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  • 1.
    Hung, Craig L. H.
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Xu, Yan
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, James C. W.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Jefferson, Thomas A.
    Southwest Fisheries Center, NOAA Fisheries, La Jolla, CA, United States.
    Hung, Samuel K.
    Hong Kong Cetacean Research Project, 12 Kak Tin Kung Miu Village, Tai Wai, Hong Kong.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Michael H. W.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    O'Toole, Desmond K.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    An assessment of the risks associated with polychlorinated biphenyls found in the stomach contents of stranded Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and Finless Porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from Hong Kong waters2006In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 63, no 5, p. 845-852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risks to Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins and Finless Porpoises associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed. Stomach contents from twelve stranded Humpback Dolphins and sixteen stranded Finless Porpoises were collected. Concentrations of total and isomer-specific PCBs in the stomach contents were determined using dual-column gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detectors (GC-ECD). Risks due to the PCBs were assessed in three scenarios, based on total PCBs (summation of 41 PCB congeners), total toxicity equivalency (TEQs) and PCB 118, using the toxicity reference values (TRVs) as the threshold effects benchmarks. The calculated risk quotients (RQs) showed that risks due to PCBs were generally low or negligible. Specifically, RQs from total TEQs and total PCBs for Finless Porpoises are below one, suggesting that PCBs should be a low risk for the Finless Porpoise in Hong Kong waters. However, the Humpback Dolphin has RQs larger than 1 for total TEQs and total PCBs when the 95th percentile data were used in the evaluation. This indicates that further investigation may be needed to examine more closely the potential impact of toxic contaminants in the habitat of the Humpback Dolphin.

  • 2.
    Jiao, Liping
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong; Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fijian, China; Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian, China.
    Zheng, Gene J.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong;Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Minh, Tu Binh
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Richardson, Bruce
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Chen, Liqi
    Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fijian, China; Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian, China.
    Zhang, Yuanhui
    Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fijian, China; Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian, China.
    Yeung, Leo W.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, James C. W.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Yang, Xulin
    Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fijian, China; Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Wong, Ming H.
    Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Persistent toxic substances in remote lake and coastal sediments from Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic: Levels, sources and fluxes2009In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 157, no 4, p. 1342-1351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface sediments from remote lakes and coastal areas from Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Relatively high levels of PAHs were encountered from several lakes from Ny-Ålesund, which were within the range of levels reported for European high mountain lakes and some urban/industrialized areas in the world, pointing to the role of remote Arctic lakes as potential reservoir of semi-volatile organic compounds. Specific patterns of PBDEs were observed, showing higher concentrations of lower brominated compounds such as BDE-7, 17 and 28. Estimated surface sediment fluxes of PAHs in Ny-Ålesund remote lakes were similar to those observed for some European high mountain lakes. The current PAH levels in sediments from three lakes exceeded Canadian sediment quality guidelines, suggesting the presence of possible risks for aquatic organisms and the need for further studies.

  • 3.
    Wang, Yuan
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China; Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing, China.
    Lam, James C. W.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    So, M. K.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Cai, Zongwei
    Dioxin Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Hung, Craig L. H.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in waterbird eggs of Hong Kong, China2012In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 86, no 3, p. 242-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs were measured in 56 egg samples collected from waterbirds of different species (Great Egret, Little Egret, Night Heron and Chinese Pond Heron) from different regions of Hong Kong (Ho Sheung Heung, Mai Po Village and Mai Po Lung Village) during 2000 and 2006. Dominance of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF indicates a signature associated with commercial usage of PCBs. Although no significant variations were observed within- and between-site in the levels of PCDD/Fs, coplanar PCBs and PBDEs, the concentrations of coplanar PCBs were much higher than PCDD/Fs. Similarity in composition profiles of PCDD/F and coplanar PCBs from different egretries is possibly associated with non-point sources of these contaminants to Hong Kong. Predominant accumulation of BDE-47, BDE-99 and BDE-100 suggested the penta-BDE technical mixtures usage in Hong Kong and its vicinity. Toxic equivalency and Monte Carlo simulation technique showed potential risks on waterbirds due to their exposure to PCDD/Fs.

