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  • 1.
    Andersson, Åsa
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Department of NVS, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kamwendo, Kitty
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Appelros, Peter
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Department of NVS, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fear of falling in stroke patients: relationship with previous falls and functional characteristics2008In: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 261-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between fear of falling and functional characteristics of patients after stroke as well as to determine what characterizes fallers who score high fall-related self-efficacy, and nonfallers who score low fall-related self-efficacy. Patients (n=140) treated in a stroke unit during a 12-month period were included. On follow-up, fallers were identified and patients answered the questions in the Falls Efficacy Scale, Swedish version (FES-S). Assessments of motor capacity, functional mobility and balance were also made. In univariate analysis, low fall-related self-efficacy was significantly associated with increased age, female sex, earlier falls, visual and cognitive impairment, low mood and impaired physical function. In multivariate analysis, only earlier falls and physical function remained significant. Twenty percent of the patients scored low fall-related self-efficacy without having experienced a fall, and 11% who experienced a fall scored high fall-related self-efficacy. Impaired physical function was significantly associated with scoring low fall-related self-efficacy, for both fallers and nonfallers. Fear of falling is significantly associated with poor physical function and earlier falls. Falls Efficacy Scale, Swedish version could add useful information to a fall risk analysis. Patients scoring low fall-related self-efficacy should be offered fall prevention measures whether they have fallen or not.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Åsa
    et al.
    Department of Geriatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Department Neurotec, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kamwendo, Kitty
    Örebro University, Department of Nursing and Caring Sciences.
    Seiger, Åke
    Department Neurotec, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Appelros, Peter
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine. Department Neurotec, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    How to identify potential fallers in a stroke unit: validity indexes of 4 test methods2006In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 186-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe general characteristics of patients with stroke who have a tendency to fall and to determine whether certain test instruments can identify fallers. METHODS: Patients treated in a stroke unit during a 12-month period were included. At inclusion assessments were made with Berg Balance Scale Berg Balance Scale, Stops Walking When Talking, Timed Up & Go (TUG) and diffTUG. At follow-up 6 or 12 months later, patients who had fallen were identified. RESULTS: During the time from discharge to follow-up on 159 patients, 68 patients fell and 91 did not. Fallers fell more often during their initial hospital stay, used sedatives more often and were more visually impaired, compared with non-fallers. The Berg Balance Scale, Stops Walking When Talking and TUG results differed between fallers and non-fallers. The combined results of Berg Balance Scale and Stops Walking When Talking increased the possibility of identifying fallers. CONCLUSION: Berg Balance Scale, Stops Walking When Talking and TUG can be used to evaluate which patients have a tendency to fall in order to carry out preventive measures. Berg Balance Scale can be used in all patients. Stops Walking When Talking can give additional information if the patient is able to walk. TUG is a possible choice, but fewer patients can perform it.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Åsa
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Seiger, Åke
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Appelros, Peter
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hip fractures in persons with stroke2013In: Stroke Research and Treatment, ISSN 2090-8105, E-ISSN 2042-0056, Vol. 2013, article id 954279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Our aim was to determine the incidence of hip fractures within two years after stroke, to identify associated factors, to evaluate which test instruments that best could identify people at risk, and to describe the circumstances that prevailed when they sustained their hip fractures. Method. A total of 377 persons with first-ever stroke were followed up for a 24-month period. Stroke severity, cognition, and associated medical conditions were registered. The following test instruments were used: National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up & Go, and Stops Walking When Talking. Result. Sixteen of the persons fractured their hip within the study period, which corresponds to an incidence of 32 hip fractures per 1000 person-years. Persons with fractures more often had impaired vision and cognitive impairment and more had had previous fractures. Of the investigated test instruments, Timed Up & Go was the best test to predict fractures. Conclusion. The incidence of hip fractures in persons with stroke was high in this study. Persons with previous fractures, and visual and cognitive defects are at the greatest risk. Certain test instruments could be used in order to find people at risk, which should be targeted for fall preventive measures.

