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  • 1.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    et al.
    Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan; Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), China.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), China.
    Ebinghaus, Ralf
    Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Distribution of polyfluoroalkyl compounds in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment from Tokyo Bay, Japan2010Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 79, nr 3, s. 266-272Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the environmental behaviour and fate of polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) found in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment. The sampling of the sediment was performed at two stations from Tokyo Bay, Japan, in 2008. In addition, a depth profile of seawater was collected at three water layers from both sampling stations. The ∑PFC concentrations ranged from 16.7 to 42.3 ng L-1 in the water column, from 6.4 to 15.1 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) in the SPM fraction and from 0.29 to 0.36 dw in surface sediment. The distribution of PFCs was found to depend on their physicochemical characteristics. While short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (C < 7) were exclusively detected in the dissolved phase, longer-chain PFCAs (C ≥ 7), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (EtFOSAA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) appeared to bind more strongly to particles. Results showed that the sorption of PFCs on SPM increases by 0.52-0.75 log units for each additional CF2 moiety and that the sorption of PFSAs was 0.71-0.76 log units higher compared to the PFCA analogs. In addition, the sorption of PFCs was influenced by the organic carbon content. These data are essential for modelling the transport and environmental fate of PFCs.

  • 2.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    et al.
    Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany; Institute for Ecology and Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Lüneburg, Germany.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Horii, Yuichi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Ebinghaus, Ralf
    Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Partitioning Behavior of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds between Pore Water and Sediment in Two Sediment Cores from Tokyo Bay, Japan2009Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, nr 18, s. 6969-6975Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The partitioning behavior of per- and polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) between pore water and sediment in two sediment cores collected from Tokyo Bay, Japan, was investigated. In addition, the fluxes and temporal trends in one dated sediment core were studied. Short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (C ≤ 7) were found exclusively in pore water, while long-chain PFCAs (C ≥ 11) were found only in sediment. The perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), n-ethylperfluoro-1-octanesulfonamidoacetic acid (N-EtFOSAA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) seemed to bind more strongly to sediment than PFCAs. The enrichment of PFCs on sediment increased with increasing organic matter and decreasing pH. The perfluorocarbon chain length and functional group were identified as the dominating parameters that had an influence on the partitioning behavior of the PFCs in sediment. The maximum ΣPFC contamination in sediment was observed in 2001-2002 to be a flux of 197 pg cm-2 yr-1. Statistically significant increased concentrations in Tokyo Bay were found for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) (1956-2008), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (1990-2008), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (1990-2008). Concentrations of PFOSA and N-EtFOSAA increased between 1985 and 2001, but after 2001, the concentration decreased significantly, which corresponded with the phase out of perfluorooctyl sulfonyl fluoride-based compounds by the 3M Company in 2000.

  • 3.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    et al.
    Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Institute of Coastal Research, Department for Environmental Chemistry, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Partitioning of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) between water and sediment2011Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 85, nr 5, s. 731-737Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory partitioning experiments were conducted to elucidate the sorption behaviour and partitioning of perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs). Three different sediment types were used and separately spiked with perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) at low environmentally realistic concentrations. PFOA, PFOS and PFOSA were mainly distributed in the dissolved phase at low suspended solid concentrations, indicating their long-range transport potential in the marine environment. In all cases, the equilibrium isotherms were linear and the organic carbon normalised partition coefficients (K OC) decreased in the following order: PFOSA (log K OC=4.1±0.35cm 3g -1)>PFOS (3.7±0.56cm 3g -1)>PFOA (2.4±0.12cm 3g -1). The level of organic content had a significant influence on the partitioning. For the sediment with negligible organic content the density of the sediment became the most important factor influencing the partitioning. Ultimately, data on the partitioning of PFCs between aqueous media and suspended solids are essential for modelling their transport and environmental fate.

  • 4.
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    et al.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Canada.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, China.
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Canada.
    Perfluorinated Acid Isomer Profiling in Water and Quantitative Assessment of Manufacturing Source2010Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, nr 23, s. 9049-9054Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for isomer profiling of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in water was developed and applied to quantitatively assess the contributions from electrochemical (ECF) and telomer manufacturing processes around source regions of North America, Asia, and Europe. With the exception of 3 sites in Japan, over 80% of total perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, C7F15COO -) was from ECF, with the balance attributable to strictly linear (presumably telomer) manufacturing source(s). Comparing PFOA isomer profiles in samples from China, with PFOA obtained from a local Chinese manufacturer, indicated <3% difference in overall branched isomer content; thus, exclusive contribution from local ECF production cannot be ruled out. In Tokyo Bay, ECF, linear-telomer, and isopropyl-telomer sources contributed to 33%, 53%, and 14% of total PFOA, respectively. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, C 8F17SO3-) isomer profiles were enriched in branched content (i.e., >50% branched) in the Mississippi River but in all other locations were similar or only slightly enriched in branched content relative to historical ECF PFOS. Isomer profiles of other PFCs are also reported. Overall, these data suggest that, with the exception of Tokyo Bay, ECF manufacturing has contributed to the bulk of contamination around these source regions, but other sources are significant, and remote sites should be monitored.

  • 5.
    Binnington, Matthew J
    et al.
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada.
    Lei, Ying D
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada.
    Pokiak, Lucky
    Tuktoyaktuk Hunters and Trappers Committee, Tuktoyaktuk, Canada.
    Pokiak, James
    Tuktoyaktuk Hunters and Trappers Committee, Tuktoyaktuk, Canada.
    Ostertag, Sonja K
    Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Loseto, Lisa L
    Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Chan, Hing M
    Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada .
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada .
    Huang, Haiyong
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada .
    Wania, Frank
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada .
    Effects of preparation on nutrient and environmental contaminant levels in Arctic beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) traditional foods2017Inngår i: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 19, nr 8, s. 1000-1015Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For Canadian Arctic indigenous populations, marine mammal (MM) traditional foods (TFs) represent sources of both important nutrients and hazardous environmental contaminants. Food preparation is known to impact the nutrient and environmental contaminant content of processed items, yet the impacts of preparation on indigenous Arctic MM TFs remain poorly characterized. In order to determine how the various processes involved in preparing beluga blubber TFs affect their levels of nutrients and environmental contaminants, we collected blubber samples from 2 male beluga whales, aged 24 and 37 years, captured during the 2014 summer hunting season in Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories, and processed them according to local TF preparation methods. We measured the levels of select nutrients [selenium (Se), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)] and contaminants [organochlorine pesticides, perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mercury (Hg)] in raw and prepared (boiled, roasted, aged) beluga blubber TFs. The impacts of beluga blubber TF preparation methods on nutrient and environmental contaminant levels were inconsistent, as the majority of processes either did not appear to influence concentrations or affected the two belugas differently. However, roasting and ageing beluga blubber consistently impacted certain compounds: roasting blubber increased concentrations of hydrophilic substances (Se and certain PFASs) through solvent depletion and deposited PAHs from cookfire smoke. The solid-liquid phase separation involved in ageing blubber depleted hydrophilic elements (Se, Hg) and some ionogenic PFASs from the lipid-rich liquid oil phase, while PUFA levels appeared to increase, and hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants were retained. Ageing blubber adjacent to in-use smokehouses also resulted in considerable PAH deposition to processed samples. Our findings demonstrated that contaminant concentration differences were greater between the two sets of whale samples, based on age differences, than they were within each set of whale samples, due to variable preparation methods. When considering means to minimize human contaminant exposure while maximizing nutrient intake, consumption of aged liquid from younger male whales would be preferred, based on possible PUFA enhancement and selective depletion of hydrophilic environmental contaminants in this food item.

  • 6.
    Björnsdotter, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ultra-Short-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Acids Including Trifluoromethane Sulfonic Acid in Water Connected to Known and Suspected Point Sources in Sweden2019Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, nr 19, s. 11093-11101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Data presenting the environmental occurrence of ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are scarce and little is known about the potential sources. In this study, ultra-short-chain PFAAs were analyzed in water connected to potential point sources using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Samples (n = 34) were collected in connection with firefighting training sites, landfills, and a hazardous waste management facility. Ultra-short-chain PFAAs were detected in all samples at concentrations up to 84 000 ng/L (∑C1-C3), representing up to 69% of the concentration of 29 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), perfluoropropanoic acid (PFPrA), trifluoromethane sulfonic acid (TFMS), perfluoroethane sulfonic acid (PFEtS), and perfluoropropane sulfonic acid (PFPrS) were detected at concentrations up to 14 000, 53 000, 940, 1700, and 15 000 ng/L, respectively. Principal component analysis suggests that TFA is associated with landfills. PFPrS was associated with samples collected close to the source at all types of sites included in this study. These findings reveal the presence of high concentrations of ultra-short-chain PFAAs released into the environment from various sources and emphasize the large fraction of ultra-short-chain PFAAs to the total concentration of PFASs in water.

