle responses to violent and erotic scenes2017In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 663-672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to examine whether callous-unemotional, grandiose-manipulative, and impulsive-irresponsible dimensions of psychopathy are differentially related to various affective and physiological measures, assessed at baseline and in response to violent and erotic movie scenes. Data were collected from young adults (N = 101) at differential risk for psychopathic traits. Findings from regression analyses revealed a unique predictive contribution of grandiose-manipulative traits in particular to higher ratings of positive valence for violent scenes. Callous-unemotional traits were uniquely associated with lower levels of sympathy toward victims and lower ratings of fear and sadness during violent scenes. All three psychopathy dimensions and the total psychopathy scale showed negative zero-order correlations with heart rate at baseline, but regression analyses revealed that only grandiose manipulation was uniquely predictive of lower baseline heart rate. Grandiose manipulation was also significantly associated with lower baseline skin conductance. Regarding autonomic activity, findings resulted in a unique negative association between grandiose manipulation and heart rate activity in response to violent scenes. In contrast, the impulsive-irresponsible dimension was positively related with heart rate activity to violent scenes. Finally, findings revealed that only callous-unemotional traits were negatively associated with startle potentiation in response to violent scenes. No associations during erotic scenes were identified. These findings point to unique associations between the three assessed dimensions of psychopathy with physiological measures, indicating that grandiose manipulation is associated with hypoarousal, impulsive irresponsibility with hyperarousal, and callous-unemotional traits with low emotional and fear responses to violent scenes.

  • 23.
    Fröberg, Sofi
    et al.
    Orebro University, Orebro, Sweden.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The genetic and environmental overlap between callous-unemotional traits and ADHD symptoms among five year old twins2019In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 522-522Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Disruptive behavior disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD], conduct disorder [CD]) affect 5–10% of youth and represent the primary reason for youth referrals to clinicians (APA, 2013). DSM-V includes callous-unemotional (CU) traits (specifier ‘with prosocial emotions’) to CD (APA, 2013; Frick et al. 2014). Research suggests an association between CU traits and ADHD symptoms (Graziano et al. 2016; Babinski et al. 2017; Haas et al. 2018). The genetic and environmental overlap between CU traits and ADHD symptoms were examined in a sample of 1189 five year-old children using teacher-ratings, the PrEschool Twin Study in Sweden (PETSS). The correlations between CU traits and hyperactivity/impulsivity, and between CU traits and inattention were rp = 0.53, p\0.05 and 0.44, p\0.05, respectively. For CU traits, genetic factors accounted for 25%, p\0.05 of the variance, the shared environment accounted for 48%, p\0.05, and the non-shared environment for 27%, p\0.05. For hyperactivity/impulsivity, genetic factors accounted for 85%, p\0.05 of the variance and the non-shared environment accounted for 15%, p\0.05. For inattention, genetic factors accounted for 43%, p\0.05 of the variance, the shared envi ronment accounted for 38%, p\0.05, and the non-shared environment for 19%, p\0.05. For CU traits and hyperactivity/impulsivity, rg = 0.58 (0.36, 0.88), rc= 0.84 (0.46, 1.00), re= 0.24 (0.10, 0.37). For CU traits and inattention, rg = 0.33 (0.00, 0.61), rc= 0.63 (0.43, 0.82), re= 0.30 (0.17, 0.43). These findings indicate that CU traits and ADHD symptoms partly share a common genetic and environmental etiology.

  • 24.
    Fröberg, Sofi
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Patrick, Christopher J
    Florida State University, Tallahassee FL, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles California, USA.
    The Role of the Startle Reflex in Psychopathic Personality from Childhood to Adulthood: A Systematic Review2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Fullerton, Angelica F.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA; Northwestern Univ, Feinberg Sch Med, Evanston IL, USA.
    Jackson, Nicholas J.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Univ Penn, Dept Criminol, Philadelphia PA, USA; Univ Penn, Dept Psychiat, Philadelphia PA, USA; Univ Penn, Dept Psychol, Philadelphia PA, USA.
    Baker, Laura A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Early Childhood Head Injury Attenuates Declines in Impulsivity and Aggression Across Adolescent Development in Twins2019In: Neuropsychology, ISSN 0894-4105, E-ISSN 1931-1559, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 1035-1044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Head injury during development has been associated with behavioral changes such as impulsivity and antisocial behavior. This study investigates the extent to which behavioral changes associated with childhood head injury are sustained through adolescence and emerging adulthood.