  • 4.
    Appelros, Peter
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Neurology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Cognitive impairment in lacunar strokes2014In: European Neurological Review, ISSN 1758-3837, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 64-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vascular cognitive impairment is closely related to stroke. Each condition is a risk factor for the other. Cognitive impairment is a symptom that makes it difficult for a stroke patient to live at home. In this review paper, different types of vascular cognitive impairment are discussed, with emphasis on cognitive impairment related to lacunar strokes (LACS). Symptoms, diagnostics, epidemiology, treatment, and prognosis are surveyed. LACS are often associated with leukoaraiosis, which is related to subcortical ischemic vascular dementia. Even if LACS often are mild, they may therefore be associated with cognitive impairment on longer term.

  • 5.
    Appelros, Peter
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Heart failure and stroke2006In: Stroke, ISSN 0039-2499, E-ISSN 1524-4628, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 1637-1637Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Appelros, Peter
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Prevalence and predictors of pain and fatigue after stroke: a population-based study2006In: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 329-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pain and fatigue are two often overlooked symptoms after stroke. Their prevalence and determinants are not well understood. In this study patients with first-ever stroke (n=377) were examined at baseline and after 1 year. General characteristics of the patients, as well as stroke type, stroke severity and risk factors were registered at baseline. After 1 year survivors (n=253) were examined with respect to residual impairment, disability, cognition and depression. They were asked whether they had experienced pain and/or fatigue which had started after the stroke, and which the patient felt to be stroke related. Twenty-eight patients (11%) had stroke-associated pain and 135 (53%) had stroke-associated fatigue. Pain was associated with depression and different manifestations of stroke severity, especially degree of paresis at baseline. Fatigue was more associated with physical disability. In univariate analysis, fatigue was also associated with sleep disturbances. In conclusion, it is important to be aware of the occurrence of pain and fatigue after stroke, because these symptoms are common, they impair quality of life and they are potentially treatable. Post-stroke depression may coexist with pain and fatigue. The detection of one symptom should lead to consideration of the others. Follow-up and individual assessment of stroke patients is crucial.

  • 7.
    Appelros, Peter
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Neurotec Department, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Neurotec Department, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Changes in mini mental state examination score after stroke: lacunar infarction predicts cognitive decline2006In: European Journal of Neurology, ISSN 1351-5101, E-ISSN 1468-1331, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 491-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stroke and cognitive impairment are inter-related. The purpose of this study was to show the natural evolution of cognitive performance during the first year after a stroke, and to show which factors that predict cognitive decline. Subjects were patients with a first-ever stroke who were treated in a stroke unit. A total of 160 patients were included. At baseline patients were evaluated with regard to stroke type, stroke severity, pre-stroke dementia and other risk factors. Mini Mental State Examinations (MMSE) were performed after 1 week and after 1 year. Patients had a median increase of 1 point (range -8 to +9) on the MMSE. Thirty-two pre cent of the patients deteriorated, 13% were unchanged, and 55% improved. Lacunar infarction (LI) and left-sided stroke were associated with a failure to exhibit improvement. Patients with LI had an average decline of 1.7 points, whilst patients with other stroke types had an average increase of 1.8 points. Most stroke survivors improve cognitively during the first year after the event. The outcome for LI patients is worse, which suggests that LI may serve as a marker for concomitant processes that cause cognitive decline.

  • 8.
    Appelros, Peter
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Neurology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Farahmand, Bahman
    Epi-consultants (Formerly Karolinska Institute), Alzheimer Disease Research Center, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Terént, Andreas
    Department of Medical Sciences,Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åsberg, Signild
    Department of Medical Sciences, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    To Treat or Not to Treat: Anticoagulants as Secondary Preventives to the Oldest Old With Atrial Fibrillation.2017In: Stroke, ISSN 0039-2499, E-ISSN 1524-4628, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 1617-1623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Anticoagulant treatment is effective for preventing recurrent ischemic strokes in patients who have atrial fibrillation. This benefit is paid by a small increase of hemorrhages. Anticoagulant-related hemorrhages seem to increase with age, but there are few studies showing whether the benefits of treatment persist in old age.

    METHODS: For this observational study, 4 different registers were used, among them Riksstroke, the Swedish Stroke Register. Patients who have had a recent ischemic stroke, were 80 to 100 years of age, and had atrial fibrillation, were included from 2006 through 2013. The patients were stratified into 3 age groups: 80 to 84, 85 to 89, and ≥90 years of age. Information on stroke severity, risk factors, drugs, and comorbidities was gathered from the registers. The patients were followed with respect to ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, other hemorrhages, or death.

