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  • 1.
    Benhammou, Samira
    et al.
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Heras-González, Leticia
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Ibáñez-Peinado, Diana
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Barceló, Carla
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Hamdan, May
    Department of Human Nutrition & Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine.
    Rivas, Ana
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Food Science, University of Murcia, Campus de Lorca, Lorca, Spain.
    Olea-Serrano, Fatima
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Comparison of Mediterranean diet compliance between European and non-European populations in the Mediterranean basin2016In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 107, p. 521-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fruit, vegetables, cereals, and olive oil are common elements of the Mediterranean diet (MD), but each country in the Mediterranean basin has its own gastronomic customs influenced by socio-cultural, religious, and economic factors. This study compared the dietary habits of three Mediterranean populations with different cultures and lifestyles, a total of 600 adults (61.9% females) between 25 and 70 yrs from Spain, Morocco, and Palestine. All participants completed a self administered questionnaire, including sociodemographic and anthropometric items, a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire adapted to the foods consumed in each country, and three 24-h recalls. MD adherence was estimated with the MD Serving Score (MDSS). All populations showed a moderate adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. In comparison to the Palestine population, MDSS-assessed adherence to the MD was 6.36-fold higher in the Spanish population and 3.88-fold higher in the Moroccan population. Besides the country of origin, age was another predictive factor of MD adherence, which was greater (higher MDSS) in participants aged over 50 yrs than in those aged 30 yrs or younger. This preliminary study contributes initial data on dietary differences between European and non-European countries in the Mediterranean basin. The Spanish diet was shown to be closer to MD recommendations than the diet of Morocco or Palestine. Given the impact of good dietary habits on the prevention of chronic non-transmittable diseases, health policies should focus on adherence to a healthy diet, supporting traditional dietary patterns in an era of intense commercial pressures for change.

  • 2.
    de la Torre-Robles, Amelia
    et al.
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment – AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Rivas, Ana
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment – AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Lorenzo-Tovar, Maria Luisa
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment – AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment – AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment – AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; ood Technology, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain .
    Olea-Serrano, Fátima
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment – AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Estimation of the intake of phenol compounds from virgin olive oil of a population from southern Spain2014In: Food Additives & Contaminants, ISSN 1944-0049, E-ISSN 1944-0057, Vol. 31, no 9, p. 1460-1469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to determine the mean polyphenol composition of different varieties of virgin olive oil (VOO) habitually consumed in the region of southern Spain and to estimate the dietary exposure to olive oil polyphenols in that population. There were statistically significant differences in total polyphenols among varieties, with the Picual variety containing the largest amount with a mean value of 591.8 mg kg(-1). The main phenolic compounds found in the VOOs under study were tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol. The highest amounts of both substances were found in Picual olive oils with concentrations of 2.3-6.6 mg kg(-1). The total intake of polyphenols from VOO ranged between 8.2 mg day(-1) (SD = 4.14) for the under 19 year olds and 21.3 mg day(-1) (SD = 3) for the over 50 year olds. Some polyphenols, including tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, were consumed principally as olive oil. The intake of these compounds in the studied population was in the range of 88.5-237.4 μg day(-1). This has particular importance as recent studies have demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol helps to improve plasma lipids levels and repair oxidative damage related to cardiovascular disease. There was a greater dietary consumption of polyphenols in olive oil among the participants who more closely followed the Mediterranean diet pattern. A higher consumption of olive oil and therefore a greater exposure to polyphenols was observed in females versus males and in participants of normal weight versus those who were overweight. The total intake of polyphenols from VOO significantly increased with higher age, reflecting the greater intake of this oil by older people, who also show a closer adherence to the Mediterranean diet. The over 50-year-old age group showed the greatest consumption of this olive oil and therefore of phenolic compounds, which are healthy protectors in the human diet that contribute to the acknowledged benefits of the Mediterranean diet.

  • 3.
    García-Diz, Luis
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition I, Complutense of Madrid University, Madrid, Spain.
    Murcia, M. Antonia
    Department of Food Science, Murcia University, Murcia, Spain.
    Gris, Jose L.
    Department of Food Science, Murcia University, Murcia, Spain.
    Pons, Antoni
    Department of Biology and Health Sciences, Islas Baleares University, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Department of Food Science, Murcia University, Murcia, Spain.
    Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena
    Department of Food Science, Murcia University, Murcia, Spain.
    Jiménez-Monreal, Antonia M.
    Department of Food Science, Murcia University, Murcia, Spain.
    Assessing nutritional status of acute intermittent porphyria patients2012In: European Journal of Clinical Investigation, ISSN 0014-2972, E-ISSN 1365-2362, Vol. 42, no 9, p. 943-952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a metabolic disease of haem synthesis, whose haem precursors may accumulate in the body. A well-balanced diet may prevent the symptoms, so that porphyric patients should be monitored closely during therapy for possible complications concerning any progression of acute porphyria. The aim was to evaluate the nutritional status of patients with AIP and to assess their compliance with nutritional recommendations, comparing the findings with a control group and assessing any possible nutritional deficiency.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen patients with AIP and a control group were evaluated by means of a lifestyle questionnaire, the Nutrition Screening Initiative checklist and a dietary questionnaire. The following diet quality indicators were calculated: animal and vegetal proteins, protein quality index, PUFA/SFA and MUFA + PUFA/SFA ratios, insoluble dietary fibre (DF)/total DF, soluble DF/total DF and insoluble DF/soluble DF ratios, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin density and the vitamin B6/protein ratio.

    STATISTICAL METHODS: Differences in continuous variables were compared using the unpaired Student's t-test and the chi-square test for nonparametric variables. The odds ratio (OR) of malnutrition was also used.