    Method: Survey data was collected at 5 waves spanning 12 years (ages 9-20) from the University of Southern California Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior twin study. Impulsivity was measured by errors of commission in a Go/NoGo behavioral task, and aggression was measured through youth self-report using the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire. Head injury was assessed retrospectively using caregiver questionnaires at twin ages 14-15 years and self-reported at ages 19-20 years.

    Results: Participants with a head injury in early childhood showed significant delay in the normative developmental decline of impulsivity relative to the noninjured by mid-adolescence (ages 14-15.) Moreover, earlier age at injury was related to a slower decrease in impulsivity and greater increase in reactive aggression scores. Finally, among discordant monozygotic twin pairs, the twin with a head injury experienced significantly less decline in impulsivity by ages 19-20 than the noninjured co-twin.

    Conclusions: These findings indicate early childhood head injury may play a significant role in blunting the decline in impulsivity across development, exposing an additional risk factor for antisocial behavior.

  • 26.
    Gao, Yu
    et al.
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, California, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Lozano, Dora Isabel
    Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ciudad Juárez, Mexico.
    Baker, Laura A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, California, USA.
    Genetic and environmental influences on frontal EEG asymmetry and alpha power in 9–10 -year-old twins2009In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 787-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modest genetic influences on frontal EEG asymmetry have been found in adults, but little is known about its genetic origins in children. Resting frontal asymmetry and alpha power were examined in 951 9-10-year-old twins. Results showed that in both males and females: (1) a modest but significant amount of variance in frontal asymmetry was accounted for by genetic factors (11-28%) with the remainder accounted for by non-shared environmental influences, and (2) alpha power were highly heritable, with 71-85% of the variance accounted for by genetic factors. Results suggest that the genetic architecture of frontal asymmetry and alpha power in late childhood are similar to that in adulthood and that the high non-shared environmental influences on frontal asymmetry may reflect environmentally influenced individual differences in the maturation of frontal cortex as well as state-dependent influences on specific measurements.

  • 27.
    Gao, Yu
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Brooklyn College and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles California, USA.
    Schell, Anne
    Department of Psychology, Occidental College, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Baker, Laura
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Skin conductance fear conditioning impairments and aggression: a longitudinal study2014In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 288-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior.

  • 28.
    Hultman, Christina
    et al.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University of Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Torrång, Anna
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Cnattingius, Sven
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Larsson, Jan-Olov
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Birth weight and attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms in childhood and early adolescence: a prospective Swedish twin study2007In: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 0890-8567, E-ISSN 1527-5418, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 370-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether low birth weight increases the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and early adolescence.

    METHOD: In a population-based sample of 1,480 twin pairs born in the period 1985-1986 ascertained from the Swedish Twin Registry, birth weight was collected prospectively through the Medical Birth Registry. ADHD symptoms were measured with a 14-item checklist covering DSM-III-R criteria (parental rating) at age 8 to 9 years and 13 to 14 years. We used both a dichotomous approach for birth weight (>400 g or 15% weight difference) and ADHD (eight or more symptoms) and continuous measures to investigate between- and within-twin pair effects.

    RESULTS: Our results showed that low birth weight was a risk factor for symptoms of ADHD and the associations did not diminish when we controlled for genetic influence. The lighter twin in birth weight-discordant pairs had on average 13% higher ADHD symptom score at age 8 to 9 years (p = .006) and 12% higher ADHD score at age 13 to 14 years (p = .018) compared with the heavier twin. The genetic correlations suggest modest or no genetic overlap between birth weight and ADHD.

    CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesis that low birth weight is associated with the development of ADHD symptoms was supported in this prospective twin study. Fetal growth restriction seems to represent a modest but fairly consistent environmental influence on the development of ADHD symptoms.