  • 7.
    Choi, Nicola M. C.
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Siu, William H. L.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    So, Iris M. K.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Jack, Ralph W.
    Department of Microbiology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Hsieh, Dennis P. H.
    Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Wu, Rudolf S. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Relationships between tissue concentrations of paralytic shellfish toxins and antioxidative responses of clams, Ruditapes philippinarum2006Inngår i: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 572-578Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Deng, Jun
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China; Graduate School, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yu, Liqin
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China; Graduate School, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Chunsheng
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Yu, Ke
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Shi, Xiongjie
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, HK SAR, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, HK SAR, China.
    Wu, Rudolf S. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, HK SAR, China.
    Zhou, Bingsheng
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Hexabromocyclododecane-induced developmental toxicity and apoptosis in zebrafish embryos2009Inngår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 93, nr 1, s. 29-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is widely used as a brominated flame retardant, and has been detected in the aquatic environment, wild animals, and humans. However, details of the environmental health risk of HBCD are not well known. In this study, zebrafish embryos were used to assess the developmental toxicity of the chemical. Four-hour post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos were exposed to various concentrations of HBCD (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg L-1) until 96 h. Exposure to 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg L-1 HBCD significantly increased the malformation rate and reduced survival in the 0.5 and 1.0 mg L-1 HBCD exposure groups. Acridine orange (AO) staining showed that HBCD exposure resulted in cell apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was significantly induced at exposures of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg L-1 HBCD. To test the apoptotic pathway, several genes related to cell apoptosis, such as p53, Puma, Apaf-1, caspase-9, and caspase-3, were examined using real-time PCR. The expression patterns of these genes were up-regulated to some extent. Two anti-apoptotic genes, Mdm2 (antagonist of p53) and Bcl-2 (inhibitor of Bax), were down-regulated, and the activity of capspase-9 and caspase-3 was significantly increased. The overall results demonstrate that waterborne HBCD is able to produce oxidative stress and induce apoptosis through the involvement of caspases in zebrafish embryos. The results also indicate that zebrafish embryos can serve as a reliable model for the developmental toxicity of HBCD.

  • 9.
    Ding, Ling
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Murphy, Margaret B.
    Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    He, Yuhe
    Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Xu, Yan
    Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Wang, Jingxian
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Zhou, Bingsheng
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Wu, Rudolf S. S.
    Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Giesy, John P.
    Department of Zoology, Institute for Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States.
    Effects of brominated flame retardants and brominated dioxins on steroidogenesis in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line2007Inngår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 764-772Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and brominated dioxins are emerging persistent organic pollutants that are ubiquitous in the environment and can be accumulated by wildlife and humans. These chemicals can disturb endocrine function. Recent studies have demonstrated that one of the mechanisms of endocrine disruption by chemicals is modulation of steroidogenic gene expression or enzyme activities. In this study, an in vitro assay based on the H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line, which possesses most key genes or enzymes involved in steroidogenesis, was used to examine the effects of five bromophenols, two polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs 77 and 169), 2,3,7,8-tetrabromodibenzo-p-dioxin, and 2,3,7,8-tetrabromodibenzofuran on the expression of 10 key steroidogenic genes. The H295R cells were exposed to various BFR concentrations for 48 h, and the expression of specific genes - cytochrome P450 (CYP11A, CYP11B2, CYP17, CYP19, and CYP21), 3β- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD2), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17βHSD1 and 17βHSD4), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) - was quantitatively measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell viability was not affected at the doses tested. Most of the genes were either up- or down-regulated, to some extent, by BFR exposure. Among the genes tested, 3βHSD2 was the most markedly up-regulated, with a range of magnitude from 1.6- to 20-fold. The results demonstrate that bromophenol, bromobiphenyls, and bromodibenzo-p-dioxin/furan are able to modulate steroidogenic gene expression, which may lead to endocrine disruption.

  • 10.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Analysis of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances in Swedish environmental waters2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the environmental occurrence of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Swedish water samples. So far established protocols have focused on measuring PFASs with a carbon chain length of four or more carbons. In this study, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates of chain lengths of two, perfluoroethane sulfonate (PFEtS), and three, perfluoropropane sulfonate (PFPrS), carbons have been measured using a newly established instrumental method employing supercritical fluid separation (SFC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    A total of 26 samples were analysed, including ground water, surface water, rain water and snow. The sample locations included military and civilian airports, a former hard chromium plating facility, the vicinity of a hazardous waste management facility and background areas (lake surface water, rain and snow). Results show that both PFPrS and PFEtS could be detected in environmental samples using SFC separation coupled to triple quadrupole detection. Out of the 26 samples analysed, the ultra-short-chain PFPrS could be detected and quantified in 22 samples. The concentrations for PFPrS in all the samples ranged between 0.93 ng/l to 39 000 ng/l. The ultra-short-chain PFPEtS could be quantified in all of the 26 samples, with a concentration range between 0.07 and 5 700 ng/l. The highest concentrations represents highly contaminated ground water samples collected from a military airport. In the samples, PFPrS had a relative contribution to total PFAS concentration of 6 and 10 %, indicating the importance of measuring these compounds in environmental samples.

  • 11.
    Gulkowska, A.
    et al.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    He, Yuhe
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    So, M. K.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Leung, H. W.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Giesy, J. P.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong; Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Martin, Michael
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Richardson, Bruce J.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    The occurrence of selected antibiotics in Hong Kong coastal waters2007Inngår i: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 54, nr 8, s. 1287-1293Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Gulkowska, A.
    et al.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Leung, H. W.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    So, M. K.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Taniyasu, S.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yamashita, N.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Richardson, Bruce J.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lei, A. P.
    College of Life Sciences, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.
    Giesy, J. P.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong; Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Canada; National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Zoology Department, Center for Integrative Toxicology, East Lansing, MI, United States.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Removal of antibiotics from wastewater by sewage treatment facilities in Hong Kong and Shenzhen, China2008Inngår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 42, nr 1-2, s. 395-403Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of nine antibiotics [erythromycin-H2O (ERY-H2O); trimethoprim (TMP); tetracycline (TET); norfloxacin (NOR); penicillin G (PEN G); penicillin V (PEN V); cefalexin (CLX); cefotaxim (CTX); and cefazolin (CFZ)] were measured in influent and effluent samples from four sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Hong Kong as well as in influent samples from one STP in Shenzhen. Levels of PEN V and CFZ were below method detection limits in all of the samples analyzed. CLX concentrations were the highest in most of the Hong Kong samples, ranging from 670 to 2900 ng/L and 240 to 1800 ng/L in influent and effluent samples, respectively, but CLX was not detected in the samples from Shenzhen. Comparatively lower concentrations were observed for ERY-H2O (470-810 ng/L) and TET (96-1300 ng/L) in the influent samples from all STPs in Hong Kong. CTX was found to be the dominant antibiotic in the Shenzhen STP influents with a mean concentration of 1100 ng/L, but occurred at lower concentrations in Hong Kong sewage. These results likely reflect regional variations in the prescription and use patterns of antibiotics between Hong Kong and Shenzhen. Antibiotic removal efficiencies depended on their chemical properties and the wastewater treatment processes used. In general, relatively higher removal efficiencies were observed for NOR (5-78%) and TET (7-73%), which are readily adsorbed to particulate matter, while lower removal efficiencies were observed for ERY-H2O (9-19%), which is relatively persistent in the environment. Antibiotics were removed more efficiently at Hong Kong STPs employing secondary treatment processes compared with those using primary treatment only. Concentrations of NOR measured in effluents from STPs in Hong Kong were lower than the predicted no-effect concentration of 8000 ng/L determined in a previous study. Therefore, concentrations of antibiotics measured in this preliminary study would be unlikely to cause adverse effects on microorganisms used in wastewater treatment processes at the sampled STPs.

  • 13.
    Guruge, K S
    et al.
    Toxico-Biochemistry Section, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yeung, L W Y
    Toxico-Biochemistry Section, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan;Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Yamanaka, N
    Toxico-Biochemistry Section, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Miyazaki, S
    Toxico-Biochemistry Section, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, P K S
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Giesy, J P
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong;Zoology Dept., National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States.
    Jones, P D
    Zoology Dept., National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States.
    Yamashita, N
    Environmental Measurement Group, National Institute of Advance Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Gene expression profiles in rat liver treated with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)2006Inngår i: Toxicological Sciences, ISSN 1096-6080, E-ISSN 1096-0929, Vol. 89, nr 1, s. 93-107Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; Pentadecafluorooctanoic acid) is widely used in various industrial applications. It is persistent in the environment and does not appear to undergo further degradation or transformation. PFOA is found in tissues including blood of wildlife and humans; however, the environmental fate and biological effects of PFOA remain unclear. Microarray techniques of gene expression have become a powerful approach for exploring the biological effects of chemicals. Here, the Affymetrix, Inc. rat genome 230 2.0 GeneChip was used to identify alterations in gene regulation in Sprague-Dawley rats treated with five different concentrations of PFOA. Male rats were exposed by daily gavage to 1, 3, 5, 10, or 15 mg PFOA/kg, body weight (bw)/day for 21 days and at the end of the exposure, liver was isolated and total liver RNA were used for the gene chip analysis. Over 500 genes, whose expression was significantly (p < 0.0025) altered by PFOA at two-fold changes compared to control, were examined. The effects were dose-dependent with exposure to 10 mg PFOA/kg, bw/day, causing alteration in expression of the greatest number of genes (over 800). Approximately 106 genes and 38 genes were consistently up- or down-regulated, respectively, in all treatment groups. The largest categories of induced genes were those involved in transport and metabolism of lipids, particularly fatty acids. Other induced genes were involved in cell communication, adhesion, growth, apoptosis, hormone regulatory pathways, proteolysis and peptidolysis and signal transduction. The genes expression of which was suppressed were related to transport of lipids, inflammation and immunity, and especially cell adhesion. Several other genes involved in apoptosis; regulation of hormones; metabolism; and G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathways were significantly suppressed.

