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  • 1.
    Abalos, M.
    et al.
    MTM Research Center, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Abad, E.
    Laboratory of Dioxins, Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Environmental Chemistry Dept., IDÆA-CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.
    van Leeuwen, S. P. J.
    Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije University, Amsterdam, Netherlands; RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    de Boer, J.
    Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije University, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Results for PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCBs in the first round of UNEPs biennial global interlaboratory assessment on persistent organic pollutants2013In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 46, p. 98-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first worldwide interlaboratory assesment on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention was organized in the Asian/Pacific, Latin American and African regions during 2009-11.

    A relatively large number of laboratories reported data for the PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs, especially in the Asian region. Within the Asian region, several participants used high-resolution GC/high-resolution MS systems optimized for dioxin analysis. The availibility of High-resolution mass spectrometer instrumentation is limited in the Latin America and African regions, although recently several new laboratories for dioxins have started in the Latin American region.

  • 2.
    Avakian, Maureen D.
    et al.
    MDB Inc, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Dellinger, Barry
    Louisiana State Univ, Dept Chem, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    United Nations Environment Program Chemicals, Chatelaine, Switzerland.
    Gullet, Brian
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Koshland, Catherine
    School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Environmental Chemistry, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Oberdorster, Günter
    Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester, New York, USA.
    Safe, Stephen
    Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Texas A&M University, Texas , USA.
    Sarofim, Adel
    Department of Chemical anf Fuels Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
    Smith, Kirk R.
    Environmental Health Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA.
    Schwartz, David
    Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
    Suk, William A.
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Resaearc Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.
    The origin, fate, and health effects of combustion by-products: A research framework2002In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 110, no 11, p. 1155-1162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incomplete combustion processes can emit organic pollutants, metals, and fine particles. Combustion by-products represent global human and environmental health challenges that are relevant not only in heavily industrialized nations, but also in developing nations where up to 90% of rural households rely on unprocessed biomass fuels for cooking, warmth, and light. These issues were addressed at the Seventh International Congress on Combustion BY-Products, which convened 4-6 June 2001 in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. This congress included a diverse group of multidisciplinary researchers and practitioners who discussed recent developments and future goals in the control of combustion by-products and their effects of exposure on human and ecologic health. Participants recommended that interdisciplinary, coordinated research efforts should be focused to capitalize on the important potential synergisms between efforts to reduce the adverse human health effects linked to exposures to combustion by-products and broader efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save energy through efficiency. In this article we summarize the principal findings and recommendations for research focus and direction.

  • 3.
    Black, R. R.
    et al.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, Australia.
    Meyer, C. P. (Mick)
    CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Australia.
    Touati, A.
    ARCADIS Geraghty and Miller Inc, Research Triangle Park NC, USA.
    Gullett, B. K.
    National Risk Management Research Laboratory, US Environment Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park NC, USA.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Mueller, J. F.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, Australia.
    Emission factors for PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB from open burning of biomass2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 62-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants includes in its aims the minimisation of unintentional releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and dioxin like PCB (dl-PCB) to the environment Development and implementation of policies to achieve this aim require accurate national inventories of releases of PCDD/PCDF/dl-PCB. To support this objective, the Conference of Parties established a process to review and update the UNEP Standardized Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases. An assessment of all emission inventories was that for many countries open burning of biomass and waste was identified as the major source of PCDD/PCDF releases. However, the experimental data underpinning the release estimates used were limited in number and, consequently, confidence in the accuracy of the emissions predictions was low. There has been significant progress in measurement technology since the last edition of the Toolkit in 2005. In this paper we reassess published emission factors for release of PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB to land and air.

    In total, four types of biomass and 111 emission factors were assessed. It was found that there are no systematic differences in emission factors apparent between biomass types or fire classes. The data set is best described by a lognormal distribution. The geometric mean emission factors (EFs) for releases of PCDD/PCDF to air for the four biomass classes used in the Toolkit (sugarcane, cereal crops, forest and savannah/grass) are 1.6 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1), 0.49 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1), 1.0 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1) and 0.4 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1), respectively. Corresponding EFs for release of PCDD/PCDF to land are 3.0 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1), 1.1 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1), 1.1 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1) and 0.67 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1). There are now also sufficient published data available to evaluate EFs for dl-PCB release to air for sugarcane, forest and grass/savannah; these are 0.03 mu g TEQ (t fuel)(-1), 0.09 mu g TEQ (t fuel)(-1) and 0.01 mu g TEQ (t fuel)(-1), respectively. The average EF for dl-PCB release to land is 0.19 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1). Application of these EFs to national emissions of PCDD/PCDF for global estimates from open burning will lower previous estimates of PCDD/PCDF releases to air and to land by 85% and 90%, respectively. For some countries, the ranking of their major sources will be changed and open burning of biomass will become less significant than previously concluded.