  • 29.
    Hur, Yoon-Mi
    et al.
    Department of Education, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam, South Korea.
    Bogl, Leonie H.
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ordoñana, Juan R.
    Department of Human Anatomy and Psychobiology and Murcia Institute for Biomedical Research (IMIB-ARRIXACA), University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Taylor, Jeanette
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA.
    Hart, Sara A.
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Ystrom, Eivind
    PROMENTA Research Center, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Department of Mental Disorders, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Dalgård, Christine
    Department of Public Health, Environmental Medicine, and Danish Twin Registry, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Skytthe, Axel
    Department of Public Health, and Danish Twin Registry, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Willemsen, Gonneke
    Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Twin Family Registries Worldwide: An Important Resource for Scientific Research2019In: Twin Research and Human Genetics, ISSN 1832-4274, E-ISSN 1839-2628, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 427-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much progress has been made in twin research since our last special issue on twin registries (Hur, Y.-M., & Craig, J. M. (2013). Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16, 1-12.). This special issue provides an update on the state of twin family registries around the world. This issue includes 61 papers on twin family registries from 25 countries, of which 3 describe consortia based on collaborations of several twin family registries. The articles included in this issue discuss the establishment and maintenance of twin registries, recruitment strategies, methods of zygosity assessment, research aims and major findings from twin family cohorts, as well as other important topics related to twin studies. The papers amount to approximately 1.3 million monozygotic, dizygotic twins and higher order multiples and their family members who participate in twin studies around the world. Nine new twin family registries have been established across the world since our last issue, which demonstrates that twin registers are increasingly important in studies of the determinants and correlates of complex traits from disease susceptibility to healthy development.

  • 30.
    Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Pediatric Neuropsychiatry Unit, Center for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comasco, Erika
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Centre for Clinical Research, Västmanland County Hospital Västerås, Uppsala University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Rehn, Mattias
    Centre for Clinical Research, Västmanland County Hospital Västerås, Uppsala University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Centre for Clinical Research, Västmanland County Hospital Västerås, Uppsala University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Associations between the FKBP5 haplotype, exposure to violence and anxiety in females2016In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 72, p. 196-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gene that encodes the FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5) is regarded as a candidate for investigating how negative life events interact with a genetic predisposition to stress-related disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Given the role of FKBP5 as an important regulator of stress responses, we aimed to investigate if single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FKBP5-in the presence/absence of exposure to violence-are associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Data from two community-based samples of adolescents (n=1705) and young adults (n=1800) regarding ratings on depression, anxiety, exposure to violence and FKBP5 genotype were collected. A risk haplogenotype including the minor alleles of seven common SNPs in the FKBP5 (rs3800373, rs9296158, rs7748266, rs1360780, rs9394309, rs9470080 and rs4713916) conferred higher ratings on anxiety among females, but not males, in the presence of violence. Exposure to violence and female sex were associated with higher ratings on both depression and anxiety, with the exception of ratings on depression among young adults, on which sex had no effect. Ratings on depression were not associated with the haplogenotype. These findings may correspond to differences in the regulation of the HPA axis and with the higher vulnerability to anxiety in females.

  • 31.
    Isen, Joshua
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Baker, Laura
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry, Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, USA.
    Lozano, Dora I.
    Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Mexico.
    Heritability of skin conductance reactivity in children2008In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 632-632Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assessed the genetic covariance between various measures of phasic skin conductance activity, including response amplitude and frequency of responding. A few studies have investigated the etiology of skin conductance reactivity (e.g., Lykken et al. Psychophysiology 25:4–15, 1988), but none have been conducted with children. Given that deficits in skin conductance orienting are associated with psychosis-proneness and conduct problems, it is important to understand the genetic and environmental contributions to skin conductance reactivity in children. Subjects for this study were 800 male and female twins, aged 9–10, who passively listened to stimuli during an orienting task. The stimuli consisted of tones of moderate intensity (75 dB), as well as different types of socially meaningful sounds (e.g. baby cries and speech-like stimuli). Skin conductance response magnitude, averaged across all stimuli, was substantially heritable. Genetic modelfitting was used to determine if the variation in reactivity across the different types of stimuli can be explained by a single latent factor. Furthermore, there was a moderate phenotypic correlation between a continuous measure of reactivity (i.e. response amplitude) and a more categorical measure of skin conductance (i.e. frequency of responding). This association was not genetically mediated, suggesting a theoretical distinction between hyporeactivity and nonresponding.