    RESULTS: Our patients showed a low intake of carbohydrates, a high lipid intake and very high protein intake, and accompanied by an inadequate intake of zinc, folic acid and tocopherol, increasing the risk of malnutrition for energy, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, folic acid and tocopherols.

    CONCLUSIONS: The patients with AIP studied individually show an increased risk of malnutrition and, given the potential increase of oxidative stress in patients with porphyria, it is recommended that they should increase their intake of carbohydrates, minerals and antioxidant nutrients.

  • 4.
    Hamdan, May
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), University of Granada, Spain; An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), University of Granada, Spain.
    Lorenzo-Tovar, Maria-Luisa
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), University of Granada, Spain.
    Tur, José-Antonio
    Research Group on Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress, CIBERobn, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
    Olea-Serrano, Fatima
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), University of Granada, Spain.
    Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), University of Granada, Spain; Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Food Science, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Development and validation of a nutritional questionnaire for the Palestine population2014In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 17, no 11, p. 2512-2518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Dietary habits vary widely among regions and cultural groups, and FFQ need to be designed for specific populations. The objectives of the present study were to develop and test the repeatability and relative validity of a medium-length semi-quantitative FFQ for measuring the energy and macronutrient intakes of a specific population and to contribute a methodological framework for this procedure.

    Setting: Palestinian families in the Hebron area.

    Design: After a preliminary survey of a subgroup of homemakers using 3 d diet recall, stepwise multiple regression analysis was used for selected nutrients to choose foods for inclusion in the FFQ.

    Subjects: The FFQ was administered to a study population of 169 women representing the same number of families.

    Results: The Wilcoxon test and Bland-Altman plots were used to compare the FFQ results with the mean 3 d diet recall results. A high level of concordance was found, validating the FFQ. In this population, the mean consumption of SFA was above recommendations and the intakes of vitamin D, folic acid, Ca, Fe and K were deficient.

    Conclusions: The availability of diet assessment instruments designed for specific populations and cultures is of immense value to researchers and policy makers. The study describes a simple and effective method to develop and validate an FFQ for a given population of interest.

  • 5.
    Hernandez-Elizondo, J.
    et al.
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR255), Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR255), Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Murcia, M A
    Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Food Science, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Olea, N.
    Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Olea-Serrano, F.
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR255), Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Mariscal-Arcas, M.
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR255), Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Food Science, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Assessment of the estrogenicity of the diet of a healthy female Spanish population based on its isoflavone content2013In: Food Additives & Contaminants, ISSN 1944-0049, E-ISSN 1944-0057, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 627-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phytoestrogens are natural components of plants consumed by humans. The hormonal activity of these substances has long been known. Various in vitro tests have demonstrated the agonistic or antagonistic estrogenic activity of some phytoestrogens. The objective of this study was to estimate the supply of isoflavones in the diet of a healthy adult female population and to assess its estrogenic effect. The diet was assessed by questionnaire and the estrogenicity of the estimated isoflavone content was tested by E-screen, finding a mean total estrogenic capacity of 0.129 × 10⁻¹⁰ eq.E₂ (12.9 pmol day⁻¹), corresponding to a daily isoflavone intake of 265.8 μg day⁻¹. This study offers a preliminary insight into the phytoestrogen content of the diet of a healthy active population of Spanish women. The effects of this additional hormonal burden are highly controversial, and this approach to estimating dietary phytoestrogen intake of specific populations may help to elucidate its implications for human health.

  • 6.
    Marisca-Arcas, M.
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Caballero-Plasencia, M. L. A.
    Concejalia de Salud del Excmo, Ayuntamiento de Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Hamdan, M.
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Pardo-Vasquez, M. I.
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Olea-Serrano, F.
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Validation of questionnaires to estimate adherence to the Mediterranean diet and life habits in older individuals in Southern Spain2011In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 15, no 9, p. 739-743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the nutritional behaviour of an elderly urban population in Southern Spain, estimating their degree of adherence to the Mediterranean.

    DIET DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey, recruiting a representative sample of elderly inhabitants. The study sample comprised 260 people. The mean age was 73.60 yrs for the men and 72.25 yrs for the women. Around 70% lived with their family.

    RESULTS: The questionnaires used were first validated by using the Bland-Altman plot and the Wilcoxon test for paired samples. The degree of adherence to the Mediterranean Diet was around 50%, similar to findings in other Mediterranean populations. We highlight the mean consumption of milk and milk products (300-317 g/day) and of fruit/vegetables (250 g/day), which are slightly below recommendations. Our study subjects were all autonomous in their movements and were physically independent: 80% reported that they performed some type of physical activity.

    CONCLUSION: In this study, both adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and physical activity were considered as components of a healthy life. In summary, a majority of this elderly population was slightly overweight, considered themselves to be in good health.

  • 7.
    Mariscal-Arcas, M.
    et al.
    Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Carvajal, C.
    Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Lahtinen, J.
    Altitude Training Centre (CAR) of Sierra-Nevada, Consejo Superior de Deportes (CSD), Granada, Spain.
    Fernandez de Alba, M. C.
    Andalusian Centre of Sport Medicine (CAMD), Junta de Andalucía, San Fernando Cadiz, Spain.
    Feriche, B.
    Physical Education and Sport Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Olea-Serrano, F.
    Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Nutritional analysis of diet at base camp of a seven thousand-metre mountain in the Himalayas2010In: Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte, ISSN 1888-7546, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 127-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate the diet of a group of high-mountain climbers at 4,500 metres.

    Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on the diet of a group of high-mountain climbers at their base camp (4,500 m).