  • 14.
    Guruge, Keerthi S.
    et al.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Hikono, Hirokazu
    Research Team for Advanced Biologicals, National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Shimada, Nobuaki
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Murakami, Kenji
    Research Team for Viral Diseases, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Hasegawa, Jun
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yamanaka, Noriko
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Effect of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on influenza A virus-induced mortality in female B6C3F1 mice2009Inngår i: Journal of Toxicological Sciences, ISSN 0388-1350, E-ISSN 1880-3989, Vol. 34, nr 6, s. 687-691Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies showed that perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) affects the mammalian immune system at levels reportedly found in the general human population. It has been demonstrated that exposure to immunotoxic chemicals may diminish the host resistance of animals to various pathogenic challenges and enhance mortality. Therefore, the current study was carried out to characterize the effect of a 21 day pre-administration of zero, 5, or 25 μg PFOS/kg bw/day in female B6C3F1 mice on host resistance to influenza A virus infection. At the end of PFOS exposure, body/organ weights did not significantly change whereas PFOS distribution in blood plasma, spleen, thymus and lung was dose-dependently increased. PFOS exposure in mice resulted a significant increase in emaciation and mortality in response to influenza A virus. The effective plasma concentrations in female mice were at least several fold lower than reported mean blood PFOS levels from occupationally exposed humans, and fell in the upper range of blood concentrations of PFOS in the normal human population and in a wide range of wild animals. Hence, it should be important to clarify the precise mechanism(s) for excess mortality observed in the high dose group.

  • 15.
    Guruge, Keerthi S.
    et al.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Li, Peng
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Nakamura, Mayumi
    Animal Hygiene Service Center, 6-8 Hiraidekougyoudanchi, Utsunomiya, Tochigi, Japan.
    Fluorinated alkyl compounds including long chain carboxylic acids in wild bird livers from Japan2011Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 83, nr 3, s. 379-384Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of fluorinated alkyl compounds (FACs) has been reported in wildlife in various locations in the world. However, such information regarding Japanese wildlife is rarely found. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of 21 FACs, including perfluorinated alkyl sulfonates (PFASs), perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs), and fluorotelomer acids, in the livers of 10 wild bird species from two regions in northern Japan. To avoid interferences, FACs were quantified by a recently developed method using acetonitrile and solid-phase extraction followed by an ion exchange HPLC column separation. Apart from perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which was found at the highest levels of all the compounds detected, several long chain perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) from C8 to C16, particularly perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA) and perfluorohexadecanoic acid (PFHxDA), were detected for the first time. Additionally, 7:3 FTCA, a fluorotelomer acid, was also detected in most swan livers from Miyagi prefecture and all the birds from Tochigi prefecture. However, none of the sulfonamides and unsaturated telomer acids were detected in any species. Swans seem to be the least exposed wild birds to FACs among the investigated birds, signifying that feeding habits may reflect FAC accumulation in wild birds. The highest total concentration of detected FACs was 405ngg-1wet wt., which was found in a Japanese sparrowhawk, indicating that the top predatory wild birds can accumulate several long chain carboxylic acids. However, the current FAC concentrations found in livers may suggest that these compounds alone would not cause a severe toxic effect in these species.

  • 16.
    Hu, Xindi C.
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University , Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University , Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
    Tokranov, Andrea K.
    Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University , Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
    Liddie, Jahred
    Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University , Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
    Zhang, Xianming
    Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University , Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
    Grandjean, Philippe
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University , Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark , Odense, Denmark.
    Hart, Jaime E.
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University , Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School , Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Laden, Francine
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University , Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School , Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University , Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Sun, Qi
    Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School , Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University , Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sunderland, Elsie M.
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University , Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University , Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
    Tap Water Contributions to Plasma Concentrations of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in a Nationwide Prospective Cohort of U.S. Women2019Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 127, nr 6, artikkel-id 67006Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Between 2013 and 2015, concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in public drinking water supplies serving at least six million individuals exceeded the level set forth in the health advisory established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Other than data reported for contaminated sites, no systematic or prospective data exist on the relative source contribution (RSC) of drinking water to human PFAS exposures.

    OBJECTIVES: This study estimates the RSC of tap water to overall PFAS exposure among members of the general U.S.

    POPULATION:

    METHODS: We measured concentrations of 15 PFAS in home tap water samples collected in 1989-1990 from 225 participants in a nationwide prospective cohort of U.S. women: the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). We used a one-compartment toxicokinetic model to estimate plasma concentrations corresponding to tap water intake of PFAS. We compared modeled results with measured plasma PFAS concentrations among a subset of 110 NHS participants.

    RESULTS: Tap water perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were statistically significant predictors of plasma concentrations among individuals who consumed [Formula: see text] cups of tap water per day. Modeled median contributions of tap water to measured plasma concentrations were: PFOA 12% (95% probability interval 11%-14%), PFNA 13% (8.7%-21%), linear perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (nPFOS) 2.2% (2.0%-2.5%), branched perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (brPFOS) 3.0% (2.5%-3.2%), and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) 34% (29%-39%). In five locations, comparisons of PFASs in community tap water collected in the period 2013-2016 with samples from 1989-1990 indicated increases in quantifiable PFAS and extractable organic fluorine (a proxy for unquantified PFAS).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results for 1989-1990 compare well with the default RSC of 20% used in risk assessments for legacy PFAS by many agencies. Future evaluation of drinking water exposures should incorporate emerging PFAS.

  • 17.
    Hung, Craig L. H.
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Xu, Yan
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, James C. W.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Jefferson, Thomas A.
    Southwest Fisheries Center, NOAA Fisheries, La Jolla, CA, United States.
    Hung, Samuel K.
    Hong Kong Cetacean Research Project, 12 Kak Tin Kung Miu Village, Tai Wai, Hong Kong.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Michael H. W.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    O'Toole, Desmond K.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    An assessment of the risks associated with polychlorinated biphenyls found in the stomach contents of stranded Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and Finless Porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from Hong Kong waters2006Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 63, nr 5, s. 845-852Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The risks to Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins and Finless Porpoises associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed. Stomach contents from twelve stranded Humpback Dolphins and sixteen stranded Finless Porpoises were collected. Concentrations of total and isomer-specific PCBs in the stomach contents were determined using dual-column gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detectors (GC-ECD). Risks due to the PCBs were assessed in three scenarios, based on total PCBs (summation of 41 PCB congeners), total toxicity equivalency (TEQs) and PCB 118, using the toxicity reference values (TRVs) as the threshold effects benchmarks. The calculated risk quotients (RQs) showed that risks due to PCBs were generally low or negligible. Specifically, RQs from total TEQs and total PCBs for Finless Porpoises are below one, suggesting that PCBs should be a low risk for the Finless Porpoise in Hong Kong waters. However, the Humpback Dolphin has RQs larger than 1 for total TEQs and total PCBs when the 95th percentile data were used in the evaluation. This indicates that further investigation may be needed to examine more closely the potential impact of toxic contaminants in the habitat of the Humpback Dolphin.

  • 18.
    Jiao, Liping
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong; Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fijian, China; Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian, China.
    Zheng, Gene J.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong;Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Minh, Tu Binh
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Richardson, Bruce
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Chen, Liqi
    Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fijian, China; Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian, China.
    Zhang, Yuanhui
    Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fijian, China; Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian, China.
    Yeung, Leo W.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, James C. W.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Yang, Xulin
    Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fijian, China; Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Wong, Ming H.
    Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Persistent toxic substances in remote lake and coastal sediments from Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic: Levels, sources and fluxes2009Inngår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 157, nr 4, s. 1342-1351Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface sediments from remote lakes and coastal areas from Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Relatively high levels of PAHs were encountered from several lakes from Ny-Ålesund, which were within the range of levels reported for European high mountain lakes and some urban/industrialized areas in the world, pointing to the role of remote Arctic lakes as potential reservoir of semi-volatile organic compounds. Specific patterns of PBDEs were observed, showing higher concentrations of lower brominated compounds such as BDE-7, 17 and 28. Estimated surface sediment fluxes of PAHs in Ny-Ålesund remote lakes were similar to those observed for some European high mountain lakes. The current PAH levels in sediments from three lakes exceeded Canadian sediment quality guidelines, suggesting the presence of possible risks for aquatic organisms and the need for further studies.

  • 19.
    Joudan, Shira
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Mabury, Scott A
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Biological cleavage of the C-P bond in perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids in male Sprague-Dawley rats and the formation of persistent and reactive metabolites2017Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 125, nr 11, artikkel-id 117001Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids (PFPiAs) have been detected in humans, wildlife, and various environmental matrices. These compounds have been used with perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids (PFPAs) as surfactants in consumer products and as nonfoaming additives in pesticide formulations. Unlike the structurally related perfluoroalkyl sulfonic and carboxylic acids, little is known about the biological fate of PFPiAs.

    OBJECTIVES: We determined the biotransformation products of PFPiAs and some pharmacokinetic parameters in a rat model.

    METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats received an oral gavage dose of either C6/C8PFPiA, C8/C8PFPiA, or C8PFPA. Blood was sampled over time, and livers were harvested upon sacrifice. Analytes were quantified using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    RESULTS: PFPiAs were metabolized to the corresponding PFPAs and 1H-perfluoroalkanes (1H-PFAs), with 70% and 75% biotransformation 2 wk after a single bolus dose for C6/C8PFPiA and C8/C8PFPiA, respectively. This is the first reported cleavage of a C-P bond in mammals, and the first attempt, with a single-dose exposure, to characterize the degradation of any perfluoroalkyl acid. Elimination half-lives were 1.9±0.5 and 2.8±0.8 days for C6/C8PFPiA and C8/C8PFPiA, respectively, and 0.95±0.17 days for C8PFPA. Although elimination half-lives were not determined for 1H-PFAs, concentrations were higher than the corresponding PFPAs 48 h after rats were dosed with PFPiAs, suggestive of slower elimination.