  • 32.
    Jackson, Nicholas J.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA; Department of Medicine Statistics Core, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Isen, Joshua D.
    Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.
    Khoddam, Rubin
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Irons, Daniel
    Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Iacono, William G.
    Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.
    McGue, Matt
    Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Department of Criminology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA; Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA .
    Baker, Laura A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Impact of adolescent marijuana use on intelligence: Results from two longitudinal twin studies2016In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 113, no 5, p. E500-E508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marijuana is one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, and use during adolescence-when the brain is still developing-has been proposed as a cause of poorer neurocognitive outcome. Nonetheless, research on this topic is scarce and often shows conflicting results, with some studies showing detrimental effects of marijuana use on cognitive functioning and others showing no significant long-term effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of marijuana use with changes in intellectual performance in two longitudinal studies of adolescent twins (n = 789 and n = 2,277). We used a quasiexperimental approach to adjust for participants' family background characteristics and genetic propensities, helping us to assess the causal nature of any potential associations. Standardized measures of intelligence were administered at ages 9-12 y, before marijuana involvement, and again at ages 17-20 y. Marijuana use was self-reported at the time of each cognitive assessment as well as during the intervening period. Marijuana users had lower test scores relative to nonusers and showed a significant decline in crystallized intelligence between preadolescence and late adolescence. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between frequency of use and intelligence quotient (IQ) change. Furthermore, marijuana-using twins failed to show significantly greater IQ decline relative to their abstinent siblings. Evidence from these two samples suggests that observed declines in measured IQ may not be a direct result of marijuana exposure but rather attributable to familial factors that underlie both marijuana initiation and low intellectual attainment.

  • 33.
    Jackson, Nicholas
    et al.
    Dept Psychol, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Dept Psychol, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Baker, Laura A.
    Dept Psychol, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Protective and risk factors for adolescent marijuana initiation2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Jelenkovic, Aline
    et al.
    Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Genetics, Physical Anthropology and Animal Physiology, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Leioa, Spain.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Silventoinen, Karri
    Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.
    Genetic and environmental influences on height from infancy to early adulthood: An individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 28496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Height variation is known to be determined by both genetic and environmental factors, but a systematic description of how their influences differ by sex, age and global regions is lacking. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts from 20 countries, including 180,520 paired measurements at ages 1-19 years. The proportion of height variation explained by shared environmental factors was greatest in early childhood, but these effects remained present until early adulthood. Accordingly, the relative genetic contribution increased with age and was greatest in adolescence (up to 0.83 in boys and 0.76 in girls). Comparing geographic-cultural regions (Europe, North-America and Australia, and East-Asia), genetic variance was greatest in North-America and Australia and lowest in East-Asia, but the relative proportion of genetic variation was roughly similar across these regions. Our findings provide further insights into height variation during childhood and adolescence in populations representing different ethnicities and exposed to different environments.

  • 35.
    Jelenkovic, Aline
    et al.
    Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Genetics, Physical Anthropology and Animal Physiology, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Leioa, Spain.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Silventoinen, Karri
    Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.
    Zygosity differences in height and body mass index of twins from infancy to old age: a study of the CODATwins project2015In: Twin Research and Human Genetics, ISSN 1832-4274, E-ISSN 1839-2628, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 557-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m(2) in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m(2) in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.

  • 36.
    Jelenkovic, Aline
    et al.
    Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Genetics, Physical Anthropology and Animal Physiology, University of the Basque Country, Leioa, Spain.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Silvertoinen, Karri
    Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.
    Genetic and environmental influences on adult human height across birth cohorts from 1886 to 19942016In: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084X, Vol. 5, article id e20320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human height variation is determined by genetic and environmental factors, but it remains unclear whether their influences differ across birth-year cohorts. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts including 143,390 complete twin pairs born 1886-1994. Although genetic variance showed a generally increasing trend across the birth-year cohorts, heritability estimates (0.69-0.84 in men and 0.53-0.78 in women) did not present any clear pattern of secular changes. Comparing geographic-cultural regions (Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia), total height variance was greatest in North America and Australia and lowest in East Asia, but no clear pattern in the heritability estimates across the birth-year cohorts emerged. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that heritability of height is lower in populations with low living standards than in affluent populations, nor that heritability of height will increase within a population as living standards improve.