    Results: The mean intake was 11.85 MJ/day (2,833 kcal/day), which provided an inadequate supply of energy and micronutrients to replenish deposits. Their mean carbohydrate intake (39.5%) was excessively low, since carbohydrate-rich diet favours acclimatization and the capacity for recovery. Their daily intake of 1.5-2.5 g/protein/kg of bodyweight was very similar to recommendations (1.5-2.0 g/kg/day).

    Conclusions: The climbers underwent a drastic change from their habitual Mediterranean diet, rich in monounsaturated fats (largely olive oil), to a diet rich in polyunsaturated fats (largely soy oil). The Sherpa-prepared diet on this expedition was not balanced. It was rich in saturated polyunsaturated fats and relatively poor in proteins and especially carbohydrates, similar to the traditional diet of climbers. Dietary strategies need to be developed to increase the intake of nutrients that favours the physical recovery of climbers and their altitude-acclimatization and to avoid micronutrient deficiencies.

  • 8.
    Mariscal-Arcas, M.
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Palacin-Arce, A.
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Tur, J. A.
    Research Group on Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
    Fernandez de Alba, M. C.
    Andalusian Centre of Sport Medicine (CAMD), Junta de Andalucía, Spain.
    Olea-Serrano, F.
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Follow-up study of diet and nutritional and physical state of young expert Alpine skiers at a training camp2011In: Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte, ISSN 1888-7546, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 114-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine the diet, body composition and physical condition of six young Spanish skiers away from parental control and able to choose their own meals during a training stay at a Chilean ski resort.

    Methods: A protocol was developed to record diet, physical condition, training activity, and other incidences. Anthropometric measurements were taken weekly following the Spanish Sports Council protocol for the detection of sport talents. Their physical condition was examined every two weeks.

    Results: The six young Alpine skiers showed a considerably higher protein intake than recommendations and a mean percentage of energy from carbohydrates very close to the recommended percentage. The best predictor of iron status is considered to be the proportion of total protein in the diet. This proportion was considerably below recommendations. The BMI and %fat were negatively correlated with performance in flexibility, sit-ups and balance tests.

    Conclusions: The body composition of these young sportspeople influenced some physical test results. Despite the absence of parental influence, these children at this training camp freely selected a diet appropriate to their needs.

  • 9.
    Mariscal-Arcas, M.
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain.
    Rivas, A.
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain.
    Granada, A.
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain.
    Murcia, M. A.
    Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Food Science, University of Murcia, Spain.
    Olea-Serrano, F.
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain.
    Dietary exposure assessment of pregnant women to bisphenol-A from cans and microwave containers in Southern Spain2009In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 506-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), material for polycarbonate and epoxy resin synthesis, has been detected in canned food, among other food containers. In mammal studies, BPA transferred from mother to fetus, caused abnormality of reproductive organs, and advanced female puberty. BPA from canned food and microwave containers was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Population was cohort of mother-son pairs established at Granada University Hospital. Frequency of food consumption (including canned food) was studied with a semi-quantitative questionnaire. The most frequently consumed products were fish and juice cans, consumed 1-3 times/week by 34.7% and 22.3% of the study population, respectively. The women made little use of polymer microwave containers, 52.8% never using them and 45.9% using them <3 times/month. Estimated mean (standard deviation) intake of BPA was 1.1(0.839) microgram/day. No relationship was found between BPA exposure and maternal socio-demographic variables or newborn characteristics. This study offers the first estimate of BPA dietary intake by pregnant women in Southern Spain. The consumption of canned foods and drinks by these women means that their exposure was lower than EFSA estimates for the European population. Nevertheless it remains of concern, given the proven undesirable effects of low-level exposure and higher susceptibility of pregnant women.

  • 10.
    Mariscal-Arcas, M.
    et al.
    Dpt. Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Velasco, J.
    Dpt. Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Dpt. Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Caballero-Plasencia, M. A.
    Concejalia de Salud. Excmo, Ayuntamiento de Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Lorenzo-Tovar, M. L.
    Dpt. Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Olea-Serrano, F.
    Dpt. Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Comparison of methods to evaluate the quality of the Mediterranean diet in a large representative sample of young people in Southern Spain2010In: Nutrición Hospitalaria, ISSN 0212-1611, E-ISSN 1699-5198, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 1006-1013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to compare the usefulness of two methods to evaluate diet quality in young people in Southern Spain: a new Mediterranean Diet Pattern (MDP) and a modification of the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) for the Mediterranean area. The study population was 3190 schoolchildren aged 8-15 yrs. The questionnaires used were first validated (Bland-Altman plot and Wilcoxon tests) in a randomized sample. The DQI gives a more detailed evaluation of food components, whereas the MDS gives global information on food groups but includes foods characteristically consumed in the Mediterranean region. Highly similar results were obtained using the MDP and the adapted DQI-I, which appear to be equally useful to evaluate diet quality in a Mediterranean population. The fact that we selected the same types of food for both indices may explain the similar overall evaluations. According to these results, both methods appear to be equally appropriate for evaluating diet quality in a Mediterranean population.

  • 11.
    Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), University of Granada. Spain; Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Food Science, University of Murcia, Spain.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), University of Granada. Spain.
    Hernandez-Elizondo, Jessenia
    Escuela de Educación Física y Deportes, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.
    Benhammou, Samira
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), University of Granada, Spain.
    Lorenzo, M. Luisa
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), University of Granada. Spain.
    Olea-Serrano, Fatima
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), University of Granada. Spain.
    Differences in food intake and nutritional habits between Spanish adolescents who engage in ski activity and those who do not2015In: Nutrición Hospitalaria, ISSN 0212-1611, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 936-943Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Increasing obesity among adolescents in the industrialized world may result from poor nutritional habits and inadequate exercise.