    CONCLUSIONS: PFPiAs were metabolized in Sprague-Dawley rats to form persistent PFPAs as well as 1H-PFAs, which contain a labile hydrogen that may undergo further metabolism. These results in rats produced preliminary findings of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of PFPiAs, which should be further investigated in humans. If there is a parallel between the disposition of these chemicals in humans and rats, then humans with detectable amounts of PFPiAs in their blood may be undergoing continuous exposure.

  • 20.
    Koch, Alina
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Section for Organic Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wang, Thanh
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Point source characterization of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and extractable organofluorine (EOF) in freshwater and aquatic invertebrates2019Inngår i: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 21, nr 11, s. 1887-1898Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Major point sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) cause ubiquitous spread of PFASs in the environment. In this study, surface water and aquatic invertebrates at three Swedish sites impacted by PFAS point sources were characterized, using homologue, isomer and extractable organofluorine (EOF) profiling as well as estimation of bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and mass discharge. Two sites were impacted by fire training (sites A and R) and the third by industrial runoff (site K). Mean Σ25PFASs concentration in water was 1920 ng L-1 at site R (n = 3), which was more than 20- and 10-fold higher than those from sites A and K, respectively. PFOS was the most predominant PFAS in all waters samples, constituting 29-79% of Σ25PFAS concentrations. Several branched isomers were detected and they substantially contributed to concentrations in surface water (e.g. 49-78% of ΣPFOS) and aquatic invertebrates (e.g. 15-28% of ΣPFOS). BAFs in the aquatic invertebrates indicated higher bioaccumulation for long chain PFASs and lower bioaccumulation for branched PFOS isomers compared to linear PFOS. EOF mass balance showed that Σ25target PFASs in water could explain up to 55% of EOF at site R. However, larger proportions of EOF (>92%) remained unknown in water from sites A and K. Mass discharges were for the first time estimated for EOF and revealed that high amounts of EOF (e.g. 8.2 g F day-1 at site A) could be transported by water to recipient water bodies relative to Σ25PFASs (e.g. 0.15 g day-1 at site A). Overall, we showed that composition profiling, BAFs and EOF mass balance can improve the characterization of PFASs around point sources.

  • 21.
    Kvist, Malin
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Detection of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances in Swedish environmental waters2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The ubiquitous distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been documented worldwide in different environmental samples including humans. In Sweden, severe PFAS contamination in drinking water has resulted in elevated blood PFAS concentrations in residents living in contaminated areas. In many cases, the use of aqueous film forming-foams (AFFFs) at both civil and military airports has resulted in this contamination, as PFASs are one of the active ingredients in AFFFs. According to a nationwide survey, it was estimated that 30 % of the Swedish population has their closest drinking water source contaminated with these substances. A guideline value for safe use of drinking water set by the Swedish Food Agencyis the sum of eleven PFASs including perfluoroalkylated sulfonates (PFSAs; C4, C6, C8), perfluoroalkylated carboxylates (PFCAs; C4-C10) and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate.This is set to 90 ng/L, while the health based limit, based on the tolerable daily intake,is set to 900 ng/L. In the US, Barzen-Hansen et al.showed the presence of ultra-short chain PFASs, perfluoropropanesulfonate (PFPrS) and perfluoroethanesulfonate (PFEtS), in five AFFFs. In ground water samples from eleven US military bases, PFEtS was detected in eight out of eleven samples ranging from 11-7500 ng/L, while PFPrS was detected in all samples, ranging from 19-63000 ng/L). Conventional reversed-phase LC using C18 column is not suitable to chromatograph these ultra-short chain PFAS, because they are highly polar; ion-exchange column has been demonstrated useful for separating these ultra-short chain PFAS. In this study a new analytical approach employing supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was developed for chromatographic separation of these ultra-short chain PFASs. Environmental water samples (surface water, ground water, rain water, snow and sediment) from various locations with suspected PFAS contamination were analyzed to investigate the potential occurrence of these ultra-short chain compounds in the Swedish environment. Solid phase extraction according to ISO method was used to concentrate water samples prior to instrumental analyses using both UPLC-MS/MS and UPC2-MS/MS.

    Results show that both PFPrS and PFEtS could be detected in environmental samples from Sweden using SFC separation coupled to triple quadrupole detection. Out of the 26 samples analysed,the ultra-short-chain PFPrS could be detected and quantified in 22 samples. The concentrations for PFPrS in all the samples ranged between 0.93 ng/l to 390 μg/l. The ultra-short-chain PFPEtS could be quantified in 24 out of the 26 samples, with a concentration range between 0.07-5 680 ng/l. The highest concentrations represents highly contaminated ground water samples collected from a military airport.

  • 22.
    Kwok, Karen Y.
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong Kowloon, Hong Kong, China; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong Kowloon, Hong Kong, China; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Murphy, Margaret B.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
    Horii, Yuichi
    Group of Chemical Substances, Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, Kazo Saitama, Japan.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, United States.
    Petrick, Gert
    Department of Marine Chemistry, Leibniz-Institute of Marine Sciences, Kiel, Germany.
    Sinha, Ravindra K.
    Environmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Patna University, Patna, India.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    Flux of Perfluorinated Chemicals through Wet Deposition in Japan, the United States, And Several Other Countries2010Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, nr 18, s. 7043-7049Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread distribution of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in different environmental matrices has prompted concern about the sources, fate, and transport of these classes of chemicals. PFCs are present in the atmosphere, but only a few studies have investigated their occurrence in precipitation. In this study, concentrations of 20 PFCs, including C3-C5 short-chain PFCs, were quantified using HPLC-MS/MS in precipitation samples from Japan (n = 31), the United States (n = 12), China (n = 5), India (n = 2), and France (n = 2). Among the PFCs measured, perfluoropropanoic acid (PFPrA) was detected in all of the precipitation samples. Average total PFC concentrations ranged from 1.40 to 18.1 ng/L for the seven cities studied. The greatest total PFC concentrations were detected in Tsukuba, Japan, whereas the lowest concentrations were detected in Patna, India. PFPrA, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were found to be the dominant PFCs in Japanese and U.S. precipitation samples. No observable seasonal trend was found in precipitation samples from two locations in Japan. Annual fluxes of PFCs were estimated for Japan and the U.S. and the evidence for precipitation as an effective scavenger of PFCs in the atmosphere is reported.

  • 23.
    Leung, C C M
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Jefferson, T A
    Southwest Fisheries Center, NOAA Fisheries, San Diego, CA, United States.
    Hung, S K
    Hong Kong Cetacean Research Project, 12 Kak Tin Kung Miu Village, Tai Wai, New Territories, Hong Kong.
    Zheng, G J
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Yeung, L W Y
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Richardson, B J
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Lam, P K S
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Petroleum hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in tissues of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins from south China waters2005Inngår i: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 50, nr 12, s. 1713-1719Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24.
    Li, Xuemei
    et al.
    Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong; Environmental Measurement Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    Environmental Measurement Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Li, Ming
    Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Hongxia
    Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Dan
    Siberia Tiger Park Heilongjiang, Harbin, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    Dai, Jiayin
    Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in the Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) from China2008Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, nr 19, s. 7078-7083Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are used in a variety of industrial applications. We tested the hypothesis that, in Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), captivity in industrialized areas increases PFC levels, potentially presenting a health risk to these animals. Serum samples were collected from 100 tigers from industrialized or nonindustrialized regions in China with nonpoint sources of PFCs. Mean concentrations of PFCs in these samples ranged from 1.57 ± 0.83 ng/mL in nonindustrial Hailin to 4.31 ± 2.90 ng/mL in industrial Beijing. PFC concentrations were significantly higher in tigers from the industrial city of Harbin than those from Hailin (p < 0.05). Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the most abundant PFC in all tigers and increased with age, regardless of industrial/nonindustrial background (p < 0.01). However, PFOS concentrations were 2-4 orders of magnitude less than the current no-observed-effect level. In addition, overall PFC levels in Amur tigers were low compared with various species living in other countries, consistent with the relatively short history of PFC use in China. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that captivity in industrialized areas increases PFC levels in Amurtigers. They also suggestthat PFC accumulation will persist, and even increase, with continued use of PFCs in China.

  • 25.
    Li, Xuemei
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yeung, Leo Wai Yin
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, HK SAR, China; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, HK SAR, China.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Xu, Muqi
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Dai, Jiayin
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Accumulation of perfluorinated compounds in captive Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) and African lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus) in China2008Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 73, nr 10, s. 1649-1653Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The accumulation of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the sera of captive wildlife species Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) and African lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus) from Harbin Wildlife Park, Heilongjiang Province, in China were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant contaminant with a mean serum concentration of 1.18 ng mL-1 in tigers and 2.69 ng mL-1 in lions. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was the second most prevalent contaminant in both species. The composition profiles of the tested PFCs differed between tigers and lions, and the percentages of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were greater in lions than in tigers, indicating different exposures and/or metabolic capabilities between the two species. Assessments of the risk of PFC contamination to the two species were obtained by comparing measured concentrations to points of departure or toxicity reference values (TRVs). Results suggest no risk of PFOS exposure or toxicity for the two species.

  • 26.
    Li, Xuemei
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, China; Graduate School, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yeung, Leo Wai Yin
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, HK SAR, China; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Xu, Muqi
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, China.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, HK SAR, China.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Dai, Jiayin
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, China.
    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in fish blood collected near the outfall of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing2008Inngår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 156, nr 3, s. 1298-1303Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in zooplankton and five fish species collected from Gaobeidian Lake, which receives discharge from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing, China. The mean total PFCs in five fish were in the order: crucian carp > common carp > leather catfish > white semiknife carp > tilapia. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) occurred at the greatest concentrations, with mean concentrations ranging from 5.74 to 64.2 ng/ml serum. Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was the second dominant PFC in fish samples except for common carp in which perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) was dominant. A positive linear relationship (r2 = 0.85, p < 0.05) was observed between ln PFOS concentrations (ln ng/ml) and trophic level (based on δ15N) if tilapia was excluded. The risk assessment showed that PFOS might not pose an immediate risk to fish in Gaobeidian Lake.