  • 37.
    Katsika, Despina
    et al.
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Einarsson, Carl
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marschall, Hans-Ulrich
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Body mass index, alcohol, tobacco and symptomatic gallstone disease: a Swedish twin study2007In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 262, no 5, p. 581-587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aims: Both genetic and environmental factors are involved in the pathogenesis of gallstone disease (GD). We aimed to examine the association between symptomatic GD and overweight (body mass index, BMI, 25-30 kg m -2), obesity (BMI > 30 kg m-2), alcohol, smoking and smoke-free tobacco by analysing a large twin population.

    Methods: The Swedish Twin Registry (STR) was linked to the Swedish Hospital Discharge and Causes of Death Registries for GD and GD-surgery related diagnoses. Weight, height, use of alcohol, smoking and smoke-free tobacco were provided by STR and analysed for possible associations by conditional logistic regression.

    Results: Overweight and obesity were associated with a significantly higher risk for symptomatic GD in the whole study population (OR 1.86 and OR 3.38; CI: 1.52-2.28 and 2.28-5.02 respectively). High alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk for GD in the whole population (OR 0.62; CI: 0.51-0.74) with no difference between discordant monozygotic and dizygotic twins (OR 1.08 and OR 0.96; CI: 0.82-1.42 and 0.79-1.16). Smoking or smoke-free tobacco was not correlated with GD.

    Conclusion: Consistent with epidemiological studies, we found positive associations between BMI and the development of symptomatic GD. High alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk against GD. Tobacco use has no impact on GD.

  • 38.
    Larsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Social, Genetic, and Developmental Psychiatry Research Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King ’ s College London, UK.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.
    Social, Genetic, and Developmental Psychiatry Research Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King ’ s College London, UK.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Grann, Martin
    Centre for Violence Prevention, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Swedish Prison and Probation Service, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    A common genetic factor explains the association between psychopathic personality and antisocial behavior2007In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 15-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Both psychopathic personality traits and antisocial behavior are influenced by geneticas well as environmental factors. However, little is known about how genetic and environmental factors contribute to the associations between the psychopathic personality traits and antisocial behavior.

    Method: Data were drawn from a longitudinal population-based twin sample including all 1480 twin pairs born in Sweden between May 1985 and December 1986. The twins responded to mailed self-report questionnaires at two occasions: 1999 (twins 13–14 years old), and 2002 (twins 16–17years old).

    Results: A common genetic factor loaded substantially on both psychopathic personality traits and antisocial behavior, whereas a common shared environmental factor loaded exclusively on antisocial behavior.

    Conclusions: The genetic overlap between psychopathic personality traits and antisocial behavior may reflect a genetic vulnerability to externalizing psychopathology. The finding of shared environmental influences only in antisocial behavior suggests an etiological distinction between psychopathic personality dimensions and antisocial behavior. Knowledge about temperamental correlates to antisocial behavior is important for identification of susceptibility genes, as well as for possible prevention through identification of at-risk children early in life

  • 39.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    et al.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Carlström, Eva
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    The Swedish Twin study of CHild and Adolescent Development: the TCHAD-study2007In: Twin Research and Human Genetics, ISSN 1832-4274, E-ISSN 1839-2628, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 67-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Twin study of CHild and Adolescent Development (TCHAD) is a longitudinal study of how genes and environments contribute to development of health and behavioral problems from childhood to adulthood. The study includes 1480 twin pairs followed since 1994, when the twins were 8 to 9 years old. The last data collection was in 2005 when the twins were 19 to 20 years old. Both parents and twins have provided data. In this article we describe the sample, data collections, and measures used. In addition, we provide some key findings from the study, focusing on antisocial behavior, criminality, and psychopathic personality.