    RESULTS: Of all 23 356 patients with atrial fibrillation, 6361 (27%) used anticoagulants after an ischemic stroke. Anticoagulant treatment was associated with less recurrent ischemic stroke in all age groups. Hemorrhages increased most in the ≥90-year age group, but this did not offset the overall beneficial effect of the anticoagulant. Apart from age, no other cardiovascular risk factor or comorbidity was identified that influenced the risk of anticoagulant-associated hemorrhage. Drugs other than anticoagulants did not influence the incidence of major hemorrhage.

    CONCLUSIONS: Given the patient characteristics in this study, there is room for more patients to be treated with anticoagulants, without hemorrhages to prevail. In nonagenarians, hemorrhages increased somewhat more, but this did not affect the overall outcome in this age stratum.

  • 9.
    Appelros, Peter
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Neurology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Háls Berglund, Maria
    Riksstroke, Medicincentrum, University Hospital of Norrland, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ström, Jakob O.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Clinical Chemistry, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Long-Term Risk of Stroke after Transient Ischemic Attack2017In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 43, no 1-2, p. 25-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the absence of active management, the stroke risk after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) may be high. Almost 10 years ago, the results of the EXPRESS and SOS-TIA studies called for a more rapid management of TIA patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the other stroke risks in the longer term, after the implementation of a more active approach to TIA. We also wanted to assess the predictive value of the ABCD2 score in this context.

    Methods: Riksstroke is the national stroke registry in Sweden. Data from Riksstroke's TIA module, and the national cause-of-death register, for the years 2011 and 2012 were used in this study. Stroke occurrence was monitored via Riksstroke. Cox's regression was used for risk evaluation. The predictive value of the ABCD2 score was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve.

    Results: A total of 15,068 TIA episodes occurred in 14,102 patients. The follow-up time varied between 0 and 819 days, with an average of 417 days. The mortality for all TIA patients during the follow-up time was 7.1%. Of the unique patients, 545 had one or more strokes (3.9%), corresponding to 34 events per 1,000 person years. Significant risk factors for stroke were: age, previous TIA, atrial fibrillation (AF), oral anticoagulant (OAC) treatment, hypertension treatment, and the ABCD2 items speech impairment, unilateral weakness, and diabetes mellitus. The ABCD2 score correlated with a subsequent stroke, but its predictive value was low.

    Conclusion: The risk of stroke is low after the acute phase of a TIA, probably lower than in previous studies. This may be due to better secondary prevention in recent years. Several risk factors predict stroke, notably hypertensive treatment, which may be inadequate; and AF, where OACs may be under-used. It is difficult to identify the role of the ABCD2 score in clinical practice.

  • 10.
    Appelros, Peter
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Neurology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    Riks-Stroke, Department of Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Åsberg, Signild
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Riks-Stroke, Department of Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Glader, Eva-Lotta
    Riks-Stroke, Department of Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Åsberg, Kerstin Hulter
    Department of Medicine, Enköping Hospital, Enköping, Sweden.
    Norrving, Bo
    Department of Neurology, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Stegmayr, Birgitta
    Riks-Stroke, Department of Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Terént, Andreas
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Trends in stroke treatment and outcome between 1995 and 2010: observations from Riks-Stroke, the Swedish stroke register2014In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 22-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Continuous changes in stroke treatment and care, as well as changes in stroke characteristics, may alter stroke outcome over time. The aim of this paper is to describe time trends for treatment and outcome data, and to discuss if any such changes could be attributed to quality changes in stroke care.

    METHODS: Data from Riks-Stroke, the Swedish stroke register, were analyzed for the time period of 1995 through 2010. The total number of patients included was 320,181. The following parameters were included: use of computed tomography (CT), stroke unit care, thrombolysis, medication before and after the stroke, length of stay in hospital, and discharge destination. Three months after stroke, data regarding walking, toileting and dressing ability, as well social situation, were gathered. Survival status after 7, 27 and 90 days was registered.