  • 4.
    Black, R. R.
    et al.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, University of Queensland, Coopersplains, Australia.
    Meyer, C. P.
    CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale Vic, Australia.
    Touati, A.
    ARCADIS Geraghty and Miller, Inc, Research Triangle Park NC, USA.
    Gullett, B. K.
    Office of Research and Development, NRMRL (E343-04), US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park NC, USA.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP/DTIE Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Mueller, J. F.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, University of Queensland, Coopersplains, Australia.
    Emissions of PCDD and PCDF from combustion of forest fuels and sugarcane: A comparison between field measurements and simulations in a laboratory burn facility2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 83, no 10, p. 1331-1338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Release of PCDD and PCDF from biomass combustion such as forest and agricultural crop fires has been nominated as an important source for these chemicals despite minimal characterisation. Available emission factors that have been experimentally determined in laboratory and field experiments vary by several orders of magnitude from <0.51 mu g TEQ(t fuel consumed)(-1) to >1001 mu g TEQ(t fuel consumed)(-1). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of experimental methods on the emission factor.

    A portable field sampler was used to measure PCDD/PCDF emissions from forest fires and the same fuel when burnt over a brick hearth to eliminate potential soil effects. A laboratory burn facility was used to sample emissions from the same fuels. There was very good agreement in emission factors to air (EF(Air)) for forest fuel (Duke Forest, NC) of 0.52 (range: 0.40-0.79), 0.59 (range: 0.18-1.2) and 0.75 (range: 0.27-1.2) mu g TEQ(WHO2005) (t fuel consumed)(-1) for the in-field, over a brick hearth, and burn facility experiments, respectively. Similarly, experiments with sugarcane showed very good agreement with EFAir of 1.1 (range: 0.40-2.2), 1.5 (range: 0.84-2.2) and 1.7 (range: 0.34-4.4) mu g TEQ (t fuel consumed)(-1) for in-field, over a brick hearth, open field and burn facility experiments respectively. Field sampling and laboratory simulations were in good agreement, and no significant changes in emissions of PCDD/PCDF could be attributed to fuel storage and transport to laboratory test facilities.

  • 5.
    Bogdal, C.
    et al.
    Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETH), Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Zürich, Switzerland; Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETH), International Panel on Chemical Pollution, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Abad, E.
    Laboratory of Dioxins, Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDÆA-CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.
    Abalos, M.
    Laboratory of Dioxins, Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDÆA-CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Scheringer, M.
    Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Zürich, Switzerland; Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), International Panel on Chemical Pollution, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Worldwide distribution of persistent organic pollutants in air, including results of air monitoring by passive air sampling in five continents2013In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 46, p. 150-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an overview of concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in ambient air on a global scale, including recent measurements and an extensive compilation of literature data. In this study, passive air samplers (PASs) were successfully employed to assess concentrations of POPs in ambient air from Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Pacific Islands. The project aimed to extend the knowledge on environmental contamination by POPs in these regions, where the currently available data are still limited to a few monitoring studies.

    The ambient air concentrations of PCB in Africa were relatively high when compared to other regions. Waste, in particular electronic waste, exported to Africa from industrialized countries may be a possible source of PCB in Africa, where PCB have never been extensively used or produced. For DDTs, the wide range of concentrations and particularly high levels in some countries of Africa and the Pacific Islands reflect the use of DDT for malaria control in these regions. For PCDD/PCDF, concentrations in Africa and Latin America are similar to or even higher than in Europe, probably due to unfavorable combustion practices of chlorine-containing materials.

    The data support the needs for further monitoring in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, and action to reduce environmental contamination by, and human exposure to, hazardous chemicals.