  • 40.
    Liu, Jianghong
    et al.
    Schools of Nursing and Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, USA.
    Cao, Siyuan
    Schools of Nursing and Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, USA.
    Chen, Zehang
    Schools of Nursing and Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Schools of Nursing and Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, USA.
    Hanlon, Alexandra
    Schools of Nursing and Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, USA.
    Ai, Yuexian
    Jintan People’s Hospital, Jintan, China.
    Zhou, Guoping
    Jintan People’s Hospital, Jintan, China.
    Yan, Chonghuai
    Xinhua Hospital, MOE-Shanghai Key Laboratory of Children’s Environmental Health, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
    Leung, PatrickW
    Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Linda, McCauley
    Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta GA, USA.
    Jennifer, Pinto-Martin
    Schools of Nursing and Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, USA.
    Cohort Profile Update: The China Jintan Child Cohort Study2015In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, p. 1548-1548lArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The China Jintan Child Cohort study began in 2004 with 1656 pre-school participants and a research focus on studying the impact of environmental exposures, such as lead, on children’s neurobehavioural outcomes. This population cohort now includes around 1000 of the original participants, who have been assessed three times over a period of 10 years. Since the original IJE cohort profile publication in 2010, participants have experienced a critical developmental transition from pre-school to school age and then adolescence. The study has also witnessed an increase in breadth and depth of data collection from the original aim of risk assessment. This cohort has added new directions to investigate the mechanisms and protective factors for the relationship between early health factors and child physical and mental health outcomes, with an emphasis on neurobehavioural consequences. The study now encompasses 11 domains, composed of repeated measures of the original variables and new domains of biomarkers, sleep, psychophysiology, neurocognition, personality, peer relationship, mindfulness and family dynamics. Depth of evaluation has increased from parent/teacher report to self/peer report and intergenerational family report. Consequently, the cohort has additional directions to include: (i) classmates of the original cohort participants for peer relationship assessment; and (ii) parental and grandparental measures to assess personality and dynamics within families. We welcome interest in our study and ask investigators to contact the corresponding author for additional information on data acquisition.

  • 41.
    Liu, Jianghong
    et al.
    School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Li, Linda
    School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, USA.
    Baker, Laura A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Medical record validation of maternal recall of pregnancy and birth events from a twin cohort2013In: Twin Research and Human Genetics, ISSN 1832-4274, E-ISSN 1839-2628, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 845-860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to assess the validity of maternal recall for several perinatal variables 8-10 years after pregnancy in a twin sample. Retrospective information was collected 8-10 years after the delivery event in a cohort of mothers from the University of Southern California Twin Study (N = 611) and compared with medical records for validity analysis. Recall of most variables showed substantial to perfect agreement (κ = 0.60-1.00), with notable exceptions for specific medical problems during pregnancy (κ ≤ 0.40) and substance use when mothers provided continuous data (e.g., number of cigarettes per day; r ≤ 0.24). With the exception of delivery method, neonatal intensive care unit admission, birth weight, neonatal information, and post-delivery complications were also recalled with low accuracy. For mothers of twins, maternal recall is generally a valid measure for perinatal variables 10 years after pregnancy. However, caution should be taken regarding variables such as substance use, medical problems, birth length, and post-delivery complications.

  • 42.
    Liu, Jianghong
    et al.
    School of Nursing and School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, United States .
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, United States.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, United States.
    Baker, Laura
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, United States.
    Genetic and environmental influences on nutrient intake2013In: Genes & Nutrition, ISSN 1555-8932, E-ISSN 1865-3499, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 241-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between genetic and the environment represents a pathway to better understand individual variations in nutrition intake and food preferences. However, the present literature is weakened somewhat by methodological flaws (e.g., overreliance on self-report questionnaires), discrepancies in statistical approaches, and inconsistent findings. Little research on this topic to date has included examination of micronutrient intake. The purpose of this study is to improve the existing literature on genetic and environmental influences on energy and nutrient intake by addressing these gaps. Twin pairs (N = 358; age 11-13 years) provided 3-day food intake diaries, which were assessed for intake of total energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. Structural equation modeling revealed that genetic influences accounted for a significant portion of the total variance in total energy (48 %), macronutrients (35-45 %), minerals (45 %), and vitamins (21 %). Consistent with previous studies, the shared environment appeared to contribute little to nutritional intake. Findings on vitamin and mineral intake are novel and are particularly beneficial for further research on the contribution of micronutrients to individual physical health status. Better understanding of the linkage between genes, environment, and nutritional intake and deficiencies can clarify behavioral and physical outcomes, potentially informing risk reduction, primary prevention, and intervention strategies.