    RESULTS: In 1995, 53.9% of stroke patients were treated in stroke units. In 2010 this proportion had increased to 87.5%. Fewer patients were discharged to geriatric or rehabilitation departments in later years (23.6% in 2001 compared with 13.4% in 2010), but more were discharged directly home (44.2 vs. 52.4%) or home with home rehabilitation (0 vs. 10.7%). The need for home help service increased from 18.2% in 1995 to 22.1% in 2010. Regarding prevention, more patients were on warfarin, antihypertensives and statins both before and after the stroke. The functional outcome measures after 3 months did improve from 2001 to 2010. In 2001, 83.8% of patients were walking independently, while 85.6% were independent in 2010. For toileting, independence increased from 81.2 to 84.1%, and for dressing from 78.0 to 80.4%. Case fatality (CF) rates after 3 months increased from 18.7% (2001) to 20.0% (2010). This trend is driven by patients with severe strokes.

    CONCLUSIONS: Stroke outcomes may change over a relatively short time period. In some ways, the quality of care has improved. More stroke patients have CT, more patients are treated in stroke units and more have secondary prevention. Patients with milder strokes may have benefited more from these measures than patients with severe strokes. Increased CF rates for patients with severe stroke may be caused by shorter hospital stays, shorter in-hospital rehabilitation periods and lack of suitable care after discharge from hospital.

  • 11.
    Appelros, Peter
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Nydevik, Ingegerd
    Terént, Andreas
    Living setting and utilisation of ADL assistance one year after a stroke with special reference to gender differences2006In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 43-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To examine living setting and need for ADL assistance before and one year after a first-ever stroke with special focus on gender differences. METHODS: One-year survivors from a population-based stroke study (n = 377) were studied with regard to place of living, need for ADL assistance and who provided the help. Stroke severity, cognitive impairment, post-stroke depression as well as risk factors were evaluated. RESULTS: Before the stroke 48 patients (13%) lived in special housing (service flats or nursing homes), and one year after the stroke, 50 of the survivors (20%) lived in such accommodations. Before the stroke, 80 (21%) of the patients needed help with their personal ADL, while 90 (36%) needed help after one year. The increased need was fulfilled by relatives. Female spouses more often helped their male counterparts, and they tended to accept a heavier burden. Age, living alone, stroke severity, cognitive impairment, pre-stroke ADL dependency and depression were predictors for special housing. CONCLUSIONS: In a time when more and more stroke survivors are cared for at home, it is important to pay attention to the situation of the caregivers. Female caregivers seem to be in an especially exposed position by accepting a heavier burden.

  • 12.
    Appelros, Peter
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Stegmayr, Birgita
    Terént, Andreas
    Riks-Stroke och hur fallgropar vid tolkning av resultaten undviks: [Riks-Stroke and how to prevent pitfalls interpreting the results]2008In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 105, no 8, p. 529-533Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Riks-Stroke, the Swedish quality register for stroke care, has been in service for twelve years. The register gives a unique opportunity to compare treatment, care, and rehabilitation of stroke patients. The protocol has now been launched in its eighth version. The most important changes include that the register now also includes cases that are treated as outpatients. Also, a more robust measure of stroke severity, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) has been included. All quality registers are sensitive for selection bias. Therefore, it is important to aim at as complete case ascertainment as possible, both at baseline and at the 3-month follow-up. To analyze the comparability of quality parameters between different time points, or between different hospitals, we suggest the use of certain “base factors”, for example age, stroke severity, and number of patients included at baseline and at follow-up.From 2007, with a more robust measure of stroke severity, we are offered an instrument that facilitates comparisons. By registering outpatients, selection bias from this cause is avoided. We will also learn if outpatients have a worse long time outcome. A possible future direction is that the quality of medical follow-up is evaluated within the frames of Riks-Stroke, for example life style factors and treatment of hypertension.

  • 13.
    Appelros, Peter
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Neurology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Terent, Andreas
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Thrombolysis in acute stroke2015In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 385, no 9976, p. 1394-1394Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Arvidsson Lindvall, Mialinn
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    Appelros, Peter
    Örebro University, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Anette
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    Anderzen-Carlsson, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    Experiences of living with balance limitations after first-ever stroke2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  

    Stroke is the leading cause of serious, long-term disability among adults. Balance control after stroke may be affected due to motor impairment such as muscle weakness, spasticity and impaired sensory function and also cognitive deficits may affect balance control. The balance limitations affect walking and independence in activities of daily living. Having good balance has been described as an important factor in outdoor walking and for participation in exercises. Studies in which persons with stroke describe their experience of balance in everyday life are scarce.

