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  • 1.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    et al.
    Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan; Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), China.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), China.
    Ebinghaus, Ralf
    Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Distribution of polyfluoroalkyl compounds in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment from Tokyo Bay, Japan2010Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 79, nr 3, s. 266-272Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the environmental behaviour and fate of polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) found in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment. The sampling of the sediment was performed at two stations from Tokyo Bay, Japan, in 2008. In addition, a depth profile of seawater was collected at three water layers from both sampling stations. The ∑PFC concentrations ranged from 16.7 to 42.3 ng L-1 in the water column, from 6.4 to 15.1 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) in the SPM fraction and from 0.29 to 0.36 dw in surface sediment. The distribution of PFCs was found to depend on their physicochemical characteristics. While short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (C < 7) were exclusively detected in the dissolved phase, longer-chain PFCAs (C ≥ 7), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (EtFOSAA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) appeared to bind more strongly to particles. Results showed that the sorption of PFCs on SPM increases by 0.52-0.75 log units for each additional CF2 moiety and that the sorption of PFSAs was 0.71-0.76 log units higher compared to the PFCA analogs. In addition, the sorption of PFCs was influenced by the organic carbon content. These data are essential for modelling the transport and environmental fate of PFCs.

  • 2.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    et al.
    Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany; Institute for Ecology and Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Lüneburg, Germany.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Horii, Yuichi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Ebinghaus, Ralf
    Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Partitioning Behavior of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds between Pore Water and Sediment in Two Sediment Cores from Tokyo Bay, Japan2009Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, nr 18, s. 6969-6975Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The partitioning behavior of per- and polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) between pore water and sediment in two sediment cores collected from Tokyo Bay, Japan, was investigated. In addition, the fluxes and temporal trends in one dated sediment core were studied. Short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (C ≤ 7) were found exclusively in pore water, while long-chain PFCAs (C ≥ 11) were found only in sediment. The perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), n-ethylperfluoro-1-octanesulfonamidoacetic acid (N-EtFOSAA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) seemed to bind more strongly to sediment than PFCAs. The enrichment of PFCs on sediment increased with increasing organic matter and decreasing pH. The perfluorocarbon chain length and functional group were identified as the dominating parameters that had an influence on the partitioning behavior of the PFCs in sediment. The maximum ΣPFC contamination in sediment was observed in 2001-2002 to be a flux of 197 pg cm-2 yr-1. Statistically significant increased concentrations in Tokyo Bay were found for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) (1956-2008), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (1990-2008), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (1990-2008). Concentrations of PFOSA and N-EtFOSAA increased between 1985 and 2001, but after 2001, the concentration decreased significantly, which corresponded with the phase out of perfluorooctyl sulfonyl fluoride-based compounds by the 3M Company in 2000.

  • 3.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    et al.
    Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Institute of Coastal Research, Department for Environmental Chemistry, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Partitioning of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) between water and sediment2011Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 85, nr 5, s. 731-737Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory partitioning experiments were conducted to elucidate the sorption behaviour and partitioning of perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs). Three different sediment types were used and separately spiked with perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) at low environmentally realistic concentrations. PFOA, PFOS and PFOSA were mainly distributed in the dissolved phase at low suspended solid concentrations, indicating their long-range transport potential in the marine environment. In all cases, the equilibrium isotherms were linear and the organic carbon normalised partition coefficients (K OC) decreased in the following order: PFOSA (log K OC=4.1±0.35cm 3g -1)>PFOS (3.7±0.56cm 3g -1)>PFOA (2.4±0.12cm 3g -1). The level of organic content had a significant influence on the partitioning. For the sediment with negligible organic content the density of the sediment became the most important factor influencing the partitioning. Ultimately, data on the partitioning of PFCs between aqueous media and suspended solids are essential for modelling their transport and environmental fate.

  • 4.
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    et al.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Canada.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, China.
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Canada.
    Perfluorinated Acid Isomer Profiling in Water and Quantitative Assessment of Manufacturing Source2010Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, nr 23, s. 9049-9054Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for isomer profiling of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in water was developed and applied to quantitatively assess the contributions from electrochemical (ECF) and telomer manufacturing processes around source regions of North America, Asia, and Europe. With the exception of 3 sites in Japan, over 80% of total perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, C7F15COO -) was from ECF, with the balance attributable to strictly linear (presumably telomer) manufacturing source(s). Comparing PFOA isomer profiles in samples from China, with PFOA obtained from a local Chinese manufacturer, indicated <3% difference in overall branched isomer content; thus, exclusive contribution from local ECF production cannot be ruled out. In Tokyo Bay, ECF, linear-telomer, and isopropyl-telomer sources contributed to 33%, 53%, and 14% of total PFOA, respectively. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, C 8F17SO3-) isomer profiles were enriched in branched content (i.e., >50% branched) in the Mississippi River but in all other locations were similar or only slightly enriched in branched content relative to historical ECF PFOS. Isomer profiles of other PFCs are also reported. Overall, these data suggest that, with the exception of Tokyo Bay, ECF manufacturing has contributed to the bulk of contamination around these source regions, but other sources are significant, and remote sites should be monitored.

  • 5.
    Choi, Nicola M. C.
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Siu, William H. L.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    So, Iris M. K.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Jack, Ralph W.
    Department of Microbiology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Hsieh, Dennis P. H.
    Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Wu, Rudolf S. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Relationships between tissue concentrations of paralytic shellfish toxins and antioxidative responses of clams, Ruditapes philippinarum2006Ingår i: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 572-578Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Deng, Jun
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China; Graduate School, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yu, Liqin
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China; Graduate School, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Chunsheng
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Yu, Ke
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Shi, Xiongjie
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, HK SAR, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, HK SAR, China.
    Wu, Rudolf S. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, HK SAR, China.
    Zhou, Bingsheng
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Hexabromocyclododecane-induced developmental toxicity and apoptosis in zebrafish embryos2009Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 93, nr 1, s. 29-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is widely used as a brominated flame retardant, and has been detected in the aquatic environment, wild animals, and humans. However, details of the environmental health risk of HBCD are not well known. In this study, zebrafish embryos were used to assess the developmental toxicity of the chemical. Four-hour post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos were exposed to various concentrations of HBCD (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg L-1) until 96 h. Exposure to 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg L-1 HBCD significantly increased the malformation rate and reduced survival in the 0.5 and 1.0 mg L-1 HBCD exposure groups. Acridine orange (AO) staining showed that HBCD exposure resulted in cell apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was significantly induced at exposures of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg L-1 HBCD. To test the apoptotic pathway, several genes related to cell apoptosis, such as p53, Puma, Apaf-1, caspase-9, and caspase-3, were examined using real-time PCR. The expression patterns of these genes were up-regulated to some extent. Two anti-apoptotic genes, Mdm2 (antagonist of p53) and Bcl-2 (inhibitor of Bax), were down-regulated, and the activity of capspase-9 and caspase-3 was significantly increased. The overall results demonstrate that waterborne HBCD is able to produce oxidative stress and induce apoptosis through the involvement of caspases in zebrafish embryos. The results also indicate that zebrafish embryos can serve as a reliable model for the developmental toxicity of HBCD.