  • 27.
    Loi, Eva I. H.
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Mabury, Scott A.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Detections of Commercial Fluorosurfactants in Hong Kong Marine Environment and Human Blood: A Pilot Study2013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, nr 9, s. 4677-4685Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previously, much of the perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) research has focused on perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) or perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs). Recent studies indicate that known PFCAs and PFSAs accounted for 5-95% of the organofluorine (OF) in human and wild rat blood samples suggesting that a relatively large proportion of OF remained unknown. Until recently, some studies reported commercially available compounds such as polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) and fluorotelomer sulfonates (FTSAs) in human blood and sludge samples. The present investigation is a pilot study aiming at surveying some newly identified PFASs such as diPAPs, FTSAs, and perfluorinated phosphinates (PFPiAs) in different environmental samples including surface water, sediment, sewage treatment plant influent and effluent, sludge, benthic worm, and human blood from Hong Kong. DiPAPs (6:2, 6:2/8:2, and 8:2) were detected in some of the samples at part-per-billion (ppb) levels in sludge, sub ppb levels in influent and effluent, sediment, worm, and human blood samples, and sub part-per-trillion (ppt) levels in surface waters. Sub ppt to ppb levels of 6:2 and 8:2 FTSAs were observed in worm, surface water, and human blood samples. PFPiAs were only observed in worm samples. The detected "new PFASs" accounted for a minor proportion (less than 5%) of the total PFASs in benthic worm and human blood, but up to 95% in sewage sludge samples from Hong Kong. This is the first report of commercial fluorosurfactants (PFPiAs, diPAPs, and FTSAs) in the samples from the environment and human blood in Hong Kong; further information on the distribution, fate, and transport of "new PFASs" in other Asian cities, as well as toxicity, is needed for further assessing the human exposure and risk.

  • 28.
    Loi, Eva I. H.
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Ibaraki, Japan; Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, State University of New York, Albany NY, United States.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Ibaraki, Japan.
    Trophic Magnification of Poly- and Perfluorinated Compounds in a Subtropical Food Web2011Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, nr 13, s. 5506-5513Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are known to biomagnify in temperate and Arctic food webs, but little is known about their behavior in subtropical systems. The environmental distribution and biomagnification of PFCs, extractable organic fluorine (EOF), and total fluorine were investigated in a subtropical food web. Surface water, sediment, phytoplankton, zooplankton, gastropods, worms, shrimps, fishes, and waterbirds collected in the Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve in Hong Kong were analyzed. Trophic magnification was observed for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA), and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA) in this food web. Risk assessment results for PFOS, PFDA, and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) suggest that current PFC concentrations in waterbird livers are unlikely to pose adverse biological effects to waterbirds. All hazard ratio (HR) values reported for PFOS and PFOA are less than one, which suggests that the detected levels will not cause any immediate health effects to the Hong Kong population through the consumption of shrimps and fishes. However, only 10-12% of the EOF in the shrimp samples was comprised of known PFCs, indicating the need for further investigation to identify unknown fluorinated compounds in wildlife.

  • 29.
    Lu, Guo-Hui
    et al.
    National Research Center for Geoanalysis (NRCGA) Xicheng District, Beijing, China; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yang, Yong-Liang
    National Research Center for Geoanalysis (NRCGA) Xicheng District, Beijing, China.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Ibaraki, Japan; Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, China.
    Pan, Jing
    National Research Center for Geoanalysis (NRCGA) Xicheng District, Beijing, China.
    Zhou, Bingsheng
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Ibaraki, Japan.
    Potential exposure of perfluorinated compounds to Chinese in Shenyang and Yangtze River Delta areas2011Inngår i: Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 1448-2517, E-ISSN 1449-8979, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 407-418Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental contextA total of 21 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including PFOS were quantified in river waters, sewage, sea waters, shallow ground waters as well as fish and domestic poultry, focussed on the main river basins in Shenyang and the Yangtze River Delta areas, China. The distribution characteristics of PFCs in the aquatic environment and evaluation of the potential risk for human health via the diet of fish was discussed. Comprehensive research was carried out using the world leading knowledge about PFOS-related chemicals in AIST, Japan to enable reliable evaluation of PFOS risk in Chinese environments, supported by ISO25101. AbstractA total of 21 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were quantified in water and biota samples collected from Shenyang in North-east China and the Yangtze River Delta area in East China. The human health risk owing to intake of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) via fish and domestic poultry dietary was evaluated. The total PFC concentration (∑PFC) in water samples from the rivers in Shenyang averaged 5.32ngL-1, with PFOS and PFOA as the predominant compounds. The urban sewage could be the source of PFOS and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) in the surface waters. The total PFCs in water samples from the Yangtze River Delta area ranged from 42.4 to 170ngL-1. The highest concentrations of most PFCs were observed in waters from the Shanghai section of the Yangtze River. In the biota samples, PFOS and PFUnDA (perfluoroundecanoic acid) were the most abundant. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) and hazard ratio (HR) values for PFOS and PFOA intake through the diet of fish and poultry in the studied areas were calculated, and showed that the HR values for PFOS and PFOA are all less than 1.0 for both the areas.

  • 30.
    Mak, Yim Ling
    et al.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lu, Guohui
    National Research Center for Geoanalysis, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, 26 Bai Wan Zhuang Avenue, Xicheng District, Beijing, China.
    Jin, Ling
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Yang, Yongliang
    National Research Center for Geoanalysis, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, 26 Bai Wan Zhuang Avenue, Xicheng District, Beijing, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, United States; Department of Environmental Health Sciences, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY, United States.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Perfluorinated Compounds in Tap Water from China and Several Other Countries2009Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, nr 13, s. 4824-4829Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent development of a sensitive and accurate analytical method for the analysis of 20 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including several short-chain PFCs, has enabled their quantification in tap water collected in China, Japan, India, the United States, and Canada between 2006 and 2008. Of the PFCs measured, PFOS, PFHxS, PFBS, PFPrS, PFEtS, PFOSA, N-EtFOSAA, PFDoDA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, PFHpA, PFHxA, PFPeA, PFBA, and PFPrA were found at detectable concentrations in the tap water samples. The water samples from Shanghai (China) contained the greatest concentrations of total PFCs (arithmetic mean = 130 ng/L), whereas those from Toyama (Japan) contained only 0.62 ng/L. In addition to PFOS and PFOA, short-chain PFCs such as PFHxS, PFBS, PFHxA, and PFBA were found to be prevalent in drinking water. According to the health-based values (HBVs) and advisory guidelines derived for PFOS, PFOA, PFBA, PFHxS, PFBS, PFHxA, and PFPeA by the U.S.EPA and the Minnesota Department of Health, tap water may not pose an immediate health risk to consumers.

  • 31.
    Mullin, Lauren Gayle
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Waters Corporation, Milford MA, USA.
    DiLorenzo, Robert A.
    Department of Physiology and Experimental Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Mouse Imaging Centre, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Jobst, Karl
    Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John’s NL, Canada.
    Ladak, Adam
    Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham MA, USA.
    Plumb, Robert
    Waters Corporation, Milford MA, USA.
    Reiner, Eric J.
    Ontario Ministry of Environment and Climate Change, Laboratory Services Branch, Etobicoke ON, Canada.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Liquid Chromatography-Ion Mobility-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Pollutants in Indoor Dust: Identification and Predictive CapabilitiesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 32.
    Mullin, Lauren Gayle
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Waters Corporation, Milford MA, USA.
    Katz, David R.
    Atlantic Ecology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett RI, USA.
    Riddell, Nicole
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph ON, Canada.
    Plumb, Robert
    Waters Corporation, Milford MA, USA.
    Burgess, Jennifer A.
    Scientialis Consulting LLC, Hopkinton MA, USA.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Analysis of hexafluoropropylene oxide-dimer acid (HFPO-DA) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS): Review of current approaches and environmental levels2019Inngår i: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 118, s. 828-839Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFAS) compounds are of increasing interest for environmental monitoring, one being hexafluoropropylene oxide-dimer acid (HFPO-DA), commonly referred to as GenX. The following review describes existing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods used to analyse HFPO-DA, including sample preparation and method sensitivity relative to other PFAS. Analytical challenges are also described, in particular the significant formation of in-source fragmentation, dimer and dimer adducts which detract from [M-H](-) signal. Lastly, detected levels of HFPO-DA in environmental and biological samples are compared across the limited number of available field exposure studies, which found several mu g/L concentrations in water samples taken near fluorochemical plant discharges.