  • 6.
    Breivik, Knut
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Kjeller, Norway.
    Alcock, Ruth
    Environmental Research Solutions, Witherslack, Cumbria, UK.
    Li, Yi-Fan
    Meteorological Service of Canada, Downsview, ON, Canada.
    Bailey, Robert E.
    Bailey Associates, Midland, USA.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals, Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland.
    Pacyna, Jozef M.
    Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Kjeller, Norway.
    Primary sources of selected POPs: regional and global scale emission inventories2004In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 128, no 1-2, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, a number of studies have been devoted to the sources and emissions of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) at regional and global scales. While significant improvements in knowledge have been achieved for some pesticides, the quantitative understanding of the emission processes and emission patterns for "non-pesticide" POPs are still considered limited. The key issues remaining for the non-pesticide POPs are in part determined by their general source classification. For industrial chemicals, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), there is considerable uncertainty with respect to the relative importance of atmospheric emissions from various source categories. For PCBs, temperature is discussed as a potential key factor influencing atmospheric emission levels and patterns. When it comes to the unintentional by-products of combustion and industrial processes (PCDD/Fs), there is still a large uncertainty with respect to the relative contribution of emissions from unregulated sources such as backyard barrel burning that requires further consideration and characterisation. For hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the relative importance of primary and secondary atmospheric emissions in controlling current atmospheric concentrations remains one of the key uncertainties. While these and other issues may remain unresolved, knowledge concerning the emissions of POPs is a prerequisite for any attempt to understand and predict the distribution and fate of these chemicals on a regional and global scale as well as to efficiently minimise future environmental burdens.

  • 7.
    Büchert, A.
    et al.
    Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Institute of Food Research and Nutrition, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Cederberg, T.
    Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Institute of Food Research and Nutrition, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Dyke, P.
    PD Consulting, Round House Cottage, Lechlade, United Kingdom .
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals, Chatelaine (GE), Switzerland .
    Fürst, P.
    Chemisches Landes- und Staatliches Veteriniiruntersuchungsamt, Münster, Germany .
    Hanberg, A.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Hosseinpour, J.
    Ökometric GmbH, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Hutzinger, O.
    University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Kuenen, J. G.
    TU Delft, Department of Biotechnology, Kluyver Laboratory, Delft, The Netherlands .
    Malisch, R.
    Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany .
    Needham, L. L.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Toxicology Branch (F-17), Chamblee, GA, USA .
    Olie, K.
    University of Amsterdam, Dept. of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry, Amsterdam, The Netherlands .
    Päpke, O.
    ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg, Germany .
    Aranda, J. Rivera
    CID-CSIC, Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Barcelona, Spain .
    Thanner, G.
    Umweltbundesamt, Wien, Austria .
    Umlauf, G.
    European Commission-JRC Ispra, Environment Institute, Soil and Waste Unit, Ispra (Varese), Italy .
    Vartiainen, T.
    National Public Health Institute, Division of Environmental Health, Kuopio, Finland .
    van Holst, C.
    European Commission - DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Ispra, Italy .
    Dioxin contamination in food: Bayreuth, Germany, from September 28 to October 1, 20002001In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 84-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dioxin and PCB monitoring programs for food and feeding stuff in most countries of the world, including many European Countries are currently inadequate. Better control of food production lines and food processing procedures is needed to minimize entry of dioxin to the food chain and will help to avoid dioxin contamination accidents. This would also improve the ability to trace back a possible contamination to its source. European guidelines for monitoring programs should be established to ensure comparable and meaningful results. These guidelines should define the minimum requirements for the design of monitoring programs, analytical methods, and quality assurance.

    Though data from Northern Europe shows that the general population exposure to dioxin and PCB has decreased during the last ten years these compounds continue to be a risk of accidental contamination of the food chain. The most prominent recent example is the Belgian dioxin contamination of feeding stuff in 1999. The Belgian dioxin contamination was not detected due to dioxin monitoring programs but by their direct biological effects seen in animals. Four other cases of dioxin contamination have been detected in Europe since 1997 due to local monitoring programs. One of them (citrus pulp pellets 1998) was in a much larger scale than the Belgian dioxin contamination.

    The general population's exposure to dioxins and PCBs is still in the same range (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight and day) as the recently revised WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI). There is concern that short-term high level exposure to dioxins, furans, and PCB may cause biological effects on the human fetal development and further research is required.