  • 7.
    Ding, Ling
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Murphy, Margaret B.
    Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    He, Yuhe
    Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Xu, Yan
    Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Wang, Jingxian
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Zhou, Bingsheng
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Wu, Rudolf S. S.
    Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Giesy, John P.
    Department of Zoology, Institute for Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States.
    Effects of brominated flame retardants and brominated dioxins on steroidogenesis in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line2007Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 764-772Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and brominated dioxins are emerging persistent organic pollutants that are ubiquitous in the environment and can be accumulated by wildlife and humans. These chemicals can disturb endocrine function. Recent studies have demonstrated that one of the mechanisms of endocrine disruption by chemicals is modulation of steroidogenic gene expression or enzyme activities. In this study, an in vitro assay based on the H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line, which possesses most key genes or enzymes involved in steroidogenesis, was used to examine the effects of five bromophenols, two polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs 77 and 169), 2,3,7,8-tetrabromodibenzo-p-dioxin, and 2,3,7,8-tetrabromodibenzofuran on the expression of 10 key steroidogenic genes. The H295R cells were exposed to various BFR concentrations for 48 h, and the expression of specific genes - cytochrome P450 (CYP11A, CYP11B2, CYP17, CYP19, and CYP21), 3β- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD2), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17βHSD1 and 17βHSD4), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) - was quantitatively measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell viability was not affected at the doses tested. Most of the genes were either up- or down-regulated, to some extent, by BFR exposure. Among the genes tested, 3βHSD2 was the most markedly up-regulated, with a range of magnitude from 1.6- to 20-fold. The results demonstrate that bromophenol, bromobiphenyls, and bromodibenzo-p-dioxin/furan are able to modulate steroidogenic gene expression, which may lead to endocrine disruption.

  • 8.
    Gulkowska, A.
    et al.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    He, Yuhe
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    So, M. K.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Leung, H. W.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Giesy, J. P.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong; Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Martin, Michael
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Richardson, Bruce J.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    The occurrence of selected antibiotics in Hong Kong coastal waters2007Ingår i: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 54, nr 8, s. 1287-1293Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Gulkowska, A.
    et al.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Leung, H. W.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    So, M. K.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Taniyasu, S.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yamashita, N.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Richardson, Bruce J.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lei, A. P.
    College of Life Sciences, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.
    Giesy, J. P.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong; Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Canada; National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Zoology Department, Center for Integrative Toxicology, East Lansing, MI, United States.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Removal of antibiotics from wastewater by sewage treatment facilities in Hong Kong and Shenzhen, China2008Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 42, nr 1-2, s. 395-403Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of nine antibiotics [erythromycin-H2O (ERY-H2O); trimethoprim (TMP); tetracycline (TET); norfloxacin (NOR); penicillin G (PEN G); penicillin V (PEN V); cefalexin (CLX); cefotaxim (CTX); and cefazolin (CFZ)] were measured in influent and effluent samples from four sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Hong Kong as well as in influent samples from one STP in Shenzhen. Levels of PEN V and CFZ were below method detection limits in all of the samples analyzed. CLX concentrations were the highest in most of the Hong Kong samples, ranging from 670 to 2900 ng/L and 240 to 1800 ng/L in influent and effluent samples, respectively, but CLX was not detected in the samples from Shenzhen. Comparatively lower concentrations were observed for ERY-H2O (470-810 ng/L) and TET (96-1300 ng/L) in the influent samples from all STPs in Hong Kong. CTX was found to be the dominant antibiotic in the Shenzhen STP influents with a mean concentration of 1100 ng/L, but occurred at lower concentrations in Hong Kong sewage. These results likely reflect regional variations in the prescription and use patterns of antibiotics between Hong Kong and Shenzhen. Antibiotic removal efficiencies depended on their chemical properties and the wastewater treatment processes used. In general, relatively higher removal efficiencies were observed for NOR (5-78%) and TET (7-73%), which are readily adsorbed to particulate matter, while lower removal efficiencies were observed for ERY-H2O (9-19%), which is relatively persistent in the environment. Antibiotics were removed more efficiently at Hong Kong STPs employing secondary treatment processes compared with those using primary treatment only. Concentrations of NOR measured in effluents from STPs in Hong Kong were lower than the predicted no-effect concentration of 8000 ng/L determined in a previous study. Therefore, concentrations of antibiotics measured in this preliminary study would be unlikely to cause adverse effects on microorganisms used in wastewater treatment processes at the sampled STPs.

  • 10.
    Hung, Craig L. H.
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Xu, Yan
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, James C. W.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Jefferson, Thomas A.
    Southwest Fisheries Center, NOAA Fisheries, La Jolla, CA, United States.
    Hung, Samuel K.
    Hong Kong Cetacean Research Project, 12 Kak Tin Kung Miu Village, Tai Wai, Hong Kong.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Michael H. W.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    O'Toole, Desmond K.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    An assessment of the risks associated with polychlorinated biphenyls found in the stomach contents of stranded Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and Finless Porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from Hong Kong waters2006Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 63, nr 5, s. 845-852Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The risks to Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins and Finless Porpoises associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed. Stomach contents from twelve stranded Humpback Dolphins and sixteen stranded Finless Porpoises were collected. Concentrations of total and isomer-specific PCBs in the stomach contents were determined using dual-column gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detectors (GC-ECD). Risks due to the PCBs were assessed in three scenarios, based on total PCBs (summation of 41 PCB congeners), total toxicity equivalency (TEQs) and PCB 118, using the toxicity reference values (TRVs) as the threshold effects benchmarks. The calculated risk quotients (RQs) showed that risks due to PCBs were generally low or negligible. Specifically, RQs from total TEQs and total PCBs for Finless Porpoises are below one, suggesting that PCBs should be a low risk for the Finless Porpoise in Hong Kong waters. However, the Humpback Dolphin has RQs larger than 1 for total TEQs and total PCBs when the 95th percentile data were used in the evaluation. This indicates that further investigation may be needed to examine more closely the potential impact of toxic contaminants in the habitat of the Humpback Dolphin.

  • 11.
    Jiao, Liping
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong; Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fijian, China; Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian, China.
    Zheng, Gene J.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong;Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Minh, Tu Binh
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Richardson, Bruce
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Chen, Liqi
    Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fijian, China; Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian, China.
    Zhang, Yuanhui
    Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fijian, China; Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian, China.
    Yeung, Leo W.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, James C. W.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Yang, Xulin
    Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fijian, China; Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Wong, Ming H.
    Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Persistent toxic substances in remote lake and coastal sediments from Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic: Levels, sources and fluxes2009Ingår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 157, nr 4, s. 1342-1351Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface sediments from remote lakes and coastal areas from Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Relatively high levels of PAHs were encountered from several lakes from Ny-Ålesund, which were within the range of levels reported for European high mountain lakes and some urban/industrialized areas in the world, pointing to the role of remote Arctic lakes as potential reservoir of semi-volatile organic compounds. Specific patterns of PBDEs were observed, showing higher concentrations of lower brominated compounds such as BDE-7, 17 and 28. Estimated surface sediment fluxes of PAHs in Ny-Ålesund remote lakes were similar to those observed for some European high mountain lakes. The current PAH levels in sediments from three lakes exceeded Canadian sediment quality guidelines, suggesting the presence of possible risks for aquatic organisms and the need for further studies.