  • 33.
    Mullin, Lauren Gayle
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Waters Corporation, Milford, USA.
    Riddell, Nicole
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph ON, Canada.
    Plumb, Robert S.
    Waters Corporation, Milford, USA.
    Burgess, Jennifer A.
    Waters Corporation, Milford, USA.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ionization Enhancement of Hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA) Through Mobile Phase Additive SelectionManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 34.
    Pan, Jing
    et al.
    National Research Center for Geoanalysis, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yang, Yongliang
    National Research Center for Geoanalysis, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo Wai Yin
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Falandysz, Jerzy
    Department of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Comparison of Historical Record of PCDD/Fs, Dioxin-Like PCBs, and PCNs in Sediment Cores from Jiaozhou Bay and Coastal Yellow Sea: Implication of Different Sources2012Inngår i: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0007-4861, E-ISSN 1432-0800, Vol. 89, nr 6, s. 1240-1246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were measured in two sediment cores collected from Jiaozhou Bay. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs, and PCNs in the cores were in the range of 2.8-26.3, 7.1-82.4 and 3.9-56.4 pg/g dw, respectively. The depth profiles of total concentrations PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs were similar in the sediment core J37 inside Jiaozhou Bay, but different from those in the sediment core J94 outside the bay, suggesting the different sources. In both cores Tri-CNs and Tetra-CNs were dominant, similar to the PCNs composition of some Halowax technical products. The maximal PCNs contamination occurred in the mid-1970s (outside the Bay) and early-1990s (inside the Bay). An increase of the indicator CN congeners characteristic for thermal source in the top layers of the sediment core inside the bay indicated that the contribution from the municipal solid waste incineration has been more important in recent years.

  • 35.
    Pan, Jing
    et al.
    National Research Center for Geoanalysis, Beijing, China.
    Yang, Yongliang
    National Research Center for Geoanalysis, Beijing, China.
    Zhu, Xiaohua
    National Research Center for Geoanalysis, Beijing, China.
    Yeung, Leo Wai Yin
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Miyake, Yuichi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Falandysz, Jerzy
    Institute of Environmental Sciences and Public Health, University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Altitudinal distributions of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and PCNs in soil and yak samples from Wolong high mountain area, eastern Tibet-Qinghai Plateau, China2013Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 444, s. 102-109Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Topsoil along the altitudinal gradient (2086-4487m above sea level) and yak samples, collected from Wolong high mountain area of Sichuan Province, western China, were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) using HRGC-HRMS. The total concentrations of PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, and PCNs in soils were: 2.48-4.30pgg-1 dw (dry weight), 7.6-10.5pgg-1 dw, and 13.0-29.0pgg-1 dw, respectively; the greatest concentrations were found at sampling sites of 3927m, 4487m and 3345m, correspondingly. The total PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs concentrations showed positive correlations with increasing altitudinal gradient. The congener profiles of both 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs at different altitudes showed similar patterns. PCNs were dominated by Tri-CNs. The long-range atmospheric transport and subsequent aerial deposition are likely the sources for these POPs in area examined. The total TEQs in soils were in the range of 0.28-0.42pgg-1 dw, and the total TEQs in the yak muscle and fatty tissue samples were 3.81-4.09pgTEQg-1 lipid weight. The daily intake of TEQs was estimated to be below the WHO's tolerable daily intake according to the local people's dietary habits in Wolong area, which is unlikely to cause any adverse health effects to the yak muscle consuming people.

  • 36.
    Pan, Yitao
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.
    Jing, Jun
    Reproductive Medical Center, Nanjing Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, PR China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sheng, Nan
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.
    Zhang, Hongxia
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.
    Yao, Bing
    Reproductive Medical Center, Nanjing Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, PR China.
    Dai, Jiayin
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.
    Associations of urinary 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine with phthalate exposure and semen quality in 562 Chinese adult men2016Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 94, s. 583-590Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5mdC) and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5hmdC), products of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation processes, have been detected previously in human urine, but their associations with environmental chemicals or healthy outcomes are unclear. The present investigation explored the associations between urinary 5mdC and 5hmdC with phthalate exposure and semen quality. We assessed semen parameters including sperm concentration, motility, and morphology, before measuring urinary 5mdC, 5hmdC and 13 phthalate metabolites among 562 subfertile men from Nanjing, China. Urinary 5mdC and 5hmdC were positively associated with the levels of low molecular weight phthalate metabolites (Low-MWP), high molecular weight phthalate metabolites (High-MWP), and the sum of all phthalate metabolites (ΣPAEs), respectively. Urinary 5mdC was associated with below-reference sperm concentration (odds ratios for increasing quartiles=1.0, 2.2, 3.0, 2.0; p for trend =0.02), sperm motility (1.0, 1.1, 1.9, 1.3; p for trend =0.05), and sperm morphology (1.0, 1.4, 2.3, 1.5; p for trend =0.05). Sperm concentration was associated with the highest quartile of urinary 5hmdC [odds ratio=1.9 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.6)]. Our findings showed significant associations between urinary 5mdC and 5hmdC with phthalate metabolites and semen parameters, which suggested urinary 5mdC and 5hmdC may be promising biomarkers in future epidemiological studies.

  • 37.
    Pan, Yitao
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Xiaoyang
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sheng, Nan
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Cui, Qianqian
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Cui, Ruina
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Hongxia
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Dai, Jiayin
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Dietary exposure to di-isobutyl phthalate increases urinary 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine level and affects reproductive function in adult male mice2017Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Sciences(China), ISSN 1001-0742, E-ISSN 1878-7320, Vol. 61, s. 14-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalates are a large family of ubiquitous environmental pollutants suspected of being endocrine disruptors. Epidemiological studies have associated phthalate metabolites with decreased reproductive parameters and linked phthalate exposure with the level of urinary 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5mdC, a product of methylated DNA). In this study, adult male mice were exposed to 450mg di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP)/(kg·day) via dietary exposure for 28days. Mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP, the urinary metabolite) and reproductive function parameters were determined. The levels of 5mdC and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5hmdC) were measured in urine to evaluate if their contents were also altered by DiBP exposure in this animal model. Results showed that DiBP exposure led to a significant increase in the urinary 5mdC level and significant decreases in sperm concentration and motility in the epididymis, accompanied with reduced testosterone levels and down-regulation of the P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) gene in the mice testes. Our findings indicated that exposure to DiBP increased the urinary 5mdC levels, which supported our recent epidemiological study about the associations of urinary 5mdC with phthalate exposure in the male human population. In addition, DiBP exposure impaired male reproductive function, possibly by disturbing testosterone levels; P450scc might be a major steroidogenic enzyme targeted by DiBP or other phthalates.

  • 38.
    Pan, Yitao
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Hongxia
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Cui, Qianqian
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Sheng, Nan
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Guo, Yong
    Key Laboratory of Organo fl uorine Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, P. R. China.
    Sun, Yan
    Key Laboratory of Organo fl uorine Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.
    Dai, Jiayin
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    First Report on the Occurrence and Bioaccumulation of Hexafluoropropylene Oxide Trimer Acid: An Emerging Concern2017Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, nr 17, s. 9553-9560Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we report on the occurrence of a novel perfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic acid, ammonium perfluoro-2-[(propoxy)propoxy]-1-propanoate (HFPO-TA), in surface water and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from the Xiaoqing River and in 'residents residing near a fluoropolymer production plant in Huantai County, China. Compared with the levels upstream of the Xiaoqing River, HFPO-TA concentrations (5200-68500 ng/L) were approximately 120-1600-times higher downstream after receiving fluoropolymer plant effluent from a tributary. The riverine discharge' of HFPO-TA was estimated to be 4.6 t/yr, accounting for 22% of total PFAS discharge. In the wild common carp collected downstream from the point source, HFPO-TA was detected in the blood (median: 1510 ng/mL), liver (587 ng/g ww), and muscle (118 ng/g ww). The log BCFbiood of HFPO-TA (2.18) was significantly higher than that of PFOA (1.93). Detectable levels of HFPO-TA were also found in the sera of residents (median: 2.93 ng/mL). This is the first report on the environmental occurrence and bioaccumulation of this novel chemical. Our results indicate an emerging usage of HFPO-TA in the fluoropolymer manufacturing industry and raise concerns about the toxicity and potential health risks of HFPO-TA to aquatic organisms and humans.

  • 39.
    Pan, Yitao
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Hongxia
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China.
    Cui, Qianqian
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China.
    Sheng, Nan
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sun, Yan
    Key Laboratory of Organofluorine Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, P. R. China.
    Guo, Yong
    Key Laboratory of Organofluorine Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, P. R. China.
    Dai, Jiayin
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China.
    Worldwide Distribution of Novel Perfluoroether Carboxylic and Sulfonic Acids in Surface Water2018Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, nr 14, s. 7621-7629Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Driven by increasingly stringent restrictions on long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), novel fluorinated compounds have emerged on the market. Here we report on the occurrences of several perfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic and sulfonic acids (PFECAs and PFESAs), including hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer and trimer acids (HFPO-DA and HFPO-TA), ammonium 4,8-dioxa-3 H-perfluorononanoate (ADONA), chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acid (6:2 Cl-PFESA), and its hydrogen-substituted analogue (6:2 H-PFESA) in surface waters from China ( n = 106), the United States ( n = 12), the United Kingdom ( n = 6), Sweden ( n = 10), Germany ( n = 14), The Netherlands ( n = 6), and Korea ( n = 6). Results showed that HFPO-DA, HFPO-TA, and 6:2 Cl-PFESA (median = 0.95, 0.21, and 0.31 ng/L, respectively) were frequently detected in all countries, indicating ubiquitous dispersal and distribution in global surface waters. The presence of 6:2 H-PFESA was widely detected in China (detection rate > 95%) but not in any other country. Only trace levels of ADONA (0.013-1.5 ng/L) were detected in the Rhine River flowing through Germany. The estimated total riverine mass discharges of HFPO-DA, HFPO-TA, and ΣPFESAs reached 2.6, 6.0, and 4.3 ton/year in five of the major river systems in China. Our results indicated that novel PFECAs and PFESAs might become global contaminants, and future investigations are warranted.