    Purpose:  

    The aim of the present presentation is to describe experiences of living with balance limitations in everyday life after first-ever stroke.

    Methods:  

    Twenty persons initially agreed to participate; however, one person later declined further participation, thus giving a sample size of 19 participants (10 females and 9 men), aged between 42-92 years. The inclusion criteria were: having had a first-ever stroke and having self-reported impaired balance, unaffected speech, independence in toileting and dressing, and walking ability indoors and outdoors with or without a walking aid. A qualitative data collection through individual interviews was conducted. Data was analysed by means of an inductive content analysis covering both the manifest and the latent content of the transcribed interviews.

    Results:  

    The participants' experiences of balance and its influence in everyday life, are presented in two themes. The first theme “Feeling dizzy and unstable is a continuous challenge”, revolves around participants' descriptions of balance as a constant feeling of dizziness and unsteadiness. The second theme “Feeling trust and confidence despite dizziness and unsteadiness” is about perceived abilities and feelings of confidence about still being able to do things oneself, despite the dizziness and unsteadiness.

    Conclusion(s):  

    All participants experienced the balance limitations as a continuous challenge in everyday life, yet they also felt trust and confidence and experienced that they still managed their everyday life. In future research it would be of interest to establish which strategies can make persons with stroke feel in balance in relation to fear of falling.

    Implications:

    In physical therapy practice, the experiences of balance limitations after stroke from the person with stroke add valuable information to various assessments. By asking the person about their abilities and challenges in daily living, rehabilitation interventions can be more individualized and based on the person's actual condition and their wishes and needs.

  • 15.
    Arvidsson Lindvall, Mialinn
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    Appelros, Peter
    University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Anette
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    Anderzen-Carlsson, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    LIVING WITH BALANCE LIMITATIONS AFTER FIRST-EVER STROKE2020In: International Journal of Stroke, ISSN 1747-4930, E-ISSN 1747-4949, Vol. 15, no Suppl. 1, p. 257-257Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Stroke is the leading cause of serious, long-term disability among adults. Balance can be limited after stroke and the limitations affect walking and independence in activities of daily living. Having good balance has been described as an important factor in outdoor walking and for participation in exercises. Studies in which persons with stroke describe their experience of balance in everyday life are scarce.

    Aim: To describe experiences of living with balance limitations after first-ever stroke.

    Methods: A qualitative design, comprising interviews with 19 persons with first-ever stroke, ten women and nine men, aged between 42–92 years. Inclusion criteria were: having had a first-ever stroke and self-reported impaired balance, unaffected speech, independence in toileting and dressing, and walking ability indoors and outdoors with or without a walking aid. Data was analysed by means of an inductive content analysis covering both the manifest and the latent content of the transcribed interviews.

    Results: The results are presented in two themes illustrating the latent content of the data. “Feeling dizzy and unstable is a continuous challenge” revolves around participants’ descriptions of balance as a constant feeling of dizziness and unsteadiness. “Feeling trust and confidence despite dizziness and unsteadiness” is about perceived abilities and feelings of confidence about still being able to do things oneself, despite the dizziness and unsteadiness.

    Conclusion: All participants experienced the balance limitations as a continuous challenge in everyday life, yet they also felt trust and confidence and experienced that they still managed their everyday life.

  • 16.
    Bergh, Cecilia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Udumyan, Ruzan
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Appelros, Peter
    Department of Neurology, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Fall, Katja
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Montgomery, Scott
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Determinants in adolescence of stroke-related hospital stay duration in men: a national cohort study2016In: Stroke, ISSN 0039-2499, E-ISSN 1524-4628, Vol. 47, no 9, p. 2416-2418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose: Physical and psychological characteristics in adolescence are associated with subsequent stroke risk. Our aim is to investigate their relevance to length of hospital stay and risk of second stroke.

    Methods: Swedish men born between 1952 and 1956 (n=237 879) were followed from 1987 to 2010 using information from population-based national registers. Stress resilience, body mass index, cognitive function, physical fitness, and blood pressure were measured at compulsory military conscription examinations in late adolescence. Joint Cox proportional hazards models estimated the associations of these characteristics with long compared with short duration of stroke-related hospital stay and with second stroke compared with first.