  • 12.
    Kwok, Karen Y.
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong Kowloon, Hong Kong, China; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong Kowloon, Hong Kong, China; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Murphy, Margaret B.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
    Horii, Yuichi
    Group of Chemical Substances, Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, Kazo Saitama, Japan.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, United States.
    Petrick, Gert
    Department of Marine Chemistry, Leibniz-Institute of Marine Sciences, Kiel, Germany.
    Sinha, Ravindra K.
    Environmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Patna University, Patna, India.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    Flux of Perfluorinated Chemicals through Wet Deposition in Japan, the United States, And Several Other Countries2010Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, nr 18, s. 7043-7049Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread distribution of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in different environmental matrices has prompted concern about the sources, fate, and transport of these classes of chemicals. PFCs are present in the atmosphere, but only a few studies have investigated their occurrence in precipitation. In this study, concentrations of 20 PFCs, including C3-C5 short-chain PFCs, were quantified using HPLC-MS/MS in precipitation samples from Japan (n = 31), the United States (n = 12), China (n = 5), India (n = 2), and France (n = 2). Among the PFCs measured, perfluoropropanoic acid (PFPrA) was detected in all of the precipitation samples. Average total PFC concentrations ranged from 1.40 to 18.1 ng/L for the seven cities studied. The greatest total PFC concentrations were detected in Tsukuba, Japan, whereas the lowest concentrations were detected in Patna, India. PFPrA, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were found to be the dominant PFCs in Japanese and U.S. precipitation samples. No observable seasonal trend was found in precipitation samples from two locations in Japan. Annual fluxes of PFCs were estimated for Japan and the U.S. and the evidence for precipitation as an effective scavenger of PFCs in the atmosphere is reported.

  • 13.
    Li, Xuemei
    et al.
    Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong; Environmental Measurement Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    Environmental Measurement Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Li, Ming
    Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Hongxia
    Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Dan
    Siberia Tiger Park Heilongjiang, Harbin, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    Dai, Jiayin
    Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in the Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) from China2008Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, nr 19, s. 7078-7083Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are used in a variety of industrial applications. We tested the hypothesis that, in Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), captivity in industrialized areas increases PFC levels, potentially presenting a health risk to these animals. Serum samples were collected from 100 tigers from industrialized or nonindustrialized regions in China with nonpoint sources of PFCs. Mean concentrations of PFCs in these samples ranged from 1.57 ± 0.83 ng/mL in nonindustrial Hailin to 4.31 ± 2.90 ng/mL in industrial Beijing. PFC concentrations were significantly higher in tigers from the industrial city of Harbin than those from Hailin (p < 0.05). Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the most abundant PFC in all tigers and increased with age, regardless of industrial/nonindustrial background (p < 0.01). However, PFOS concentrations were 2-4 orders of magnitude less than the current no-observed-effect level. In addition, overall PFC levels in Amur tigers were low compared with various species living in other countries, consistent with the relatively short history of PFC use in China. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that captivity in industrialized areas increases PFC levels in Amurtigers. They also suggestthat PFC accumulation will persist, and even increase, with continued use of PFCs in China.

  • 14.
    Li, Xuemei
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yeung, Leo Wai Yin
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, HK SAR, China; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, HK SAR, China.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Xu, Muqi
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Dai, Jiayin
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Accumulation of perfluorinated compounds in captive Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) and African lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus) in China2008Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 73, nr 10, s. 1649-1653Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The accumulation of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the sera of captive wildlife species Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) and African lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus) from Harbin Wildlife Park, Heilongjiang Province, in China were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant contaminant with a mean serum concentration of 1.18 ng mL-1 in tigers and 2.69 ng mL-1 in lions. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was the second most prevalent contaminant in both species. The composition profiles of the tested PFCs differed between tigers and lions, and the percentages of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were greater in lions than in tigers, indicating different exposures and/or metabolic capabilities between the two species. Assessments of the risk of PFC contamination to the two species were obtained by comparing measured concentrations to points of departure or toxicity reference values (TRVs). Results suggest no risk of PFOS exposure or toxicity for the two species.

  • 15.
    Li, Xuemei
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, China; Graduate School, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yeung, Leo Wai Yin
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, HK SAR, China; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Xu, Muqi
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, China.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, HK SAR, China.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Dai, Jiayin
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, China.
    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in fish blood collected near the outfall of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing2008Ingår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 156, nr 3, s. 1298-1303Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in zooplankton and five fish species collected from Gaobeidian Lake, which receives discharge from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing, China. The mean total PFCs in five fish were in the order: crucian carp > common carp > leather catfish > white semiknife carp > tilapia. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) occurred at the greatest concentrations, with mean concentrations ranging from 5.74 to 64.2 ng/ml serum. Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was the second dominant PFC in fish samples except for common carp in which perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) was dominant. A positive linear relationship (r2 = 0.85, p < 0.05) was observed between ln PFOS concentrations (ln ng/ml) and trophic level (based on δ15N) if tilapia was excluded. The risk assessment showed that PFOS might not pose an immediate risk to fish in Gaobeidian Lake.

  • 16.
    Loi, Eva I. H.
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Mabury, Scott A.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Detections of Commercial Fluorosurfactants in Hong Kong Marine Environment and Human Blood: A Pilot Study2013Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, nr 9, s. 4677-4685Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previously, much of the perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) research has focused on perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) or perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs). Recent studies indicate that known PFCAs and PFSAs accounted for 5-95% of the organofluorine (OF) in human and wild rat blood samples suggesting that a relatively large proportion of OF remained unknown. Until recently, some studies reported commercially available compounds such as polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) and fluorotelomer sulfonates (FTSAs) in human blood and sludge samples. The present investigation is a pilot study aiming at surveying some newly identified PFASs such as diPAPs, FTSAs, and perfluorinated phosphinates (PFPiAs) in different environmental samples including surface water, sediment, sewage treatment plant influent and effluent, sludge, benthic worm, and human blood from Hong Kong. DiPAPs (6:2, 6:2/8:2, and 8:2) were detected in some of the samples at part-per-billion (ppb) levels in sludge, sub ppb levels in influent and effluent, sediment, worm, and human blood samples, and sub part-per-trillion (ppt) levels in surface waters. Sub ppt to ppb levels of 6:2 and 8:2 FTSAs were observed in worm, surface water, and human blood samples. PFPiAs were only observed in worm samples. The detected "new PFASs" accounted for a minor proportion (less than 5%) of the total PFASs in benthic worm and human blood, but up to 95% in sewage sludge samples from Hong Kong. This is the first report of commercial fluorosurfactants (PFPiAs, diPAPs, and FTSAs) in the samples from the environment and human blood in Hong Kong; further information on the distribution, fate, and transport of "new PFASs" in other Asian cities, as well as toxicity, is needed for further assessing the human exposure and risk.