  • 4.
    Wang, Yuan
    et al.
    Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing, China.
    Murphy, Margaret B.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Hong Kong, China .
    Lam, James C. W.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Jiao, Liping
    Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, China; Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen Fijian, China.
    Wong, Captain C. L.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in local waterbird eggs from Hong Kong: Risk assessment to local waterbirds2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 83, no 7, p. 891-896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contamination status of the marine environment in Hong Kong was studied by measuring concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pollutants (i.e., hexachlorobenzene, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, mirex, total heptachlor, total chlordane, total DDTs, total PCBs, and total toxaphenes) in the eggs of selected waterbird species from different locations around the city: Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) and Chinese Pond Heron (Ardeola bacchus) from Mai Po Village, Great Egret (Ardea alba) and Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) from A Chau, and Chinese Pond Heron (A. bacchus) from Ho Sheung Heung. The mean concentrations of total PCBs and total DDTs ranged from 191-11100ngg-1 lipid and 453-49000ngg-1 lipid, respectively. Recent exposure of waterbirds to technical chlordane was found in Hong Kong. The risk characterization demonstrated potential risks to birds associated with exposure to DDE, which was found to cause a reduction in survival of young in Hong Kong Ardeids based on the endpoint in the risk assessment.

  • 5.
    Wang, Yuan
    et al.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, James C. W.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Other Fluorochemicals in Waterbird Eggs from South China2008In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, no 21, p. 8146-8151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in waterbird eggs in South China. Concentrations of 11 PFCs (PFOS, PFHxS, PFBS, PFOSA, PFDoDA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, PFOA, PFHpA, PFHxA) were measured in night heron, great egret, and little egret eggs from South China (Hong Kong, Xiamen, Quanzhou). PFOS was found to be the dominant PFC in the waterbird eggs. Total concentrations of the 11 PFCs in waterbird eggs ranged from 27.0 ng/g ww (great egret from Hong Kong) to 160 ng/g ww (night heron from Quanzhou). Significant differences in PFOS concentrations were found among species, but not among locations. The composition profiles of the individual PFCs among egg samples were generally similar. Positive correlations were found between PFOS and some of the PFCAs in the egg samples from Hong Kong. Concentrations of some of the PFCs were significantly correlated with total PCB concentrations reported in a previous study in the night heron egg samples, but not in the great egret samples. Preliminary risk assessment suggests that there is no immediate risk of a reduction in offspring survival in waterbirds in South China due to PFOS, but more information is needed on the potential effects of PFCs in waterbirds.

  • 6.
    Wei, S.
    et al.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, Hong Kong.
    Wang, Y.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, Hong Kong.
    Lam, James C. W.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, Hong Kong.
    Zheng, Gene J.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, Hong Kong.
    So, M. K.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, Hong Kong.
    Yueng, Leo W. Y.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, Hong Kong.
    Horii, Y.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Chen, L. Q.
    Key Laboratory of Marine Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change, Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Xiamen, China.
    Yu, Hongxia
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.
    Yamashita, N.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR, Hong Kong.
    Historical trends of organic pollutants in sediment cores from Hong Kong2008In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 57, no 6-12, p. 758-766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have indicated the occurrence of a wide range of trace organic contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the Hong Kong environment. These contaminants are potentially harmful to ecological systems, particularly in coastal areas. In this study, two sediment cores (4 m) were collected from southern waters of Hong Kong in 2004 to study the historical trends, distribution patterns, and potential sources of trace organic contaminants. DDTs (p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT, p,p′-DDD, o,p′-DDD and p,p′-DDE), hexachlorohexanes (HCHs) (α and γ), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and PCBs were detected in the samples, whereas other target compounds were all below detection limits. Many OCPs have not been produced or used for many years due to toxicological or environmental concerns and PCB use is prohibited in Hong Kong. However, some compounds were still detectable in recent years, and were found to be widely distributed in the environment, likely because of pollutant inputs from the highly industrialized Pearl River Delta region. These results provide important information on current and historical contamination in Hong Kong, and help to reconstruct the pollution history of these trace organic pollutants in Hong Kong coastal waters.

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