    Further actions to control sources building on considerable advances already made in many countries may need to be supplemented by measures to prevent direct contamination of feeding stuff or food to reduce general population exposure further.

  • 8.
    Cao, Zhiguo
    et al.
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Chemicals Branch, UNEP/DTIE, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Wang, Bin
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Tingting
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Yu, Gang
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Huang, Jun
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Deng, Shubo
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Economic status as a determinant of national PCDD/PCDF releases and implications for PCDD/PCDF reduction2013In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 91, no 3, p. 328-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The annual releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) from 68 countries/regions were investigated by correlating quantitative emissions with economic status of the nations. The national dioxin/furan inventories were developed using the PCDD/PCDF Standardized Toolldt, which presents the quantitative releases from ten major source groups to five release vectors. The correlation between intensity of PCDDIPCDF release and economic status was discussed and the influence of economic status on composition of five release vectors and ten source groups was studied. As PCDD/PCDF are mainly released from human activities to environmental matrices, release per person (RpP) and release per unit area (RpA) are defined to reflect release burden (Donor) and contamination burden (Receptor), respectively. Based on these two concepts, International PCDD/PCDF Reduction Burden is characterized by burden quotient (BQ) and a calculation model is established. The numbers of countries/regions with high, moderate and low International PCDD/PCDF Reduction Burden were 19,31 and 18, respectively. The information in this paper can be used for politicians to develop legislations to improve International PCDD/PCDF Reduction.

  • 9.
    Cao, Zhi-Guo
    et al.
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Yu, Gang
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Chen, Yong-Shan
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Cao, Qi-Ming
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Chemicals Branch, UNEP/DTIE, United Nations Environment Programme, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Deng, Shu-Bo
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Huang, Jun
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Bin
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Particle size: A missing factor in risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals in settled indoor dust2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 49, p. 24-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For researches on toxic chemicals in settled indoor dust, selection of dust fraction is a critical influencing factor to the accuracy of human exposure risk assessment results. However, analysis of the selection of dust fraction in recent studies revealed that there is no consensus. This study classified and presented researches on distribution of toxic chemicals according to dust particle size and on relationship between dust particle size and human exposure possibility. According to the literature, beyond the fact that there were no consistent conclusions on particle size distribution of adherent fraction, dust with particle size less than 100 mu m should be paid more attention and that larger than 250 mu m is neither adherent nor proper for human exposure risk assessment. Calculation results based on literature data show that with different selections of dust fractions, analytical results of toxic chemicals would vary up to 10-fold, which means that selecting dust fractions arbitrarily will lead to large errors in risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals in settled dust. Taking into account the influence of dust particle size on risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals, a new methodology for risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals in settled indoor dust is proposed and human exposure parameter systems to settled indoor dust are advised to be established at national and regional scales all over the world.

  • 10.
    Chen, Ping
    et al.
    School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Gong, Wenwen
    School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; Beijing Research Center for Agricultural Standards and Testing, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Science, Beijing, China.
    Yu, Gang
    School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Preliminary release inventories of unintentionally generated dl-PCB and HCB from sources in China: Base year 20152019In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 219, p. 875-881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research presents release inventories of unintentionally generated dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), which so far have not been developed or assessed. For the inventory development, the amended Toolkit methodology as developed for reporting under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, has been applied. Based on the activity rate (AR) obtained from various statistical yearbooks, reports, or scientific literature, and the emission factors (EFs) suited to each technology level, we estimated the preliminary release inventories of unintentionally produced dl-PCB and HCB from 36 source categories in China for the reference year 2015. The result showed that in 2015, 656 g TEQ of unintentionally produced dl-PCB and 2,145,504 g (or 2146 kg) of unintentionally generated HCB were released in China from these 36 source categories. Most of dl-PCB and HCB was released to air, 71% or 60%, respectively. For comparison and for the sources which could be estimated for all three unintentional POPs the total releases of PCDD/PCDF were 5695 g TEQ per year. Of these, 78% were released to air. For dl-PCB and HCB, the vast majority of the releases from the source group 7 Production and use of consumer goods - is found in the products and not in air. With respect to source attribution and releases to air, the source groups SG3 - Heat and power generation and SG2 - Ferrous and non-ferrous metal production dominate the air emission inventory. Due to the lack of EFs, the calculated releases to the water and land were not well covered, which overall results in an underestimation of the total releases for all unintentional POPs.