    Results: Some 3000 men were diagnosed with nonfatal stroke between ages 31 and 58 years. Low stress resilience, underweight, and higher systolic blood pressure (per 1-mm Hg increase) during adolescence were associated with longer hospital stay (compared with shorter) in ischemic stroke, with adjusted relative hazard ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) of 1.46 (1.08-1.89), 1.41 (1.04-1.91), and 1.01 (1.00-1.02), respectively. Elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressures during adolescence were associated with longer hospital stay in men with intracerebral hemorrhage: 1.01 (1.00-1.03) and 1.02 (1.00-1.04), respectively. Among both stroke types, obesity in adolescence conferred an increased risk of second stroke: 2.06 (1.21-3.45).

    Conclusions: Some characteristics relevant to length of stroke-related hospital stay and risk of second stroke are already present in adolescence. Early lifestyle influences are of importance not only to stroke risk by middle age but also to recurrence and use of healthcare resources among stroke survivors.

  • 17.
    Bergh, Cecilia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Physiotherapy, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Udumyan, Ruzan
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Fall, Katja
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Nilsagård, Ylva
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Centre for Health Care Sciences, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Appelros, Peter
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Neurology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Montgomery, Scott
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Departnment of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK; Cinical Epidemiology Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stress resilience in male adolescents and subsequent stroke risk: cohort study2014In: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, ISSN 0022-3050, E-ISSN 1468-330X, Vol. 85, no 12, p. 1331-1336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Exposure to psychosocial stress has been identified as a possible stroke risk, but the role of stress resilience which may be relevant to chronic exposure is uncertain. We investigated the association of stress resilience in adolescence with subsequent stroke risk.

    Methods Register-based cohort study. Some 237 879 males born between 1952 and 1956 were followed from 1987 to 2010 using information from Swedish registers. Cox regression estimated the association of stress resilience with stroke, after adjustment for established stroke risk factors.

    Results Some 3411 diagnoses of first stroke were identified. Lowest stress resilience (21.8%) compared with the highest (23.7%) was associated with increased stroke risk, producing unadjusted HR (with 95% CIs) of 1.54 (1.40 to 1.70). The association attenuated slightly to 1.48 (1.34 to 1.63) after adjustment for markers of socioeconomic circumstances in childhood; and after further adjustment for markers of development and disease in adolescence (blood pressure, cognitive function and pre-existing cardiovascular disease) to 1.30 (1.18 to 1.45). The greatest reduction followed further adjustment for markers of physical fitness (BMI and physical working capacity) in adolescence to 1.16 (1.04 to 1.29). The results were consistent when stroke was subdivided into fatal, ischaemic and haemorrhagic, with higher magnitude associations for fatal rather than non-fatal, and for haemorrhagic rather than ischaemic stroke.

    Conclusions Stress susceptibility and, therefore, psychosocial stress may be implicated in the aetiology of stroke. This association may be explained, in part, by poorer physical fitness. Effective prevention might focus on behaviour/lifestyle and psychosocial stress.

  • 18.
    Jönsson, Marie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Appelros, Peter
    Department of Neurology, Orebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Carin
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Older people readmitted to hospital for acute medical care: Implications for occupational therapy2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 143-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To compare ADL, cognitive function, risk of pressure sores, malnutrition and falls in older people readmitted to hospital.

    Methods: This was a comparative study. Persons ≥ 75 years, who were readmitted to hospital, were assessed using the ADL-taxonomy and the Mini Mental State Examination. Risks of pressure sores, malnutrition and falls were assessed using Risk Assessment Pressure Sores, Short-Form Mini Nutritional Assessment and Downton Fall Risk Index. Data for comparison for ADL were obtained from an earlier study and risk assessments from a national quality register.

    Results: Sixty persons were included whose median age was 84 years. The patients had a median of four diagnoses. The mean hospital stay was five days. Most patients were independent in food intake. There was a high degree of dependency in other ADL activities. Nineteen out of 48 patients had 24 point or lower in MMSE. Compared to an age-matched sample, these patients showed a higher risk of pressure sores, risk of falls and dependency in ADL.