  • 17.
    Loi, Eva I. H.
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Ibaraki, Japan; Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, State University of New York, Albany NY, United States.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Ibaraki, Japan.
    Trophic Magnification of Poly- and Perfluorinated Compounds in a Subtropical Food Web2011Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, nr 13, s. 5506-5513Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are known to biomagnify in temperate and Arctic food webs, but little is known about their behavior in subtropical systems. The environmental distribution and biomagnification of PFCs, extractable organic fluorine (EOF), and total fluorine were investigated in a subtropical food web. Surface water, sediment, phytoplankton, zooplankton, gastropods, worms, shrimps, fishes, and waterbirds collected in the Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve in Hong Kong were analyzed. Trophic magnification was observed for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA), and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA) in this food web. Risk assessment results for PFOS, PFDA, and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) suggest that current PFC concentrations in waterbird livers are unlikely to pose adverse biological effects to waterbirds. All hazard ratio (HR) values reported for PFOS and PFOA are less than one, which suggests that the detected levels will not cause any immediate health effects to the Hong Kong population through the consumption of shrimps and fishes. However, only 10-12% of the EOF in the shrimp samples was comprised of known PFCs, indicating the need for further investigation to identify unknown fluorinated compounds in wildlife.

  • 18.
    Lu, Guo-Hui
    et al.
    National Research Center for Geoanalysis (NRCGA) Xicheng District, Beijing, China; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yang, Yong-Liang
    National Research Center for Geoanalysis (NRCGA) Xicheng District, Beijing, China.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Ibaraki, Japan; Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, China.
    Pan, Jing
    National Research Center for Geoanalysis (NRCGA) Xicheng District, Beijing, China.
    Zhou, Bingsheng
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Ibaraki, Japan.
    Potential exposure of perfluorinated compounds to Chinese in Shenyang and Yangtze River Delta areas2011Ingår i: Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 1448-2517, E-ISSN 1449-8979, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 407-418Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental contextA total of 21 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including PFOS were quantified in river waters, sewage, sea waters, shallow ground waters as well as fish and domestic poultry, focussed on the main river basins in Shenyang and the Yangtze River Delta areas, China. The distribution characteristics of PFCs in the aquatic environment and evaluation of the potential risk for human health via the diet of fish was discussed. Comprehensive research was carried out using the world leading knowledge about PFOS-related chemicals in AIST, Japan to enable reliable evaluation of PFOS risk in Chinese environments, supported by ISO25101. AbstractA total of 21 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were quantified in water and biota samples collected from Shenyang in North-east China and the Yangtze River Delta area in East China. The human health risk owing to intake of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) via fish and domestic poultry dietary was evaluated. The total PFC concentration (∑PFC) in water samples from the rivers in Shenyang averaged 5.32ngL-1, with PFOS and PFOA as the predominant compounds. The urban sewage could be the source of PFOS and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) in the surface waters. The total PFCs in water samples from the Yangtze River Delta area ranged from 42.4 to 170ngL-1. The highest concentrations of most PFCs were observed in waters from the Shanghai section of the Yangtze River. In the biota samples, PFOS and PFUnDA (perfluoroundecanoic acid) were the most abundant. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) and hazard ratio (HR) values for PFOS and PFOA intake through the diet of fish and poultry in the studied areas were calculated, and showed that the HR values for PFOS and PFOA are all less than 1.0 for both the areas.

  • 19.
    Mak, Yim Ling
    et al.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lu, Guohui
    National Research Center for Geoanalysis, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, 26 Bai Wan Zhuang Avenue, Xicheng District, Beijing, China.
    Jin, Ling
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Yang, Yongliang
    National Research Center for Geoanalysis, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, 26 Bai Wan Zhuang Avenue, Xicheng District, Beijing, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, United States; Department of Environmental Health Sciences, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY, United States.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Perfluorinated Compounds in Tap Water from China and Several Other Countries2009Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, nr 13, s. 4824-4829Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent development of a sensitive and accurate analytical method for the analysis of 20 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including several short-chain PFCs, has enabled their quantification in tap water collected in China, Japan, India, the United States, and Canada between 2006 and 2008. Of the PFCs measured, PFOS, PFHxS, PFBS, PFPrS, PFEtS, PFOSA, N-EtFOSAA, PFDoDA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, PFHpA, PFHxA, PFPeA, PFBA, and PFPrA were found at detectable concentrations in the tap water samples. The water samples from Shanghai (China) contained the greatest concentrations of total PFCs (arithmetic mean = 130 ng/L), whereas those from Toyama (Japan) contained only 0.62 ng/L. In addition to PFOS and PFOA, short-chain PFCs such as PFHxS, PFBS, PFHxA, and PFBA were found to be prevalent in drinking water. According to the health-based values (HBVs) and advisory guidelines derived for PFOS, PFOA, PFBA, PFHxS, PFBS, PFHxA, and PFPeA by the U.S.EPA and the Minnesota Department of Health, tap water may not pose an immediate health risk to consumers.

  • 20.
    Ren, Hongzu
    et al.
    NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, United States; NHEERL Toxicogenomics Core, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, United States.
    Vallanat, Beena
    NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, United States; NHEERL Toxicogenomics Core, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, United States.
    Nelson, David M.
    Discovery Toxicology, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ, United States.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Guruge, Keerthi S.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.
    Discovery Toxicology, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ, United States.
    Corton, J. Christopher
    NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, United States; NHEERL Toxicogenomics Core, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, United States.
    Evidence for the involvement of xenobiotic-responsive nuclear receptors in transcriptional effects upon perfluoroalkyl acid exposure in diverse species2009Ingår i: Reproductive Toxicology, ISSN 0890-6238, E-ISSN 1873-1708, Vol. 27, nr 3-4, s. 266-277Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans and ecological species have been found to have detectable body burdens of a number of perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAA) including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). In mouse and rat liver these compounds elicit transcriptional and phenotypic effects similar to peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) that work through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Recent studies indicate that along with PPARα other nuclear receptors are required for transcriptional changes in the mouse liver after PFOA exposure including the constitutive activated receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) that regulate xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME). To determine the potential role of CAR/PXR in mediating effects of PFAAs in rat liver, we performed a meta-analysis of transcript profiles from published studies in which rats were exposed to PFOA or PFOS. We compared the profiles to those produced by exposure to prototypical activators of CAR, (phenobarbital (PB)), PXR (pregnenolone 16 alpha-carbonitrile (PCN)), or PPARα (WY-14,643 (WY)). As expected, PFOA and PFOS elicited transcript profile signatures that included many known PPARα target genes. Numerous XME genes were also altered by PFOA and PFOS but not WY. These genes exhibited expression changes shared with PB or PCN. Reexamination of the transcript profiles from the livers of chicken or fish exposed to PFAAs indicated that PPARα, CAR, and PXR orthologs were not activated. Our results indicate that PFAAs under these experimental conditions activate PPARα, CAR, and PXR in rats but not chicken and fish. Lastly, we discuss evidence that human populations with greater CAR expression have lower body burdens of PFAAs.