    For comparison, the release inventories from Japan and from several other countries that were developed using methodologies other than the UNEP Toolkit are presented as well.

  • 11. de Boer, J.
    et al.
    Leslie, H.
    van Leeuwen, S. P. J.
    Wegener, J.-W.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lahoutifard, N.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals, CH-1219 Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland.
    United Nations Environment Programme Capacity Building Pilot Project: training and interlaboratory study on persistent organic pollutant analysis under the Stockholm Convention2008In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 617, no 1-2, p. 208-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the framework of a United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Capacity Building Project for training of laboratory staff in developing countries on persistent organic pollutant (POP) analysis, an interlaboratory study was organised following an initial evaluation of the performance of laboratories (reality check) and a series of training sessions. The target compounds were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticides (OCP). Seven laboratories from five countries (Ecuador, Uruguay, Kenya, Moldova, and Fiji) participated. Most of the laboratories had no experience in determining PCBs. Although chromatograms improved considerably after the training and installation of new gas chromatographic (GC) columns at participating laboratories, the level of performance in the interlaboratory study was essentially on par with the moderate performance level achieved by European POP laboratories in the 1980s. Only some individual results were within +/-20% of the target values. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) in POP concentrations determined by laboratories in a sediment sample were >200% in a number of cases. The results for a certified herring sample were better with at least some R.S.D. values below 50% and most below 100%. Clean up was as one of the main sources of error. After inspection it was ascertained that training of laboratory staff and investments in simple consumables such as glassware and GC columns would help to improve the quality of the analysis more than major investments in expensive instrumentation. Creating an effective network of POP laboratories at different continents together with a series of interlaboratory studies and workshops is suggested to improve the measurements of POPs in these countries.

  • 12. Devia, L.
    et al.
    Capra, A.
    Mendoza, M.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analysis of PCB in the Mining Sector within the Latin American Region2015In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 77, p. 789-792Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Dyke, P. H.
    et al.
    PD Consulting, Magdalen, Brobury, Herefordshire, UK.
    Foan, C.
    The Environment Agency, National Centre for Risk Analysis and Options Appraisal, Kings Meadow House, Kings Meadow Road, Reading, Berkshire, UK.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Chemicals, Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland.
    PCB and PAH releases from power stations and waste incineration processes in the UK2003In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 469-480, article id PII S0045-6535(02)00627-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from incineration and power generation processes. Increased concern over human exposure to both classes of compounds has meant that environmental regulators need to assess the contribution made by emissions from regulated processes to human exposure. In the first part of an assessment in the UK we reviewed literature data on emissions of PCB, focusing on the dioxin-like PCB assigned toxic equivalency factors by the World Health Organization, and PAR The literature study was supplemented by a series of plant tests to gather initial real plant data. Literature data were limited and the lack of standard protocols for measurement and reporting of both PCB and PAH meant that few data sets were comparable. Levels of dioxin-like PCB reported in the literature and measured in UK plant tests showed that well-controlled modern combustion plants with comprehensive pollution controls gave low emissions, typically about 5-10% of the toxic equivalent of the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans at the same plants and below the widely used standard of 0.1 ng TEQ/N m(3).

  • 14.
    Elgazali, Abdelkarem A. S.
    et al.
    Trace Element Speciation Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.
    Gajdosechova, Zuzana
    Trace Element Speciation Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.
    Abbas, Zaigham
    LG & RD Complex, Ministry of Climate Change, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Lombi, Enzo
    Future Industries Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes SA, Australia.
    Scheckel, Kirk G.
    Future Industries Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes SA, Australia; National Risk Management Research Laboratory, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati OH, USA.
    Donner, Erica
    Future Industries Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes SA, Australia.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Chemicals Branch, UN Environment PProgramme (UNEP), Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE), Chatelaine, Switzerland.
    Feldmann, Jörg
    Trace Element Speciation Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.
    Krupp, Eva M.
    Trace Element Speciation Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen.
    Reactive gaseous mercury is generated from chloralkali factories resulting in extreme concentrations of mercury in hair of workers2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 3675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Occupational exposure of chloralkali workers to highly concentrated mercury (Hg) vapour has been linked to an increased risk of renal dysfunction and behavioural changes. It is generally believed that these workers are exposed to elemental Hg, which is used in abundance during the production process however, the lack in analytical techniques that would allow for identification of gaseous Hg species poses a challenge, which needs to be addressed in order to reach a consensus. Here, we present the results from simulated exposure studies, which provide sound evidence of higher adsorption rate of HgCl2 than Hg-0 and its irreversible bonding on the surface of hair. We found that chloralkali workers were exposed to HgCl2, which accumulated in extremely high concentrations on the hair surface, more than 1,000 times higher than expected from unexposed subjects and was positively correlated with Hg levels in the finger- and toenails.