  • 40.
    Pan, Yitao
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China.
    Zhu, Yingshuang
    Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Zheng, Tongzhang
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States.
    Cui, Qianqian
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China.
    Buka, Stephen L.
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Brown University, Providence RI, United States.
    Zhang, Bin
    Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; Women and Children Medical and Healthcare Center of Wuhan, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Guo, Yong
    Key Laboratory of Organofluorine Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, P. R. China.
    Xia, Wei
    Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Li, Yuanyuan
    Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Zhou, Aifen
    Women and Children Medical and Healthcare Center of Wuhan, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Qiu, Lin
    Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; Women and Children Medical and Healthcare Center of Wuhan, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Liu, Hongxiu
    Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; Women and Children Medical and Healthcare Center of Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Jiang, Minmin
    Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Wu, Chuansha
    Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Xu, Shunqing
    Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China.
    Dai, Jiayin
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China.
    Novel Chlorinated Polyfluorinated Ether Sulfonates and Legacy Per-/Polyfluoroalkyl Substances: Placental Transfer and Relationship with Serum Albumin and Glomerular Filtration Rate2017Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 634-644Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may cross the placental barrier and lead to fetal exposure. However, little is known about the factors that influence maternal-fetal transfer of these chemicals. PFAS concentrations were analyzed in 100 paired samples of human maternal sera collected in each trimester and cord sera at delivery; these samples were collected in Wuhan, China, 2014. Linear regression was used to estimate associations of transfer efficiencies with factors. Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonates (Cl-PFAESs, 6:2 and 8:2) were frequently detected (>99%) in maternal and cord sera. A significant decline in PFAS levels during the three trimesters was observed. A U-shape trend for transfer efficiency with increasing chain length was observed for both carboxylates and sulfonates. Higher transfer efficiencies of PFASs were associated with advancing maternal age, higher education, and lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Cord serum albumin was a positive factors for higher transfer efficiency (increased 1.1-4.1% per 1g/L albumin), whereas maternal serum albumin tended to reduce transfer efficiency (decreased 2.4-4.3% per 1g/L albumin). Our results suggest that exposure to Cl-PFAESs may be widespread in China. The transfer efficiencies among different PFASs were structure-dependent. Physiological factors (e.g., GFR and serum albumin) were observed for the first time to play critical roles in PFAS placental transfer.

  • 41.
    Parajulee, Abha
    et al.
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada.
    Lei, Ying Duan
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada.
    Cao, Xiaoshu
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada.
    McLagan, David S.
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada .
    Mitchell, Carl P. J.
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada.
    Wania, Frank
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada.
    Comparing winter-time herbicide behavior and exports in urban, rural, and mixed-use watersheds2018Inngår i: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 20, nr 5, s. 767-779Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of pesticides in streams in winter, five to six years following bans on their municipal use suggests that complicated transport behaviour, such as subsurface retention and/or accumulation of pesticides and its release during storms, could be important for understanding recovery time frames following bans or legislation that aim to reduce chemical inputs. We investigated late fall and winter dynamics of four herbicides in paired urban and rural watersheds in Toronto, Canada during rainfall and snowmelt. The range of average concentrations and loads of the sum of atrazine, metolachlor, 2,4-D and mecoprop overlapped in the two types of watersheds, with slightly higher average concentrations in the rural watershed. Relatively consistent herbicide concentration-discharge patterns (i. e. dilution) were observed in the urban sub-watersheds during rainfall, while concentration-discharge patterns were much more variable in the rural watershed. This suggests relatively uniform transport pathways across the urban sub-watersheds, compared to the rural watershed. Concentration-discharge patterns of the neutral herbicides atrazine and metolachlor were similar in both watersheds during snowmelt, though varying discharge patterns resulted in divergent timings of peak concentrations. In contrast, the acidic pesticides 2,4-D and mecoprop, which are primarily associated with urban uses, showed much more variable behavior across both watersheds and merit further investigation. Overall, this work highlights the need to consider pesticide dynamics throughout the year in order to more thoroughly assess the longterm efficacy of legislation governing their use.

  • 42.
    Ren, Hongzu
    et al.
    NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, United States; NHEERL Toxicogenomics Core, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, United States.
    Vallanat, Beena
    NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, United States; NHEERL Toxicogenomics Core, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, United States.
    Nelson, David M.
    Discovery Toxicology, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ, United States.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Guruge, Keerthi S.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.
    Discovery Toxicology, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ, United States.
    Corton, J. Christopher
    NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, United States; NHEERL Toxicogenomics Core, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, United States.
    Evidence for the involvement of xenobiotic-responsive nuclear receptors in transcriptional effects upon perfluoroalkyl acid exposure in diverse species2009Inngår i: Reproductive Toxicology, ISSN 0890-6238, E-ISSN 1873-1708, Vol. 27, nr 3-4, s. 266-277Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans and ecological species have been found to have detectable body burdens of a number of perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAA) including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). In mouse and rat liver these compounds elicit transcriptional and phenotypic effects similar to peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) that work through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Recent studies indicate that along with PPARα other nuclear receptors are required for transcriptional changes in the mouse liver after PFOA exposure including the constitutive activated receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) that regulate xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME). To determine the potential role of CAR/PXR in mediating effects of PFAAs in rat liver, we performed a meta-analysis of transcript profiles from published studies in which rats were exposed to PFOA or PFOS. We compared the profiles to those produced by exposure to prototypical activators of CAR, (phenobarbital (PB)), PXR (pregnenolone 16 alpha-carbonitrile (PCN)), or PPARα (WY-14,643 (WY)). As expected, PFOA and PFOS elicited transcript profile signatures that included many known PPARα target genes. Numerous XME genes were also altered by PFOA and PFOS but not WY. These genes exhibited expression changes shared with PB or PCN. Reexamination of the transcript profiles from the livers of chicken or fish exposed to PFAAs indicated that PPARα, CAR, and PXR orthologs were not activated. Our results indicate that PFAAs under these experimental conditions activate PPARα, CAR, and PXR in rats but not chicken and fish. Lastly, we discuss evidence that human populations with greater CAR expression have lower body burdens of PFAAs.

  • 43.
    Shi, Xiongjie
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Wu, Rudolf S. S.
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Zhou, Bingsheng
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Protein Profiles in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate2009Inngår i: Toxicological Sciences, ISSN 1096-6080, E-ISSN 1096-0929, Vol. 110, nr 2, s. 334-340Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is widely distributed and persistent in the environment and in wildlife, and it has the potential for developmental toxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms that lead to these toxic effects are not well known. In the present study, proteomic analysis has been performed to investigate the proteins that are differentially expressed in zebrafish embryos exposed to 0.5 mg/l PFOS until 192 h postfertilization. Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry was employed to detect and identify the protein profiles. The analysis revealed that 69 proteins showed altered expression in the treatment group compared to the control group with either increase or decrease in expression levels (more than twofold difference). Of the 69 spots corresponding to the proteins with altered expression, 38 were selected and subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF/TOF) analysis; 18 proteins were identified in this analysis. These proteins can be categorized into diverse functional classes such as detoxification, energy metabolism, lipid transport/steroid metabolic process, cell structure, signal transduction, and apoptosis. Overall, proteomic analysis using zebrafish embryos serves as an in vivo model in environmental risk assessment and provides insight into the molecular events in PFOS-induced developmental toxicity.

  • 44.
    So, M. K.
    et al.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Miyake, Y.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yeung, W. Y.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Ho, Y. M.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Taniyasu, S.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Rostkowski, P.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; Department of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.
    Yamashita, N.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Zhou, B. S.
    State key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Shi, X. J.
    State key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Wang, J. X.
    State key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Giesy, J. P.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong; Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Canada; Zoology Department, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Center for Integrative Toxicology, E. Lansing, MI, United States.
    Yu, H.
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.
    Lam, P. K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Perfluorinated compounds in the Pearl River and Yangtze River of China2007Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 68, nr 11, s. 2085-2095Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 14 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were quantified in river water samples collected from tributaries of the Pearl River (Guangzhou Province, south China) and the Yangtze River (central China). Among the PFCs analyzed, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the two compounds with the highest concentrations. PFOS concentrations ranged from 0.90 to 99 ng/l and <0.01-14 ng/l in samples from the Pearl River and Yangtze River, respectively; whereas those for PFOA ranged from 0.85 to 13 ng/l and 2.0-260 ng/l. Lower concentrations were measured for perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanesulfoamide (PFOSA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorononaoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA). Concentrations of several perfluorocarboxylic acids, including perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA), perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA), perfluorohexadecanoic acid (PFHxDA) and perfluorooctadecanoic acid (PFOcDA) were lower than the limits of quantification in all the samples analyzed. The highest concentrations of most PFCs were observed in water samples from the Yangtze River near Shanghai, the major industrial and financial centre in China. In addition, sampling locations in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River with a reduced flow rate might serve as a final sink for contaminants from the upstream river runoffs. Generally, PFOS was the dominant PFC found in samples from the Pearl River, while PFOA was the predominant PFC in water from the Yangtze River. Specifically, a considerable amount of PFBS (22.9-26.1% of total PFC analyzed) was measured in water collected near Nanjing, which indicates the presence of potential sources of PFBS in this part of China. Completely different PFC composition profiles were observed for samples from the Pearl River and the Yangtze River. This indicates the presence of dissimilar sources in these two regions.