    Conclusion: There is of importance to assess ADL, cognition, risk of falls and pressure sores to determine the needs of older people who are admitted to hospitals. Such assessments, and necessary interventions taken, may prevent unnecessary readmissions.

  • 19.
    Jönsson, Marie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    Fredriksson, Carin
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Holmefur, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Appelros, Peter
    Close relatives ́perspectives of everyday activities for older people readmitted to hospital and discharge to home2022Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Jönsson, Marie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Holmefur, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Appelros, Peter
    Department of Neurology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Carin
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Close relatives’ perspectives of everyday activities for older adults readmitted to hospital and discharged to homeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Jönsson, Marie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Holmefur, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Appelros, Peter
    Department of Neurology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Carin
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Healthcare professionals’ perceptions on how to prevent readmission to hospital on an unplanned basis of older adultsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Matérne, Marie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    Appelros, Peter
    University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Arvidsson Lindvall, Mialinn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    STROKE SURVIVORS IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF KUMLA SWEDEN: PREVALENCE, CO-MORBIDITY, DISABILITY, SOCIAL SITUATION AND QUALITY OF LIFE2020In: International Journal of Stroke, ISSN 1747-4930, E-ISSN 1747-4949, Vol. 15, no Suppl. 1, p. 413-413Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims: About 25,000 people in Sweden suffer a stroke every year. Four-fifths of patients having a first-ever stroke are over 60 years of age. Stroke is the disease that causes the most hospital days in Sweden. The total costs of stroke have been estimated at SEK 18.3 billion per year. The aim of this study is to evaluate stroke survivors’ medical, functional and social situation, with focus on identifying possible improvements in rehabilitation, secondary prevention and social life.

    Methods: Kumla municipality in Sweden, through its mixed population, size, and location, provides an opportunity for a cross-sectional study. 274 patients living with consequences of stroke have been identified so far. Physical tests, reviews of medical records, questionnaires about demographic data, assistive technology, quality of life, fatigue and cognition will be carried through. Data will be analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression, to show relations between medical, functional and psychosocial variables. Patient´s experience of living with stroke will be examined with interviews.

    Results: Expected Results: There are few studies examining the whole population of stroke victims within an area. The results will demographically describe the patients, what rehabilitation efforts have been given, their function and activity, medical status, social situation and quality of life. The result can be used to develop rehabilitation measures and to other improvements in stroke care.

    Conclusions: Examining a whole stroke population, by including all living patients, may lead to more effective stroke rehabilitation and intervention studies focusing on stroke prevention and post-stroke rehabilitation.

  • 23.
    Matérne, Marie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. University Health Care Research Center.
    Simpson, Grahame
    John Walsh Centre of Rehabilitation Research, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; Brain Injury Rehabilitation Research Group, Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Sydney, Australia.
    Jarl, Gustav
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Appelros, Peter
    University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Arvidsson Lindvall, Mialinn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. University Health Care Research Center.
    Stroke Survivors expericence of quality of life, participation and resilience2023Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 24.
    Tavosian, Alborz
    et al.
    Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ström, Jakob O.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Neurology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Appelros, Peter
    Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Incidence of Transient ischemic Attacks in Sweden2016In: Neuroepidemiology, ISSN 0251-5350, E-ISSN 1423-0208, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 20-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Purpose: Stroke incidence may be on the decline in high-income countries. There may have been a shift from severe forms of cerebrovascular disease to less severe forms. No study regarding transient ischemic attack (TIA) incidence has been performed in Sweden since the 1980s.

    Methods: We used 2011 and 2012 data from the Swedish stroke register. A large proportion of Sweden's 72 hospitals took part in the TIA register, meaning that 63 (2011) and 66 (2012) percent of the entire population were studied.

    Results: The number of TIA-cases was 13,880. The number of first ever TIA cases was 9098, 4,675 in men, and 4,423 in women, comprising 66% of all TIAs. The crude overall IR for first ever TIA was 74 per 100,000. The age- and sex-standardized IRs were 73 per 100,000 when standardized to the European population of 2013, and 47 per 100,000 when standardized to the European population 1976.

    Conclusions: The TIA incidence in Sweden is high, and no decline is seen when compared with previous studies. Better prevention may have caused a shift from severe forms of cerebrovascular disease to less severe forms. Fordemographic reasons, the health services will most likely face an increasing number of TIA patients in the coming years.

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