    AIM: To determine differences in food intake, nutritional habits, and body mass index between Spanish adolescents who engage in ski activity and those who do not.

    METHODS: A socio-demographic survey, food frequency questionnaire, 24-hr dietary recall, and physical activity questionnaire were completed by 300 Spanish schoolchildren aged 10 to 18 yrs. RESULTS were compared (Student's t, chi-square and Fisher's exact test) between adolescents engaged (SP) and not engaged (N-SP) in skiing according to their sex.

    RESULTS: SP adolescents devoted > 4 h/day to physical activity versus < 1 h for N-SP adolescents. No significant differences were found in nutrient intake or nutritional habits between SP and N-SP adolescents. Protein and fat intakes of both groups were above recommended levels. A higher proportion of N-SP than SP males were overweight. Logistic regression analysis showed that the maintenance of a normal weight was favored by the practice of skiing, the consumption of sugar-free drinks, and supplementation with vitamins/mineral salts and was negatively associated with body weight dissatisfaction, intake of nutritional supplements other than vitamins or minerals, and the consumption of snacks.

    CONCLUSIONS: The diet of this adolescent population was poorly balanced. Engagement in physical activity appears to be a key factor in maintaining a healthy body mass index.

  • 12.
    Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain.
    Rivas, Ana
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain.
    Granada, Alicia
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain.
    Cerrillo, Isabel
    Department of Molecular Biology, Area Nutrition and Food Science, University of Sevilla, 41013 Sevilla, Spain.
    Olea-Serrano, Fatima
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain.
    Proposal of a Mediterranean diet index for pregnant women2009In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 102, no 5, p. 744-749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous studies have addressed the nutritional needs of pregnant women. The nutritional status of the woman before and during gestation affects the growth of the fetus and the course of the pregnancy and influences the risk of obesity for mother and infant. The aim of this study was to propose a diet quality index for pregnancy based on a Mediterranean-type diet (MDS-P), evaluating the diet of a group of pregnant women by applying the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and evaluating their intake of micronutrients required in optimal amounts during pregnancy, such as Fe, folic acid and Ca. The data used to construct this index (MDS-P) were gathered by means of a FFQ specifically designed for pregnant women. The mean MDS of this group, was 4.31 (sd 1.32), considered to represent satisfactory compliance with the Mediterranean diet (range 0-8). The mean MDS-P (range 0-11), which also takes account of dietary intake or supplements of folic acid, Fe and Ca was 7.53 (sd 1.44), indicating a compliance of around 70 %. The present study findings suggest that the MDS-P, which evaluates the adequacy of folic acid, Fe and Ca as well as compliance with the Mediterranean diet, may represent a valid tool for the specific assessment of the diet of pregnant women living in countries in the Mediterranean area. Further studies are required to complete the validation process.

  • 13.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences and the EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Research Group “Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment” (AGR-255), Department Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain.
    Dijkstra, S. C.
    Department of Health Sciences and the EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Visser, M.
    Department of Health Sciences and the EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Self-perception of body weight status in older Dutch adults2015In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 612-618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION:

    OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of obesity is highest in older persons and a correct self-perception of body weight status is necessary for optimal weight control. The aim of this study was to determine self-perception of, and satisfaction with, body weight status, and to compare current versus ideal body image in a large, nationally representative sample of older people. Furthermore, determinants of misperception were explored.

    DESIGN: A cross-sectional study.

    SETTING: The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA), conducted in a population-based sample in the Netherlands.

    PARTICIPANTS: 1295 men and women aged 60-96 years.

    MEASUREMENTS: Body weight status was assessed using measured weight and height. Self-perceived body weight status, satisfaction with body weight and current and ideal body image were also assessed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of age, educational level and objectively measured BMI with underestimation of body weight status.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity was 19.9% in men and 29.3% in women. The agreement between objective and self-perceived body weight status was low (Kappa < 0.2). Among overweight and obese persons, 42.1% of men and 44.1% of women were (very) dissatisfied with their body weight status and >99% of obese participants desired to be thinner (ideal body image < current image). Only 4.4% of obese men and 12.3% of obese women perceived their body weight status correctly. Higher age (women), lower educational level (men) and higher BMI (all) were associated with greater underestimation of body weight status.

    CONCLUSION: Many older persons misperceive their body weight status. Future actions to improve body weight perception in older persons are necessary to increase the impact of public health campaigns focussing on a healthy body weight in old age.

  • 14.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja s/n, Granada, Spain.
    Mariscal-Arcas, M.
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja s/n, Granada, Spain; School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts and Meal Science, Örebro University, Grythyttan, Sweden; Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Food Science, University of Murcia, Campus de Lorca, Lorca, Spain.
    Heras-Gonzalez, L.
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja s/n, Granada, Spain.
    Ibañez-Peinado, D.
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja s/n, Granada, Spain.
    Rivas, A.
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja s/n, Granada, Spain.
    Olea-Serrano, F.
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja s/n, Granada, Spain.
    Effects of maternal diet and environmental exposure to organochlorine pesticides on newborn weight in Southern Spain2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 156, p. 135-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An appropriate eating pattern is essential during childbearing years and pregnancy to ensure a healthy pregnancy and newborn. Our group developed a Mediterranean Diet Score for Pregnancy (MDS-P) based on the MD and the specific need of pregnant women for Fe, Ca, and folic acid. Humans are daily exposed to endocrine disruptors, which may alter body weight and hormone system regulation. This study analyzed the relationship of maternal diet and in utero exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with newborn weight in mothers and newborns from Southern Spain. Higher MDS-P score, folic acid supplementation, and greater in utero exposure to endosulfan-diol and endosulfan-1 were related to higher newborn weight. MDS-P score was not associated with maternal weight gain during pregnancy (above or below 12 Kg). Residues from one or more OCPs were detected in 96.5% of umbilical cord serum samples from 320 newborns. The most frequent residues were endosulfans (96.5%). The presence of endosulfan-diol, endosulfan-I, p-p´DDT, folic acid supplementation, and a higher MDS-P (>8) were predictive factors for newborn overweight (>3500 g). Conversely, smoking during pregnancy, shorter gestation time (32-36 vs. 37-39 weeks), and lesser maternal weight gain during pregnancy predicted lower newborn weight (<2500 g). These results indicate prenatal exposure to OCPs in Southern Spain and its possible impact on the weight of healthy full-term newborns. Further studies are warranted to interpret the consequences of this exposure and identify preventive measures. Adherence to the MD and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy emerged as predictive factors for overweight in newborns.