  • 43.
    Liu, Jianghong
    et al.
    University of Pennsylvania, School of Nursing, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Wong, Keri Ka-Yee
    University of College London, Institute of Education, Department of Psychology and Human Development, London, UK.
    Dong, Fanghong
    University of Pennsylvania, School of Nursing, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    University of Pennsylvania, Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. University of Southern California, Department of Psychology, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire - Child (SPQ-C): Psychometric properties and relations to behavioral problems with multi-informant ratings2019In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 275, p. 204-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) is one of the most widely used screening tools for schizotypy in adults. The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Child version (SPQ-C) was recently developed to assess schizotypy in children and has a similar three-factor structure to the adult SPQ (i.e., Cognitive-Perceptual, Interpersonal-Affective, and Disorganization). However, few studies to date have reported on the psychometric properties and the usefulness of the SPQ-C in Eastern populations, including Mainland China. This study presents the first psychometric assessment of the Chinese SPQ-C in Mainland China. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to assess the factor structure of the SPQ-C in 1668 children (M = 12.10, SD = 0.60 years) from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study. Our findings document a three-factor structure and partial measurement invariance across residential location and gender, replicating the psychometric properties of the SPQ-C in English. The Chinese SPQ-C further correlates with standard behavioral problems (i.e., Child Behavior Checklist, Youth Self-Report and Teacher Report Form), demonstrating construct validity and utility as a child psychopathology assessment tool. Our findings provide the first robust psychometric evidence for a three-factor structure of the Chinese SPQ-C in a large Mainland Chinese sample, and suggest that the SPQ-C is suitable as a screening tool for schizotypy in community children who may be at risk for behavioral problems and later psychosis.

  • 44.
    Lopez-Leon, Sandra
    et al.
    Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover NJ, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Forero, Diego
    Laboratory of Neuropsychiatric Genetics, Biomedical Sciences Research Group, School of Medicine, Universidad Antonio Nariño, Bogotá, Colombia.
    Sports genetics: the PPARA gene and athletes’ high ability in endurance sports. A systematic review and meta-analysis2016In: Biology of Sport, ISSN 0860-021X, E-ISSN 2083-1862, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 3-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A meta-analysis was performed with the aim of re-evaluating the role of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARA) gene intron 7 G/C polymorphism (rs4253778) in athletes’ high ability in endurance sports.

    Design: A meta-analysis of case control studies assessing the association between the G/C polymorphisms of the PPARA gene and endurance sports was conducted. The Cochrane Review Manager software was used to compare the genotype and allele frequencies between endurance athletes and controls to determine whether a genetic variant is more common in athletes than in the general population. Five studies, encompassing 760 endurance athletes and 1792 controls, fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The pooled odds ratio (and confidence intervals, CIs) for the G allele compared to the C allele was 1.65 (95% CI 1.39-1.96). The pooled OR for the GG genotype compared to the GC genotype was 1.79 (95% CI 1.44-2.22), and for the GG genotype compared to the CC genotype 2.37 (95% CI 1.40-3.99). There was no evidence of heterogeneity (I2 =0%) or of publication bias. Athletes with high ability in endurance sports had a higher frequency of the GG genotype and G allele.

  • 45.
    Niv, Sharon
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Ashrafulla, Syed
    Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Joshi, Anand
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Signal and Image Processing Institute, Brain and Creativity Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, United States.
    Leahy, Richard
    Departments of Electrical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, and Radiology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Baker, Laura
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Childhood EEG frontal alpha power as a predictor of adolescent antisocial behavior: a twin heritability study2015In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 105, p. 72-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High EEG frontal alpha power (FAP) is thought to represent a state of low arousal in the brain, which has been related in past research to antisocial behavior (ASB). We investigated a longitudinal sample of 900 twins in two assessments in late childhood and mid-adolescence to verify whether relationships exist between FAP and both aggressive and nonaggressive ASB. ASB was measured by the Child Behavioral Checklist, and FAP was calculated using connectivity analysis methods that used principal components analysis to derive power of the most dominant frontal activation. Significant positive predictive relationships emerged in males between childhood FAP and adolescent aggressive ASB using multilevel mixed modeling. No concurrent relationships were found. Using bivariate biometric twin modeling analysis, the relationship between childhood FAP and adolescent aggressive ASB in males was found to be entirely due to genetic factors, which were correlated r=. 0.22.