  • 15.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals, Chatelaine (GE), Schweiz, Germany.
    Existierende dioxininventare weltweit und neue methodik zur erstellung von vergleichbaren und vollständigen emissionsinventaren [Existing dioxin inventories worldwide and a new methodology for establishing comparable and complete emissions inventories]2001In: Umweltwissenschaften und Schadstoff-Forschung, ISSN 0934-3504, E-ISSN 1865-5084, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 88-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presently, there are less than 20 inventories to estimate releases of dioxins and furans. According to a recent survey, 12,900 g TEQ of these unwanted byproducts are emitted into the atmosphere by 16 countries. Highest emissions are from the densely populated industrialized countries of the Northern hemisphere - Japan and the United States of America. Whereas the metal producing and recycling industry is the sector with the highest dioxin emissions in Europe, waste incineration is considered to be the major source in many other countries. Measures to reduce dioxin emissions have resulted in strong downward trends, as shown e.g. in Germany and Japan; however, potentials for further reduction have been identified.

    So far, countries have utilized own methods to calculate their dioxin emissions and the majority has addressed releases to air only. The future Stockholm Convention on POPs will require to continuously reduce dioxin emissions. In order to assist countries in inventory making, UNEP has produced the Toolkit, a methodology to establish comparable dioxin inventories that address releases to air, water and land, with products and in residues.

  • 16.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. DTIE Chemicals Branch, United Nations Environment Programme, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    From release inventories to body burden: some examples from POPs monitoring projects2015In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 77, p. 725-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents information in relation to production or generation of POPs compiled in inventories at national or global level, concentrations in the environment using ambient air data and information on body burden using human milk data. The pathway source inventory-environmental concentration-body burden is evaluated for “typical classes of POPs”.

  • 17.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    University of Bayreuth, Ecol. Chemistry and Geochemistry, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Global and local disposition of PCBs2001In: PCBs: recent advances in environmental toxicology and health effects / [ed] Larry W. Robertson, Larry G. Hansen, Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky , 2001, p. 11-15Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals Branch, DTIE, Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland.
    National PCDD/PCDF release inventories under the Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants2007In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 67, no 9, p. S96-S108Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Chemicals, Châtelaine, Switzerland.
    Persistent organic pollutants: chemical identity and properties2000In: European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, ISSN 1438-7697, E-ISSN 1438-9312, Vol. 102, no 1, p. 45-49Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Chemicals, Châtelaine, Switzerland.
    POPs convention: present status2000In: European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, ISSN 1438-7697, E-ISSN 1438-9312, Vol. 102, no 1, p. 58-60Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Division of Technology, Industry and Economics/Chemicals Branch, United Nations Environment Programme, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland .
    Release Inventories of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans2015In: Dioxin and Related Compounds: Special Volume in Honor of Otto Hutzinger / [ed] Mehran Alaee, Springer, 2015, p. 1-27Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For unintentionally generated persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), the development and maintenance of national release inventories is an obligation for parties to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. About 20 years after the first dioxin inventories have been published, a systematic approach has been developed and now is applied worldwide to establish complete, comparable inventories that are consistent in format and content. The basis for such inventories is the “Toolkit,” a collection of emission factors and description of activities and processes that form and release PCDD/PCDF. The Toolkit uses a five-vector approach, i.e., not only releases to air but also to other compartments such as water, land, product, and residue are included. The assessment of the quantitative data for releases from ten source groups to five release vectors provides interesting insight in the country’s geographic, economic, and development status. After the first round of reporting PCDD/PCDF inventories, 86 inventories have been assessed, and it can be seen that the total releases of PCDD/PCDF from the ten source categories have a positive correlation with the size of the population and a negative correlation with economic status.