  • 21.
    Shi, Xiongjie
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Wu, Rudolf S. S.
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Zhou, Bingsheng
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Protein Profiles in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate2009Ingår i: Toxicological Sciences, ISSN 1096-6080, E-ISSN 1096-0929, Vol. 110, nr 2, s. 334-340Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is widely distributed and persistent in the environment and in wildlife, and it has the potential for developmental toxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms that lead to these toxic effects are not well known. In the present study, proteomic analysis has been performed to investigate the proteins that are differentially expressed in zebrafish embryos exposed to 0.5 mg/l PFOS until 192 h postfertilization. Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry was employed to detect and identify the protein profiles. The analysis revealed that 69 proteins showed altered expression in the treatment group compared to the control group with either increase or decrease in expression levels (more than twofold difference). Of the 69 spots corresponding to the proteins with altered expression, 38 were selected and subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF/TOF) analysis; 18 proteins were identified in this analysis. These proteins can be categorized into diverse functional classes such as detoxification, energy metabolism, lipid transport/steroid metabolic process, cell structure, signal transduction, and apoptosis. Overall, proteomic analysis using zebrafish embryos serves as an in vivo model in environmental risk assessment and provides insight into the molecular events in PFOS-induced developmental toxicity.

  • 22.
    Song, Renfang
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong; State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Research Center of Mass Spectrometry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Guangzhou, China; Graduate School, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    He, Yuhe
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Murphy, Margaret B.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Yu, Richard M. K.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Michael H. W.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Hecker, Markus
    Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada; ENTRIX, Inc., RR5, Hidden Ridge Estates, Saskatoon, Canada.
    Giesy, John P.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong; Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada; Department of Zoology, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Center for Integrative Toxicology, East Lansing, MI, United States.
    Wu, Rudolf S. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Zhang, Wenbing
    State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Research Center of Mass Spectrometry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Guangzhou, China.
    Sheng, Guoying
    State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Research Center of Mass Spectrometry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Guangzhou, China.
    Fu, Jiamo
    State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Research Center of Mass Spectrometry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Guangzhou, China.
    Effects of fifteen PBDE metabolites, DE71, DE79 and TBBPA on steroidogenesis in the H295R cell line2008Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 71, nr 10, s. 1888-1894Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are brominated flame retardants that are produced in large quantities and are commonly used in construction materials, textiles, and as polymers in electronic equipment. Environmental and human levels of PBDEs have been increasing in the past 30 years, but the toxicity of PBDEs is not fully understood. Studies on their effects are relatively limited, and show that PBDEs are neurotoxins and potential endocrine disrupters. Hydroxylated (OH{single bond}) and methoxylated (MeO{single bond}) PBDEs have also been reported in the adipose tissue, blood and milk of wild animals and humans. In the present study, 15 PBDE metabolites, two BDE mixtures (DE71 and DE79), and TBBPA were studied individually to determine their effects on ten steroidogenic genes, aromatase activity, and concentrations of two steroid hormones (testosterone and 17β-estradiol) in the H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line. Exposure to 0.05 μM 2′-OH-BDE-68 significantly induced the expression of CYP11A, CYP11B2, CYP17, CYP21, 3βHSD2, 17βHSD1, and 17βHSD4, and the expression of StAR was induced by 6-OH-BDE-90 at the three exposure concentrations. Exposure to DE71 and DE79 resulted in dose-dependent trend towards induction, but these effects were not significant. Exposure to 0.5 μM 2-OH-BDE-123 and 2-MeO-BDE-123 resulted in significantly greater aromatase activity. However, none of the compounds affected sex hormone production at the concentrations tested. Generally, OH-BDEs had a much stronger ability to affect steroidogenic gene expression than MeO-BDEs.

  • 23.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    et al.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, School of Public Health, State University of New York, Albany NY, United States.
    Wu, Qian
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York NY, USA.
    Kwok, Karen Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Chittim, Brock
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph ON, Canada.
    Kida, Takafumi
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph ON, Canada; Wellington Laboratories Japan Inc., Tokyo, Japan.
    Takasuga, Takumi
    Shimadzu Techno Research Inc., Kyoto, Japan.
    Tsuchiya, Yoshiteru
    Environmental Control Center Co., Tokyo, Japan.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Inter-laboratory trials for analysis of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoate in water samples: Performance and recommendations2013Ingår i: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 770, s. 111-120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ISO 25101 (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva) describes a new international standard method for the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in unfiltered samples of drinking and surface waters. The method is based on the extraction of target analytes by solid phase extraction, solvent elution, and determination by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). For the determination of the performance of this method, more than 20 laboratories from 9 different countries participated in an inter-laboratory trial in 2006. In addition, inter-laboratory trials were conducted in 2008 and 2009 for the analysis of perfluoroalkylsubstances (PFASs), including PFOS and PFOA, in water samples by following the protocols of Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS). Overall, the repeatability coefficients of variation (i.e., within-laboratory precision) for PFOS and PFOA in all water samples were between 3 and 11%, showing a adequate precision of the ISO and JIS methods. The reproducibility coefficients of variation (i.e., between-laboratory precision) were found to vary within a range of 7-31% for surface water and 20-40% for wastewater. The recoveries of PFOS and PFOA, as a measure of accuracy, varied from 84 to 100% for surface water and from 84 to 100% for wastewater among the samples with acceptable criteria for internal standards recovery. The determined concentrations of PFASs in samples compared well with the " true" values. The results of the inter-laboratory trial confirmed that the analytical methods are robust and reliable and can be used as a standard method for the analysis of target compounds in water samples.

  • 24.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    et al.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Albany, NY, United States.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Kwok, Karen Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Analysis of trifluoroacetic acid and other short-chain perfluorinated acids (C2-C4) in precipitation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Comparison to patterns of long-chain perfluorinated acids (C5-C18)2008Ingår i: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 619, nr 2, s. 221-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A method has been developed to measure 29 perfluorinated acids (PFAs) including short-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) such as trifluoroacetic acid (TFA; C2) and long-chain PFCAs, perfluoroalkylsulfonates, fluorotelomer acids, and two perfluorooctylsulfonamides in water matrices. The method involves solid phase extraction (SPE) using a weak anion-exchange (WAX) cartridge, an ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column separation, and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection. To our knowledge, this is the first HPLC-MS/MS method to determine TFA in water at sub-ng L-1 concentrations. The method is selective, simple, and robust, capable of measuring 29 PFAs in a single analysis, with overall recoveries of the target analytes ranging from 75% to 132%. The method was applied to the analysis of rainwater samples collected from two cities in Japan. TFA and several short-chain PFAs were the major compounds found in rainwater.