  • 15.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    et al.
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), Department Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain.
    Mariscal-Arcas, M.
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), Department Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain; Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Food Science, University of Murcia, Spain.
    Palacin, A.
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), Department Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain.
    Lopez, M.
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), Department Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain.
    Lorenzo, M. L.
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), Department Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain.
    Olea-Serrano, F.
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), Department Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain.
    Estimation of dietary folic acid intake in three generations of females in Southern Spain2013In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 67, p. 114-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An adequate folic acid intake has been related to female fertility. The recommended intake of this vitamin was recently increased to 400μg/day, with an additional 200μg/day during pregnancy. The Mediterranean Diet includes sources of folate such as pulses, green-leaf vegetables, fruit, cereals, and dried fruits; other foods of interest are liver and blue fish. The objectives were to determine the foods that contribute most to folate intake and analyze the factors that influence their consumption by three generations in a female population (n=898; age, 10-75yrs) from Southern Spain: 230 adolescents (10-16yrs), 296 healthy pregnant women (19-45yrs), and 372 menopausal women (>45yrs). Participants completed a previously validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Over 90% of their folate intake was supplied by cereals, fruit, natural juice, pulses, and cooked and raw vegetables. The mean (SD) daily intake of folate was 288.27(63.64) μg. A higher Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was significantly related to a greater folate intake. The daily folate intake was not significantly influenced by educational level, number of children, or place of residence (rural vs. urban). In logistic regression analysis, the factors related to an adequate folate intake (>2/3 of recommendations) were higher age, higher MDS, and lower BMI.

  • 16.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    et al.
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja s/n, 18071, Granada, Spain.
    Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel
    Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Food Science, University of Murcia, Campus de Lorca, Lorca, Spain.
    Rivas, Ana
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja s/n, 18071, Granada, Spain.
    Lorenzo-Tovar, María Luisa
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja s/n, 18071, Granada, Spain.
    Tur, Josep A.
    Research Group on Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress, University of Balearic Islands & CIBEROBN (Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition), E-07122, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
    Olea-Serrano, Fátima
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja s/n, 18071, Granada, Spain.
    Proposal of a mediterranean diet serving score2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 6, article id e0128594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD) adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS) is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%). The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69) and was significantly higher with older age (p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed highest MD adherence by over 60-year-olds with low BMI and no habit of eating between meals.

    CONCLUSIONS: The MDSS is an updated, easy, valid, and accurate instrument to assess MD adherence based on the consumption of foods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations.

  • 17.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja s/n, E-18071 Granada, Spain.
    Palacín-Arce, Alba
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja s/n, E-18071 Granada, Spain.
    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar
    Research Group on Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
    Pons, Antoni
    Research Group on Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
    Tur, Josep A.
    Research Group on Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
    Olea-Serrano, Fatima
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja s/n, E-18071 Granada, Spain.
    Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja s/n, E-18071 Granada, Spain.
    Proposal for a Breakfast Quality Index (BQI) for children and adolescents2013In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 639-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To propose and apply an instrument to assess the breakfast quality of children and adolescents in the Mediterranean area.

    DESIGN: Randomized, cross-sectional survey of breakfast consumption using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ administered at school by trained dietitians between Tuesday and Friday. A Breakfast Quality Index (BQI) score was developed, assigning a positive value to the consumption of cereals, fruit, vegetables, dairy products, MUFA, Ca and compliance with energy recommendations, and to the absence of SFA and trans-rich fats. Data were analysed by Student's t test and ANOVA.

    SETTING: Schools in Granada and Balearic Islands (Spain).

    SUBJECTS: All schoolchildren (n 4332) aged 8-17 years at randomly selected and representative schools between 2006 and 2008, stratified by age and sex.

    RESULTS: Breakfast was not consumed by 6·5 % of participants. BQI score was highest for children aged 7-9 years and decreased with age (P = 0·001). Females scored higher in all age groups. The lowest score was in males aged 14-17 years and the highest in females aged 7-9 years (P = 0·006).

    CONCLUSIONS: The proposed BQI appears useful to estimate the breakfast quality of schoolchildren and to form a basis for nutrition education.

  • 18.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment-AGR255, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Scander, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Nilsen, Bente
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Folate intake in a Swedish adult population: Food sources and predictive factors2017In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 61, article id 1328960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Folate plays an important role in cell metabolism, but international studies show that intake is currently below recommendations, especially among women. The study objective was to identify folate food sources by food group, gender, and age group, and to identify factors influencing folate intake, based on food consumption data for Swedish adults in the 2010-11 Riksmaten study.