  • 46.
    Niv, Sharon
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Raine, Adrian
    Department of Criminology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, United States; Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, United States; Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, United States .
    Baker, Laura A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Aggression and rule-breaking: heritability and stability of antisocial behavior problems in childhood and adolescence2013In: Journal of criminal justice, ISSN 0047-2352, E-ISSN 1873-6203, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 285-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This twin study examined the structure of genetic and environmental influences on aggression and rule-breaking in order to examine change and stability across the span of childhood to mid-adolescence.

    Methods: Behavioral assessments were conducted at two time points: age 9-10. years and 14-15. years. Using behavioral genetics biometric modeling, the longitudinal structure of influences was investigated.

    Results: Aggression and rule-breaking were found to be influenced by a latent common factor of antisocial behavior (ASB) within each wave of data collection. The variance in the childhood-age common factor of ASB was influenced by 41% genetics, 40% shared environment and 19% nonshared environment. In adolescence, 41% of variance in the common factor were novel and entirely genetic, while the remainder of variance was stable across time. Additionally, both aggression and rule-breaking within each wave were found to have unique influences not common across subscales or across waves, highlighting specificity of genetic and environmental effects on different problem behaviors at both ages.

    Conclusions: This research sheds light on the commonality of influences on different forms of antisocial behavior. Future research into interventions for antisocial behavior problems in youth could focus on adolescence-specific environmental influences.

  • 47.
    Niv, Sharon
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Raine, Adrian
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
    Baker, Laura A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Genetic correlations between EEG patterns and externalizing behavior problems in childhood2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Niv, Sharon
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Raine, Adrian
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, United States.
    Baker, Laura A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    The genetic and environmental etiology of internalizing and externalizing behavior in adolescent twins2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Niv, Sharon
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Baker, Laura A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    The longitudinal heritability of impulsivity in a sample of child and adolescent twins2009In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 672-672Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the genetics of impulsive traits in children and adolescents in the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) in a longitudinal twin study between the ages of 9- and 16-years old. Comparisons of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin correlations suggest a significant heritability to each of the three impulsivity subscales in the BIS, including non-planning, motor impulsivity, and inattention. While a single common factor model fit the data well on two different occasions, some scale specific genetic variance also exists, particularly for inattention and non-planning, suggesting the multifactorial nature of impulsivity. The genetic influence on the common factor of impulsivity was somewhat larger in early adolescence (h2=0.57) than in mid-adolescence (h2=0.42). The relationship of the BIS impulsivity scales to laboratory measures of impulsivity (i.e., errors of commission and reaction times in the NoGo task and risky decision making in the Iowa Gambling Task) will also be investigated, in an effort to understand further the multi-factorial nature of impulsivity and its etiology in children and adolescence. Results from this study can be used to better our understanding of a construct underlying several psychiatric disorders and categories of antisocial or risky behavior.

  • 50.
    Niv, Sharon
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, United States.
    Wang, Pan
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Baker, Laura A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Heritability and longitudinal stability of impulsivity in adolescence2012In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 378-392Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Impulsivity is a multifaceted personality construct that plays an important role throughout the lifespan in psychopathological disorders involving self-regulated behaviors. Its genetic and environmental etiology, however, is not clearly understood during the important developmental period of adolescence. This study investigated the relative influence of genes and environment on self-reported impulsive traits in adolescent twins measured on two separate occasions (waves) between the ages of 11 and 16. An adolescent version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) developed for this study was factored into subscales reflecting inattention, motor impulsivity, and non-planning. Genetic analyses of these BIS subscales showed moderate heritability, ranging from 33-56% at the early wave (age 11-13 years) and 19-44% at the later wave (age 14-16 years). Moreover, genetic influences explained half or more of the variance of a single latent factor common to these subscales within each wave. Genetic effects specific to each subscale also emerged as significant, with the exception of motor impulsivity. Shared twin environment was not significant for either the latent or specific impulsivity factors at either wave. Phenotypic correlations between waves ranged from r = 0.25 to 0.42 for subscales. The stability correlation between the two latent impulsivity factors was r = 0.43, of which 76% was attributable to shared genetic effects, suggesting strong genetic continuity from mid to late adolescence. These results contribute to our understanding of the nature of impulsivity by demonstrating both multidimensionality and genetic specificity to different facets of this complex construct, as well as highlighting the importance of stable genetic influences across adolescence.

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