  • 25.
    Wang, Jianshe
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Yating
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Fang
    College of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    Environmental Measurement Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yamazaki, Eriko
    Environmental Measurement Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Wang, Renping
    Administration Bureau of Anhui Chinese Alligator National Nature Reserve, Xuancheng Anhui, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    Environmental Measurement Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Dai, Jiayin
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Age- and gender-related accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in captive Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis)2013Ingår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 179, s. 61-67Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in serum of the highly endangered captive Chinese alligators, whole body homogenates of six kinds of fish (alligator prey species), and pond water (alligator habitat) in the Anhui Research Center for Chinese Alligator Reproduction. Six PFASs, including PFOS and five perfluorinated carboxylates, were detected in all alligator samples. The most dominant PFAS was PFUnDA, with a mean value of 31.4 ng/mL. Significant positive correlations were observed among the six PFASs, suggesting that they shared similar sources of contamination. Significantly higher PFOS and PFUnDA levels were observed in males, but the other four PFCAs did not differ between genders. An age related PFAS bioaccumulation analysis showed a significant negative correlation of the concentrations for five PFCAs to age, which means that higher concentrations were found in younger animals. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) in fish for PFASs ranged from 21 to 28,000, with lower BAF for PFOA than that for longer carbon chain PFCAs, including PFUnDA, PFDA, and PFNA.

  • 26.
    Wang, Yuan
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China; Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing, China.
    Lam, James C. W.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    So, M. K.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Cai, Zongwei
    Dioxin Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Hung, Craig L. H.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in waterbird eggs of Hong Kong, China2012Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 86, nr 3, s. 242-247Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs were measured in 56 egg samples collected from waterbirds of different species (Great Egret, Little Egret, Night Heron and Chinese Pond Heron) from different regions of Hong Kong (Ho Sheung Heung, Mai Po Village and Mai Po Lung Village) during 2000 and 2006. Dominance of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF indicates a signature associated with commercial usage of PCBs. Although no significant variations were observed within- and between-site in the levels of PCDD/Fs, coplanar PCBs and PBDEs, the concentrations of coplanar PCBs were much higher than PCDD/Fs. Similarity in composition profiles of PCDD/F and coplanar PCBs from different egretries is possibly associated with non-point sources of these contaminants to Hong Kong. Predominant accumulation of BDE-47, BDE-99 and BDE-100 suggested the penta-BDE technical mixtures usage in Hong Kong and its vicinity. Toxic equivalency and Monte Carlo simulation technique showed potential risks on waterbirds due to their exposure to PCDD/Fs.

  • 27.
    Wang, Yuan
    et al.
    Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing, China.
    Murphy, Margaret B.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Hong Kong, China .
    Lam, James C. W.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Jiao, Liping
    Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, China; Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen Fijian, China.
    Wong, Captain C. L.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in local waterbird eggs from Hong Kong: Risk assessment to local waterbirds2011Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 83, nr 7, s. 891-896Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The contamination status of the marine environment in Hong Kong was studied by measuring concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pollutants (i.e., hexachlorobenzene, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, mirex, total heptachlor, total chlordane, total DDTs, total PCBs, and total toxaphenes) in the eggs of selected waterbird species from different locations around the city: Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) and Chinese Pond Heron (Ardeola bacchus) from Mai Po Village, Great Egret (Ardea alba) and Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) from A Chau, and Chinese Pond Heron (A. bacchus) from Ho Sheung Heung. The mean concentrations of total PCBs and total DDTs ranged from 191-11100ngg-1 lipid and 453-49000ngg-1 lipid, respectively. Recent exposure of waterbirds to technical chlordane was found in Hong Kong. The risk characterization demonstrated potential risks to birds associated with exposure to DDE, which was found to cause a reduction in survival of young in Hong Kong Ardeids based on the endpoint in the risk assessment.

  • 28.
    Wang, Yuan
    et al.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, James C. W.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Other Fluorochemicals in Waterbird Eggs from South China2008Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, nr 21, s. 8146-8151Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in waterbird eggs in South China. Concentrations of 11 PFCs (PFOS, PFHxS, PFBS, PFOSA, PFDoDA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, PFOA, PFHpA, PFHxA) were measured in night heron, great egret, and little egret eggs from South China (Hong Kong, Xiamen, Quanzhou). PFOS was found to be the dominant PFC in the waterbird eggs. Total concentrations of the 11 PFCs in waterbird eggs ranged from 27.0 ng/g ww (great egret from Hong Kong) to 160 ng/g ww (night heron from Quanzhou). Significant differences in PFOS concentrations were found among species, but not among locations. The composition profiles of the individual PFCs among egg samples were generally similar. Positive correlations were found between PFOS and some of the PFCAs in the egg samples from Hong Kong. Concentrations of some of the PFCs were significantly correlated with total PCB concentrations reported in a previous study in the night heron egg samples, but not in the great egret samples. Preliminary risk assessment suggests that there is no immediate risk of a reduction in offspring survival in waterbirds in South China due to PFOS, but more information is needed on the potential effects of PFCs in waterbirds.

  • 29.
    Wei, S.
    et al.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, Hong Kong.
    Wang, Y.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, James C. W.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, Hong Kong.
    Zheng, Gene J.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, Hong Kong.
    So, M. K.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, Hong Kong.
    Yueng, Leo W. Y.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, Hong Kong.
    Horii, Y.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Chen, L. Q.
    Key Laboratory of Marine Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change, Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Xiamen, China.
    Yu, Hongxia
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.
    Yamashita, N.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, Hong Kong.
    Historical trends of organic pollutants in sediment cores from Hong Kong2008Ingår i: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 57, nr 6-12, s. 758-766Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have indicated the occurrence of a wide range of trace organic contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the Hong Kong environment. These contaminants are potentially harmful to ecological systems, particularly in coastal areas. In this study, two sediment cores (4 m) were collected from southern waters of Hong Kong in 2004 to study the historical trends, distribution patterns, and potential sources of trace organic contaminants. DDTs (p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT, p,p′-DDD, o,p′-DDD and p,p′-DDE), hexachlorohexanes (HCHs) (α and γ), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and PCBs were detected in the samples, whereas other target compounds were all below detection limits. Many OCPs have not been produced or used for many years due to toxicological or environmental concerns and PCB use is prohibited in Hong Kong. However, some compounds were still detectable in recent years, and were found to be widely distributed in the environment, likely because of pollutant inputs from the highly industrialized Pearl River Delta region. These results provide important information on current and historical contamination in Hong Kong, and help to reconstruct the pollution history of these trace organic pollutants in Hong Kong coastal waters.