    Methods: The sample included a representative Swedish population aged 18-80 years (n = 1657; 56.3% female). Food and nutrient intakes were estimated from self-reported food records during 4 consecutive days. Food consumption was categorized into 26 food groups. Stepwise regression was used to analyze food groups as folate sources for participants. Factors predicting the highest folate intake (third tertile) were determined by logistic regression analysis.

    Results: Vegetables and pulses represented the most important folate source for all age groups and both genders, especially in women aged 45-64 years (49.7% of total folate intake). The next folate source in importance was dairy products for the youngest group (18-30 years), bread for men, and fruit and berries for women. The likelihood of being in the highest tertile of folate intake (odds ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval 1.354-2.104) was higher for men. Influencing factors for folate intake in the highest tertile were low body mass index and high educational level in the men, and high educational level, vegetarian diet, organic product consumption, nonsmoking, and alcohol consumption within recommendations in the women.

    Conclusion: This study describes the folate intake per food group of Swedish adults according to the 2010-11 Riksmaten survey, identifying vegetables and pulses as the most important source. Data obtained on factors related to folate consumption may be useful for the development of specific nutrition education programs to increase the intake of this vitamin in high-risk groups.

  • 19.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), University of Granada, Spain.
    Téllez, Francisco
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), University of Granada, Spain.
    Heras-González, Leticia
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), University of Granada, Spain.
    Ibañez-Peinado, Diana
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), University of Granada, Spain.
    Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), University of Granada, Spain; Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Food Science, University of Murcia, Spain.
    Olea-Serrano, Fatima
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment (AGR-255), University of Granada, Spain.
    School dietary habits and incidence of dental caries2015In: Nutrición Hospitalaria, ISSN 0212-1611, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 383-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: healthy dietary habits are considered to improve oral health and tooth quality. Caries treatment comprises tooth restoration with dental composites and sealants, almost all (> 90%) of which contain bisphenol A (BPA). Study hypotheses were: a) breakfast and oral hygiene habits are important factors in dental caries development; and b) dental caries treatment with epoxy-resins entails a risk of oral exposure to monomers migrating from the polymeric material. We evaluated caries in the teeth of a Spanish school population and determined the percentage treated with dental composites.

    OBJECTIVE: to relate consumption of breakfast components and oral hygiene habits to dental caries and determine the presence of sealants/composites as potential sources of BPA exposure.

    METHODS: subjects: 582 schoolchildren from Granada city (Southern Spain) aged 7 yrs; mean (SD) of 7.55 (0.64) yrs.

    RESULTS: caries was detected in 21.7% of their teeth. Mean breakfast quality index (BQI) score, based on nutritional questionnaires, was 5.18 (1.29). Breakfast with foods rich in simple sugars representing > 5% of total daily energy was consumed by 24% of the population and was significantly associated with caries frequency in binary logistic regression analysis. Biscuit consumption was reported by 35.8% and significantly associated with caries frequency. Breakfast intake of bakery products/ cereals and of dairy products showed a significant inverse association with caries frequency. No significant relationship was observed between caries and BQI score or oral hygiene factors.

    CONCLUSION: further research is required to elucidate the role of diet in caries and the associated risk of exposure to estrogenic xenobiotics such as BPA.

  • 20.
    Monteagudo-Sánchez, Celia
    et al.
    Grupo de Investigación Nutrición, Dieta y Exposición de Riesgos (AGR-255), Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología, Universidad de Granada, Spain .
    Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel
    Grupo de Investigación Nutrición, Dieta y Exposición de Riesgos (AGR-255), Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología, Universidad de Granada, Spain .
    Palacin-Arce, Alba
    Grupo de Investigación Nutrición, Dieta y Exposición de Riesgos (AGR-255), Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología, Universidad de Granada, Spain .
    López-López, Miriam
    Grupo de Investigación Nutrición, Dieta y Exposición de Riesgos (AGR-255), Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología, Universidad de Granada, Spain .
    Olea-Serrano, Fátima
    Grupo de Investigación Nutrición, Dieta y Exposición de Riesgos (AGR-255), Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología, Universidad de Granada, Spain .
    Study of diet and compliance with healthy dietary patterns of children in Southern Spain2012In: Revista Española de Nutrición Comunitaria, ISSN 1135-3074, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 84-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social changes over the past few years have altered conventional consumption patterns, which translates into a lack of adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD). The objective of this study was to validate two methods for the estimation of energy and nutrient intake (24-h recall and food frequency questionnaire [FFQ]) and to estimate the energy and nutrient intake and degree of adherence to the MD of children in school age.

    Methods: The study population comprised 847 children aged between 8 and 10 years from school centers in Southern Spain. The questionnaires were validated using the Bland and Altman concordance test and Wilcoxon’s test. Adherence to the MD was estimated with the Mediterranean Diet Pattern (MDP) index.

    Results: There was concordance between the methods. The energy intake was slightly above recommendations and the macronutrient distribution was unbalanced (p<0.05). Intakes of iodine and folic acid were inadequate. Adherence to the MDP was 46.78 (15.27%) and was higher in public centers.

    Conclusion: The diet followed by the youngest population groups diverges from healthy patterns, such as the MD. It is necessary to develop and apply nutrition education programs to promote eating habits that help achieve an optimal state of health in subsequent years.

  • 21.
    Nilsen, Bente B.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo and Akershus University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Tellström, Richard
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Scander, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Werner, Bo
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts and Meal Sciences, Örebro University, Grythyttan, Sweden.
    Reported habitual intake of breakfast and selected foods in relation to overweight status among seven-to nine-year-old Swedish children2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 886-894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the reported frequency of breakfast intake and selected food and beverages in the investigated group of Swedish children in comparison with recommended intakes. Furthermore, the study analyses these food habits and some demographic and lifestyle factors in relation to overweight and obesity.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study builds on data collected in 2008 and 2010. Measured anthropometric data and parent questionnaire data were collected. A total of 2620 Swedish children (52.1% boys) aged seven to nine years were included.