  • 45.
    Song, Renfang
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong; State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Research Center of Mass Spectrometry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Guangzhou, China; Graduate School, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    He, Yuhe
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Murphy, Margaret B.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Yu, Richard M. K.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Michael H. W.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Hecker, Markus
    Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada; ENTRIX, Inc., RR5, Hidden Ridge Estates, Saskatoon, Canada.
    Giesy, John P.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong; Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada; Department of Zoology, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Center for Integrative Toxicology, East Lansing, MI, United States.
    Wu, Rudolf S. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Zhang, Wenbing
    State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Research Center of Mass Spectrometry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Guangzhou, China.
    Sheng, Guoying
    State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Research Center of Mass Spectrometry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Guangzhou, China.
    Fu, Jiamo
    State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Research Center of Mass Spectrometry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Guangzhou, China.
    Effects of fifteen PBDE metabolites, DE71, DE79 and TBBPA on steroidogenesis in the H295R cell line2008Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 71, nr 10, s. 1888-1894Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are brominated flame retardants that are produced in large quantities and are commonly used in construction materials, textiles, and as polymers in electronic equipment. Environmental and human levels of PBDEs have been increasing in the past 30 years, but the toxicity of PBDEs is not fully understood. Studies on their effects are relatively limited, and show that PBDEs are neurotoxins and potential endocrine disrupters. Hydroxylated (OH{single bond}) and methoxylated (MeO{single bond}) PBDEs have also been reported in the adipose tissue, blood and milk of wild animals and humans. In the present study, 15 PBDE metabolites, two BDE mixtures (DE71 and DE79), and TBBPA were studied individually to determine their effects on ten steroidogenic genes, aromatase activity, and concentrations of two steroid hormones (testosterone and 17β-estradiol) in the H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line. Exposure to 0.05 μM 2′-OH-BDE-68 significantly induced the expression of CYP11A, CYP11B2, CYP17, CYP21, 3βHSD2, 17βHSD1, and 17βHSD4, and the expression of StAR was induced by 6-OH-BDE-90 at the three exposure concentrations. Exposure to DE71 and DE79 resulted in dose-dependent trend towards induction, but these effects were not significant. Exposure to 0.5 μM 2-OH-BDE-123 and 2-MeO-BDE-123 resulted in significantly greater aromatase activity. However, none of the compounds affected sex hormone production at the concentrations tested. Generally, OH-BDEs had a much stronger ability to affect steroidogenic gene expression than MeO-BDEs.

  • 46.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    et al.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, School of Public Health, State University of New York, Albany NY, United States.
    Wu, Qian
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York NY, USA.
    Kwok, Karen Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Chittim, Brock
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph ON, Canada.
    Kida, Takafumi
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph ON, Canada; Wellington Laboratories Japan Inc., Tokyo, Japan.
    Takasuga, Takumi
    Shimadzu Techno Research Inc., Kyoto, Japan.
    Tsuchiya, Yoshiteru
    Environmental Control Center Co., Tokyo, Japan.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Inter-laboratory trials for analysis of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoate in water samples: Performance and recommendations2013Inngår i: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 770, s. 111-120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ISO 25101 (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva) describes a new international standard method for the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in unfiltered samples of drinking and surface waters. The method is based on the extraction of target analytes by solid phase extraction, solvent elution, and determination by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). For the determination of the performance of this method, more than 20 laboratories from 9 different countries participated in an inter-laboratory trial in 2006. In addition, inter-laboratory trials were conducted in 2008 and 2009 for the analysis of perfluoroalkylsubstances (PFASs), including PFOS and PFOA, in water samples by following the protocols of Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS). Overall, the repeatability coefficients of variation (i.e., within-laboratory precision) for PFOS and PFOA in all water samples were between 3 and 11%, showing a adequate precision of the ISO and JIS methods. The reproducibility coefficients of variation (i.e., between-laboratory precision) were found to vary within a range of 7-31% for surface water and 20-40% for wastewater. The recoveries of PFOS and PFOA, as a measure of accuracy, varied from 84 to 100% for surface water and from 84 to 100% for wastewater among the samples with acceptable criteria for internal standards recovery. The determined concentrations of PFASs in samples compared well with the " true" values. The results of the inter-laboratory trial confirmed that the analytical methods are robust and reliable and can be used as a standard method for the analysis of target compounds in water samples.

  • 47.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    et al.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Albany, NY, United States.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Kwok, Karen Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Analysis of trifluoroacetic acid and other short-chain perfluorinated acids (C2-C4) in precipitation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Comparison to patterns of long-chain perfluorinated acids (C5-C18)2008Inngår i: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 619, nr 2, s. 221-230Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A method has been developed to measure 29 perfluorinated acids (PFAs) including short-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) such as trifluoroacetic acid (TFA; C2) and long-chain PFCAs, perfluoroalkylsulfonates, fluorotelomer acids, and two perfluorooctylsulfonamides in water matrices. The method involves solid phase extraction (SPE) using a weak anion-exchange (WAX) cartridge, an ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column separation, and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection. To our knowledge, this is the first HPLC-MS/MS method to determine TFA in water at sub-ng L-1 concentrations. The method is selective, simple, and robust, capable of measuring 29 PFAs in a single analysis, with overall recoveries of the target analytes ranging from 75% to 132%. The method was applied to the analysis of rainwater samples collected from two cities in Japan. TFA and several short-chain PFAs were the major compounds found in rainwater.

  • 48.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    et al.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Senthilkumar, Kurunthachalam
    Department of Natural Sciences, Savannah State University, Savannah GA, United States.
    Yamazaki, Eriko
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Guruge, Keerthi S.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, State University of New York, Albany NY, United States.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Perfluoroalkyl Substances in the Blood of Wild Rats and Mice from 47 Prefectures in Japan: Use of Samples from Nationwide Specimen Bank2013Inngår i: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 65, nr 1, s. 149-170Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous studies have reported on the global distribution, persistence, fate, and toxicity of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). However, studies on PFASs in terrestrial mammals are scarce. Rats can be good sentinels of human exposure to toxicants because of their habitat, which is in close proximity to humans. Furthermore, exposure data measured for rats can be directly applied for risk assessment because many toxicological studies use rodent models. In this study, a nationwide survey of PFASs in the blood of wild rats as well as surface water samples collected from rats' habitats from 47 prefectures in Japan was conducted. In addition to known PFASs, combustion ion chromatography technique was used for analysis of total fluorine concentrations in the blood of rats. In total, 216 blood samples representing three species of wild rats (house rat, Norway rats, and field mice) were analyzed for 23 PFASs. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS; concentration range <0.05-148 ng/mL), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA; <0.1-157), perfluorododecanoate (<0.05-5.8), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA; <0.05-51), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA; <0.05-9.7), perfluorononanoate (PFNA; <0.05-249), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) (<0.05-60) were detected >80 % of the blood samples. Concentrations of several PFASs in rat blood were similar to those reported for humans. PFSAs (mainly PFOS) accounted for 45 % of total PFASs, whereas perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), especially PFUnDA and PFNA, accounted for 20 and 10 % of total PFASs, respectively. In water samples, PFCAs were the predominant compounds with PFOA and PFNA found in >90 % of the samples. There were strong correlations (p < 0.001 to p < 0.05) between human population density and levels of PFOS, PFNA, PFOA, and PFOSA in wild rat blood.

  • 49.
    Uwayezu, Jean-Noel
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sorption of PFOS isomers on goethite as a function of pH, dissolved organic matter (humic and fulvic acid) and sulfate2019Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 233, s. 896-904Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the distribution of PFOS isomers between the aqueous phase and goethite is crucial, since it is an abundant sorbent and thus may have a large influence on the mobility of PFOS. This study was conducted to understand the effects of pH, humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA) and sulfate on sorption of PFOS isomers. The results will increase the understanding about what parameters may control the fate and transport of PFOS in surface and ground water.

    The study was conducted by adding PFOS spiked water to a goethite slurry with different aqueous chemistry. Levels of total PFOS and PFOS isomers were quantified using an Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatograph coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Results showed that sorption of PFOS was mainly dependent on pH; sorption decreased as pH increased. Presence of HA increased log K-d from 1.29 to 2.03, 1.76 to 1.92 and 1.51 to 1.96 at pH 5.50-7.50 for 3-/4-/4-PFOS, 6-/2-PFOS and L-PFOS, respectively. Changes in the aqueous chemistry also affected the behaviour of PFOS as the addition of Na2SO4 enhanced the sorption of PFOS. Results showed that L-PFOS was more readily sorbed to goethite at pH < 4.35 both in the presence and in the absence of humic or fulvic acids. At pH > 4.5 the 3-/4-/5-PFOS isomer group was more associated to goethite. Besides electrostatic interactions, which controlled the sorption of PFOS, this study indicate that the presence of dissolved humic substances in the aqueous phase enhances the sorption via hydrophobic mechanisms.

  • 50.
    Wang, Jianshe
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Yating
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Fang
    College of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    Environmental Measurement Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yamazaki, Eriko
    Environmental Measurement Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Wang, Renping
    Administration Bureau of Anhui Chinese Alligator National Nature Reserve, Xuancheng Anhui, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    Environmental Measurement Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Dai, Jiayin
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Age- and gender-related accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in captive Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis)2013Inngår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 179, s. 61-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in serum of the highly endangered captive Chinese alligators, whole body homogenates of six kinds of fish (alligator prey species), and pond water (alligator habitat) in the Anhui Research Center for Chinese Alligator Reproduction. Six PFASs, including PFOS and five perfluorinated carboxylates, were detected in all alligator samples. The most dominant PFAS was PFUnDA, with a mean value of 31.4 ng/mL. Significant positive correlations were observed among the six PFASs, suggesting that they shared similar sources of contamination. Significantly higher PFOS and PFUnDA levels were observed in males, but the other four PFCAs did not differ between genders. An age related PFAS bioaccumulation analysis showed a significant negative correlation of the concentrations for five PFCAs to age, which means that higher concentrations were found in younger animals. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) in fish for PFASs ranged from 21 to 28,000, with lower BAF for PFOA than that for longer carbon chain PFCAs, including PFUnDA, PFDA, and PFNA.

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