  • 30.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    De Silva, Amila O.
    Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington ON, Canada.
    Loi, Eva I. H.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong.
    Marvin, Chris H.
    Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington ON, Canada.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Mabury, Scott A.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Muir, Derek C. G.
    Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington ON, Canada.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong.
    Perfluoroalkyl substances and extractable organic fluorine in surface sediments and cores from Lake Ontario2013Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 59, s. 389-397Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including short-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs, C4-C6) and perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs, C4 and C6) were measured in surface sediment samples from 26 stations collected in 2008 and sediment core samples from three stations (Niagara, Mississauga, and Rochester basins) collected in 2006 in Lake Ontario. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) were detected in all 26 surface sediment samples, whereas perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA) and perfluorobutanoate (PFBA) were detected in over 70% of the surface sediment samples. PFOS was detected in all of the sediment core samples (range: 0.492-30.1ngg-1 d.w.) over the period 1952-2005. The C8 to C11 PFCAs, FOSA, and PFBA increased in early 1970s. An overall increasing trend in sediment PFAS concentrations/fluxes from older to more recently deposited sediments was evident in the three sediment cores. The known PFCAs and PFSAs accounted for 2-44% of the anionic fraction of the extractable organic fluorine in surface sediment, suggesting that a large proportion of fluorine in this fraction remained unknown. Sediment core samples collected from Niagara basin showed an increase in unidentified organic fluorine in recent years (1995-2006). These results suggest that the use and manufacture of fluorinated organic compounds other than known PFCAs and PFSAs has diversified and increased.

  • 31.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Guruge, Keerthi S.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yamanaka, Noriko
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Miyazaki, Shigeru
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Differential expression of chicken hepatic genes responsive to PFOA and PFOS2007Ingår i: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 237, nr 1-3, s. 111-125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of PFOS and PFOA on the gene expression patterns of chickens that were exposed to either PFOS or PFOA at low doses were investigated with the use of microarray techniques. Twelve Genechip Chicken Genome Arrays were used to study hepatic gene expression in 6-week-old chickens (Gallus gallus) that were exposed to either PFOA (0.1, 0.5, or 5 mg/mL), PFOS (0.02 or 0.1 mg/mL), or a saline vehicle control (0.9% NaCl in Milli-Q water) via subcutaneous implantation of a 2 mL osmotic pump for 4 weeks or for 4 weeks with a further 4 weeks of depuration. Over 240 and 480 genes were significantly affected by PFOS after 4 weeks of exposure and after 4 weeks of exposure with a further 4 weeks of depuration, respectively and over 290 and 320 genes were significantly affected by PFOA, correspondingly. For PFOS, the genes that were affected after 4 weeks of exposure were mainly related to the transport of electrons and oxygen, and the metabolism of lipids and fatty acids; while the genes that were affected after 4 weeks of exposure with a further 4 weeks of depuration were mainly related to the transport of electrons and ions, and protein amino acid phosphorylation and proteolysis. For PFOA, the genes that were affected after 4 weeks of exposure were related to the transport of ions, lipids, and electrons and cytochromes; while the genes that were affected after 4 weeks of exposure with a further 4 weeks of depuration were related to protein amino acid phosphorylation and proteolysis, the transport of ions, and the metabolism of fatty acids and lipids. The results also showed that the gene expression patterns between chickens that were treated with PFOS and those that were treated with PFOA were different, which points to the importance of the separate evaluation of the toxicities of PFOS and PFOA. Specifically, the gene expressions of CYP8B and NOV were studied.

  • 32.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Loi, Eva I. H.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Wong, Vicky Y. Y.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Guruge, Keerthi S.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yamanaka, Noriko
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Tanimura, Nobuhiko
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Hasegawa, Jun
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    Miyazaki, Shigeru
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Biochemical Responses and Accumulation Properties of Long-Chain Perfluorinated Compounds (PFOS/PFDA/PFOA) in Juvenile Chickens (Gallus gallus)2009Ingår i: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 57, nr 2, s. 377-386Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One-day-old male chickens were exposed via oral gavage to mixtures of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) at either a low dose (0.1 mg/kg body weight [b.w.]) or a high dose (1.0 mg/kg b.w.), or a saline/ethanol vehicle control, three times a week for 3 weeks. After 3 weeks of exposure, half of the chicks were sacrificed and the other half were allowed to depurate for a further 3 weeks. No dose-dependent statistically significant differences in body/organ weights were observed among treatment and control groups after 3 weeks of exposure or after three 3 of depuration. Neither 15 histological nor 14 measured plasma biochemical parameters were significantly different in chicks from the exposed groups and vehicle controls. PFOS, PFDA, and PFOA concentrations in blood/liver/kidney samples were measured throughout the exposure and depuration periods at different time intervals. PFOS and PFDA accumulated at much higher concentrations than PFOA during the experimental periods. Interestingly, PFOS and PFDA accumulation patterns in the blood were similar during the exposure and depuration periods. The half-lives for each PFC at the 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg doses were, respectively, approximately 15 and 17 days for PFOS, 11 and 16 days for PFDA, and 3.9 and 3.9 days for PFOA. PFDA accumulation in organs was greater than or similar to that of PFOS: the liver was the main target during exposure and the blood was the main reservoir during depuration. These results indicate that exposure to a 1.0-mg mixture of PFOS/PFDA/PFOA/kg b.w. has no adverse effect on juvenile chickens.

  • 33.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Japan; Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China.
    Miyake, Byuichi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Li, Peng
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    cWadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, State University of New York at Albany, New York, USA.
    Guruge, Keerthi S.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Comparison of total fluorine, extractable organic fluorine and perfluorinated compounds in the blood of wild and pefluorooctanoate (PFOA)-exposed rats: Evidence for the presence of other organofluorine compounds2009Ingår i: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 635, nr 1, s. 108-114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread occurrence and environmental persistence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) received worldwide attention recently. Exhaustive analysis of all fluorinated compounds in an environmental sample can be daunting because of the constraints in the availability of analytical standards and extraction methods. Combustion ion chromatographic technique for trace fluorine analysis was used to assess the concentrations of known PFCs (e.g., PFOS, PFOA) and total fluorine (TF) in the blood of wild rats collected from Japan. The technique was further validated using tissues from PFOA-exposed rats. Six PFCs (PFOS, PFOSA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, and PFOA) were detected in all of the wild rat blood samples. Concentrations of extractable organic fluorine (EOF) in fraction 1 (Fr1; MTBE extraction) of wild rats ranged 60.9-134 ng F mL-1, while those in fraction 2 (Fr2; hexane) were below LOQ (32 ng F mL-1); TF concentrations in the blood of wild rats ranged from 59.9-192 ng F mL-1. The contribution of known PFCs in EOF-Fr1 (MTBE) varied from 9% to 89% (56% on average), and known PFC concentrations in TF content were less than 25%. In contrast, TF concentrations in the blood of PFOA-exposed rats ranged from 46900 to 111000 ng F mL-1, with PFOA contributing over 90% of TF. A comparison of results from the samples analyzed in this study and the literature revealed three distinct groups with PFOA/known PFC and TF levels (i.e., wild rats and general population, occupationally exposed workers, and PFOA-exposed laboratory rats). The mass balance analysis of the different forms of fluorine in blood suggested the presence of other forms of organic fluorine in addition to known PFCs.