    Results: The majority of parents reported that their children (95.4%) had breakfast every day. The majority of children had fresh fruit (84.7%) and vegetables (83.9%) most days a week. Only 1.6% of the children were reported to have fast food and 6.0% to have sugar containing soft drinks, four days a week or more. The prevalence of overweight including obesity (OW/OB) was 17.8% for boys, 18.6% for girls. The odds of being OW/OB was higher among those not having breakfast every day (odds ratio (OR) 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-2.96), drinking diet soft drink (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.52-4.42) and skimmed/semi-skimmed milk (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.37-2.36) four days a week or more. Parents being overweight and having low education levels were also related to a higher risk of their children being overweight.

    Conclusions: The parental reports of children's food habits pointed at favourable eating patterns for most investigated children. Breakfast skipping, diet soft drinks and low-fat milk consumption were more frequent among OW/OB children. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the causal relationships.

  • 22.
    Palacin-Arce, A.
    et al.
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment-AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Mariscal-Arcas, M.
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment-AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; Food Technology Department, Nutrition and Food Science, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment-AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Fernandez de Alba-Sanchez, M. C.
    Andalusian Centre of Sport Medicine (CAMD), Junta de Andalucía, Spain.
    Gomez-Puerto, J. R.
    Andalusian Centre of Sport Medicine (CAMD), Junta de Andalucía, Spain.
    Ruiz-Verdeja, C.
    Andalusian Centre of Sport Medicine (CAMD), Junta de Andalucía, Spain.
    Beas-Jimenez, J. D.
    Andalusian Centre of Sport Medicine (CAMD), Junta de Andalucía, Spain.
    Olea-Serrano, F.
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment-AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Analysis of the drinks that contribute to the hydration of andalusian sportspeople2013In: Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte, ISSN 1888-7546, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 12-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. To estimate the water balance in a healthy population of sportspeople from Southern Spain and determine the sources of their fluid intake, evaluating the contribution of different types of drink and comparing the results by sex and province of residence.

    Methods. Three hundred eighty-six sportspeople (231 males, 152 females) were enrolled in the study. A questionnaire was administered to calculate nutrient intake through diet and physical activity, and anthropometric measures were taken according to ISAK standards. SPSS-15 was used for data analyses.

    Results. Fruit juice, tap water, bottled water, processed fruit juice, carbonated drinks, and isotonic drinks comprised 96% of the total water intake. Simple sugar consumption represented 4.44% of daily calorie intake. Significant differences were found between sexes and between professionals and amateurs. The amount of drinks consumed varied as a function of the quality of the drinking water, which significantly differed among the eight Andalusian provinces.

    Conclusion. This study population did not fully meet fluid intake recommendations, compliance with hydration recommendations varied as a function of the sex and the amateur or professional status of these sportspeople. The pattern of drinks consumption also differed according to their place of residence.

  • 23.
    Palacin-Arce, Alba
    et al.
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment-AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment-AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Beas-Jimenez, Juan de Dios
    Andalusian Centre of Sport Medicine (CAMD), Junta de Andalucía, Spain.
    Olea-Serrano, Fatima
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment-AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment-AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; Andalusian Centre of Sport Medicine (CAMD), Junta de Andalucía, Spain; Food Technology, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Proposal of a nutritional quality index (NQI) to evaluate the nutritional supplementation of sportspeople2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, article id e0125630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Numerous supplements are used by sportspeople. They are not always appropriate for the individual or the sports activity and may do more harm than good. Vitamin and mineral supplements are unnecessary if the energy intake is sufficient to maintain body weight and derives from a diet with an adequate variety of foods. The study objectives were to evaluate the main nutrients used as supplements in sports and to propose a nutritional quality index (NQI) that enables sportspeople to optimize their use of supplements and detect and remedy possible nutritional deficits.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A nutritional study was performed in 485 sportspeople recruited from Centros Andaluces de Medicina del Deporte, (CAMD). All completed socio-demographic, food frequency, and lifestyle questionnaires. The nutritional quality of their diet and need for supplementation were evaluated by scoring their dietary intake with and without supplementation, yielding two NQI scores (scales of 0-21 points) for each participant.

    RESULTS: A superior mean NQI score was obtained when the supplements taken by participants were not included (16. 28 (SD of 3.52)) than when they were included (15.47 (SD: 3.08)), attributable to an excessive intake of some nutrients through supplementation.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that sportspeople with a varied and balanced diet do not need supplements, which appear to offer no performance benefits and may pose a health risk.

  • 24.
    Rivas, A.
    et al.
    Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología, Universidad de Granada, España.
    Romero, A
    Unidad de Aparato Locomotor, Hospital General Básico de Baza, Granada, España.
    Mariscal, M.
    Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología, Universidad de Granada, España.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Departamento de Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología, Universidad de Granada, Españay Bromatología. Universidad de Granada. España..
    Hernández, J.
    Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología, Universidad de Granada, España.
    Olea-Serrano, F.
    Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología, Universidad de Granada, España.
    Validation of questionnaires for the study of food habits and bone mass2009In: Nutrición Hospitalaria, ISSN 0212-1611, E-ISSN 1699-5198, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 521-528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The loss of bone mass and density is influenced by nutritional factors that act on the bone mass peak, age-related bone loss and muscle strength. The objective of the present study was to validate a food frequency questionnaire applied to estimate the relationship between food habits and bone mineral density (BMD) in a healthy adult population.