  • 34.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China.
    Miyake, Yuichi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Wang, Yuan
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China.
    Yu, Hongxia
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China.
    So, M. K.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Wu, Yongning
    Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Li, Jingguang
    Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, Beijing, People’s Republic of China .
    Giesy, John P.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China; State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; Zoology Department, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States.
    Yamashita, Nobuyosh
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China.
    Perfluorinated Compounds and Total and Extractable Organic Fluorine in Human Blood Samples from China2008Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, nr 21, s. 8140-8145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An improved extraction (ion pairing) and cleanup (ENVI-carb and solid phase extraction) method was developed for analysis of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in human whole blood samples from China. Ten PFCs including PFOS, PFHxS, PFOSA, PFDoDA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, PFOA, PFHpA, and PFHxA were detected in the blood samples (n = 30) from five cities (Jintan, Nanjing, Guiyang, Beijing, and Shenyang). PFOS was found to be the dominant PFC ranging from 0.446-83.1 ng/mL. Total fluorine (TF) and extractable organic fluorine (EOF) also were measured in the blood samples using combustion ion chromatography for fluorine. Analysis of known PFCs and extractable organic fluorine showed that known PFCs could account for >70% of EOF in samples from Beijing, Shenyang, and Guiyang, whereas known PFCs could only account for similar to 30% of EOF in samples from Jintan. Results of the present study indicated the presence of substantial amounts of unidentified organic fluorine in human blood samples from Jintan. Characterization and identification of these unidentified fluorinated compounds will be instructive.

  • 35.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    cWadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY, USA.
    Xu, Della Z. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China.
    Guruge, Keerthi S.
    Safety Research Team, National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondai 3-1-5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    An analytical method for the determination of perfluorinated compounds in whole blood using acetonitrile and solid phase extraction methods2009Ingår i: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1216, nr 25, s. 4950-4956Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for the analysis of perfluorinated compounds (perfluoroalkyl sulfonates: C4, C6, C8, C10; perfluoroalkyl sulfinates: C6, C8, C10; perfluorooctanesulfonamide, N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamide, N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate, perfluorocarboxylates: C4–C14; fluorotelomer carboxylate (7:3, 8:2) in whole blood using acetonitrile and OASIS WAX® solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge was developed. Separation of target compounds in two HPLC columns (ion exchange JJ50-2D and C18 Betasil columns) was examined. Matrix recoveries of the developed methods ranged from 70% to 120%. Separation of possible inferences such as taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC) was accomplished using an ion exchange JJ50-2D column, and this separation was validated using whole blood of different animals.

  • 36.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    et al.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba West, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba West, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba West, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China.
    Sinha, Ravindra K.
    Environmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Patna University, Patna, India.
    Borole, Dnyandev V.
    Geological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India.
    Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, State University of New York, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY, USA.
    A survey of perfluorinated compounds in surface water and biota including dolphins from the Ganges River and in other waterbodies in India2009Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 76, nr 1, s. 55-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the reports of the occurrence of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in industrialized nations, information on PFCs in less industrialized countries is meager. In the present study, concentrations and profiles of PFCs were investigated in surface waters (rivers, lakes, coastal seas and untreated sewage; n = 42) including the Ganges River water, and biota such as shrimp (n = 2), fish (n = 28), and Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica; n = 15). PFOS was the dominant PFC found in most of the samples analyzed including water samples except untreated sewage (water: <0.04–3.91 ng L1; biota: 0.248–27.9 ng g1 ww). Long-chain (C11–C18) perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) were not detected in the water samples (<0.2 ng L1), although PFDA (0.061–0.923 ng g1 ww) and PFUnDA (0.072–0.998 ng g1 ww) were found in biological samples The arithmetic mean PFOS concentration found in the liver of Ganges River dolphin was 27.9 ng g1 ww. Bioconcentration and biomagnifications factors of PFCs were estimated in the Ganges River basin food web. The highest concentration of PFOA, 23.1 ng L1, was found in untreated sewage samples. Overall, concentrations of PFCs of water and biological samples from India are lower than the concentrations reported for other countries so far. PFC profiles in Indian waters are dominated by PFOS, followed by PFOA, which is different from the pattern reported for other countries such as Korea, Japan and USA, where PFOA was the predominant compound in waters. The flux estimates for PFOS, PFOA and PFNA from the Ganges River in India to the Bay of Bengal were in the range of several hundreds of kilograms per year.

  • 37.
    Yu, Ke
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China; Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, SAR, Hong Kong.
    He, Yuhe
    Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wu, Rudolf S. S.
    Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhou, Bingsheng
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    DE-71-induced apoptosis involving intracellular calcium and the Bax-mitochondria-caspase protease pathway in human neuroblastoma cells In vitro2008Ingår i: Toxicological Sciences, ISSN 1096-6080, E-ISSN 1096-0929, Vol. 104, nr 2, s. 341-351Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used extensively as flame-retardants and are ubiquitous in the environment and in wildlife and human tissue. Recent studies have shown that PBDEs induce neurotoxic effects in vivo and apoptosis in vitro. However, the signaling mechanisms responsible for these events are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the action of a commercial mixture of PBDEs (pentabrominated diphenyl ether, DE-71) on a human neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-SH. A cell viability test showed a dose-dependent increase in lactate dehydrogenase leakage and 3-(4,5-dimethylthia-zol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide reduction. Cell apoptosis was observed through morphological examination, and DNA degradation in the cell cycle and cell apoptosis were demonstrated using flow cytometry and DNA laddering. The formation of reactive oxygen species was not observed, but DE-71 was found to significantly induce caspase-3, -8, and -9 activity, which suggests that apoptosis is not induced by oxidative stress but via a caspase-dependent pathway. We further investigated the intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) levels using flow cytometry and observed an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration with a time-dependent trend. We also found that the N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK801 (3μM) significantly reduced DE-71-induced cell apoptosis. The results of a Western blotting test demonstrated that DE-71 treatment increases the level of Bax translocation to the mitochondria in a dose-dependent fashion and stimulates the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c) from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm. Overall, our results indicate that DE-71 induces the apoptosis of [Ca2+]i in SK-N-SH cells via Bax insertion, Cyt c release in the mitochondria, and the caspase activation pathway.

  • 38.
    Zhang, Wei
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Yating
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    Environmental Measurement Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Environmental Measurement Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan; State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Wang, Jianshe
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Xinhai
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    Environmental Measurement Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Dai, Jiayin
    Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Distribution and fate of perfluoroalkyl substances in municipal wastewater treatment plants in economically developed areas of China2013Ingår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 176, s. 10-17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are a significant source for poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) entering the environment. The presence of PFASs in twenty-eight municipal WWTPs from eleven cites in economically developed areas of China were screened. Overall, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were dominant in wastewater and sludge, and were not effectively removed during wastewater treatment. Elevated influent concentration ratios of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) to PFOA and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) to PFOS in some WWTPs suggested that short chains substitution were adopted in these cities. Cluster analysis showed treatment processes had important impacts on PFASs profiles in effluent and sludge. Average concentration of total PFCAs in influent from each city and its gross domestic product (GDP) had significant positive correlation. This study provides a snapshot of both domestic and industrial discharges of PFAS to WWTPs as well as PFAS discharge from WWTPs to the aquatic environment in China.

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