    METHODS: The results of the food frequency questionnaire were compared with 24-hr recall findings. Calcaneus BMD was measured by densitometry.

    RESULTS: The validity of the questionnaire was demonstrated, with Spearman correlation coefficients of 0.014 to 0.467. The Bland-Altman test also found no differences in study variables between the two methods. Correlation analysis showed that the BMD was significantly associated with the intake of vitamin D, vitamin A, vitamin B12, folate, thiamine and iron. Total fat consumption was not associated with BMD but the intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, EPA, DHA and cholesterol showed a significant correlation.

    CONCLUSION: The questionnaire evaluates the consumption of energy and nutrients with adequate validity. Its application revealed the importance for bone health of a diet rich in B-group vitamins, vitamin D, calcium, iron, monounsaturated fatty acids and n-3.

  • 25.
    Rivas, A.
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science. Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada. Granada. Spain.
    Romero, A.
    Department of Rheumatology, Jaén Hospital Complex, Jaén, Spain.
    Mariscal-Arcas, M.
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    López, G.
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Lorenzo, ML
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Ocaña-Peinado, F M
    Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Olea-Serrano, F.
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Association between dietary antioxidant quality score (DAQs) and bone mineral density in Spanish women2012In: Nutrición Hospitalaria, ISSN 0212-1611, E-ISSN 1699-5198, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 1886-1893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence suggest a tight association between oxidative stress and the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in humans. The intake of antioxidants may influence Bone Mineral Density by acting as free radical scavengers, preventing oxidation-induced damage to bone cells.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the association between the Dietary Antioxidant Quality Score and bone mineral density in a sample of healthy women.

    METHODS: A total of 280 women were grouped into three major groups: women aged ≤ 35 years; women aged 36-45, and finally women aged >45 years. Calcaneous Bone Mineral Density (g/cm²) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Data on the eating habits of each participant were collected with a structured 24-hour diet recall questionnaire. A Dietary Antioxidant Quality Score was used to calculate antioxidant-nutrient intake.

    RESULTS: A significant and positive association was observed among Bone Mineral Density and dietary intake of vitamin C and selenium. Zinc intake was significantly related to Bone Mineral Density in the youngest group. Low antioxidant consumers were considered individuals whose Dietary Antioxidant Quality Score was lower or equal than the median (3.5), and high antioxidant consumers were those whose Dietary Antioxidant Quality Score were higher than 3.5. Bone Mineral Density was higher in the participants defined as high antioxidant consumers in all aged groups.

    CONCLUSION: The study showed that there is an association between Bone Mineral Density and the Dietary Antioxidant Quality Score in all the women studied. Therefore, new therapies for osteoporosis based on higher dietary antioxidant intakes might be developed basing on the results obtained in this study.

  • 26.
    Rivas, Ana
    et al.
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment-AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja s/n, Granada, Spain.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment-AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja s/n, Granada, Spain.
    Heras-Gonzalez, Leticia
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment-AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja s/n, Granada, Spain.
    Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment-AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja s/n, Granada, Spain; Food Technology, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Murcia, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, Murcia, Spain.
    Lorenzo-Tovar, Maria Luisa
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment-AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja s/n, Granada, Spain.
    Olea-Serrano, Fátima
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment-AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja s/n, Granada, Spain.
    Association of bisphenol A exposure with dietary quality indices in Spanish schoolchildren2016In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 94, p. 25-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Young children, whose growth and development are highly dependent on the endocrine system, are particularly vulnerable to endocrine disruptor exposure. The main objectives of this study were to measure BPA migration levels from cans, fruit juice bottles/packs, and microwave containers used for food/drinks consumed by a sample of 6- to 8-year old schoolchildren in Spain and to estimate the relationship between their resulting BPA exposure and diet quality index scores (Mediterranean Diet Score and Breakfast Quality Index). The mean BPA concentration was 11.8 ng/mL for vegetable cans, 22.1 ng/mL for pulse cans, 3.6 ng/mL for juice bottles/packs, and 1.2 ng/mL for microwave containers. Results revealed a significant association between the Mediterranean Diet Score and low BPA exposure of the children. BPA exposure below the median level was significantly associated with a higher score in both the first-grade (P = 0.030) and second-grade (p = 0.0001) groups. However, no association was found between BPA exposure and the Breakfast Quality Index. In conclusion, children with a stronger adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet appear to be less exposed to BPA migrating from food packaging and microwave containers. Further research is warranted on the inadvertent exposure of children to endocrinedisrupting chemicals from these sources.

  • 27.
    Rivas, Ana
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Romero, Antonio
    Department of Rheumatology, Jaén Hospital Complex, Jaen, Spain.
    Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Feriche, Belen
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Lorenzo, Maria Luisa
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Olea, Fatima
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Mediterranean diet and bone mineral density in two age groups of women2013In: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, ISSN 0963-7486, E-ISSN 1465-3478, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 155-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We hypothesized that adherence to the Mediterranean diet measured as a Mediterranean diet score (MDS) has a beneficial effect on bone mineral density (BMD). For the purposes of this study, a sample of healthy women from Southern Spain was chosen. Subjects were grouped into two major groups: a first group consisted of women of reproductive age (premenopausal, pre-M) and a second group consisted of postmenopausal women (pos-M). The consumption of vegetables and fruit was found to be significantly related to BMD in both groups of subjects studied. In the pre-M group, the lipid ratio was positively associated with BMD and in pos-M women nuts intake was also associated with BMD. After implementing the analysis of covariance analysis, significant linear trends between the MDS and BMD were observed in all subjects studied. Our results indicate that a varied diet based on Mediterranean diet patterns may be beneficial in the prevention of osteoporosis.

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