  • 22.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Short-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins: Production, Use and International Regulations2010In: Chlorinated Paraffins / [ed] Boer, Jacob, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer , 2010, Vol. 10, p. 1-40Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are a group of synthetic organic chemicals consisting of n-alkanes with varying degrees of chlorination, usually between 40 and 70% by weight. There are no known natural sources of CPs. CPs are produced by chlorination of n-alkane feedstocks. CPs typically are viscous oils with low vapor pressures; they are practically insoluble in water but are soluble in chlorinated solvents or mineral oils. They are toxic to wildlife, long-lasting in the environment and build up in the tissues of organisms. Long-chain CPs are believed to be much less toxic to aquatic life than the related short- or medium-chain CPs. CPs consist of extremely complex mixtures allowing many possible positions for the chlorine atoms. Depending on the degree of chlorination, they are grouped into low (<50%) and high (>50%) chlorine containing. Depending on the chain length, the products are often subdivided into short-chain (C10–C13), medium-chain (C14–C17) and long-chain (C18–C30) CPs. CPs, including short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), are used worldwide in a wide range of applications such as plasticisers in plastics, extreme pressure additives in metalworking fluids, flame retardants and additives in paints. Their wide industrial applications probably provide the major source of environmental contamination. CPs may be released into the environment from improperly disposed metalworking fluids containing CPs or from polymers containing CPs. Loss of CPs by leaching from paints and coatings may also contribute to environmental contamination. The potential for loss during production and transport is expected to be less than that during product use and disposal. Despite many efforts, a global picture as to the definition of CPs, present production, uses and occurrences is still not yet obtained. Since about 20 years, SCCPs have become subject to regulation at national and international level due to their physical–chemical properties and adverse effects. Action has been initiated for severely restricting or banning production and use of certain CPs. The latest activities include the listing of SCCPs under the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Protocol of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Longe-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Convention and ongoing discussions on including SCCPs to the Stockholm Convention on POPs.

  • 23.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Sources of PCDD/PCDF and impact on the environment1996In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 55-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PCDD/PCDF can be formed in a variety of industrial and thermal processes. Especially the combustion sources contribute to the ambient air levels. In addition to the well-investigated emissions from municipal waste incinerators dioxins were measured in the flue gases of other thermal emitters. It was found that some recycling plants can emit high concentrations of PCDD/PCDF. Ambient air concentrations monitored over several years have shown a clear seasonal trend with higher PCDD/PCDF levels in winter and lower concentrations during summer. Thus, results from short-term measurements cannot be used to calculate annual means for ambient air concentations or deposition rates. Dioxins, once concentrated in sewage sludge and compost can re-enter the environment when these ''reservoirs'' are applied onto agricultural and horticultural soils.

  • 24.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals Branch, DTIE, Châtelaine, GE, Switzerland.
    Stockholm convention on POPs: Obligations and implementation2008In: The Fate of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Environment / [ed] Ebru Mehmetli, Bogdana Koumanova, Springer, 2008, p. 3-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants requires Parties to implement certain measures to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants by eliminating or reducing production, use, and releases of these chemicals. The global treaty involves politics and economics, but also science and technology to resolve global environmental problems. It is a living treaty and will evolve with time. First results to tackle a global problem jointly by developed and developing countries can already be seen. The Stockholm Convention also calls for cooperation between intergovernmental organizations.

  • 25.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Bavarian Institute for Waste Research-BIfA GmbH, Augsburg, Germany; University of Bayreuth, Ecol. Chemistry and Geochemistry, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Thermal formation of PCDD/PCDF: A survey1998In: Environmental Engineering Science, ISSN 1092-8758, E-ISSN 1557-9018, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 49-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) were quantified in the emissions from the Amsterdam municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in 1977, more than 20 years of intensive research gave many answers on how PCDD and PCDF can form in thermal processes. As a result, it can be concluded that PCDD/PCDF can be formed in all combustion processes where organic carbon, oxygen, and chlorine are present. Although there are still open questions, findings can be summarized as follows:

    • PCDD/PCDF can be formed in the gas phase as well as in the heterogeneous phase.
    • Geometry of the combustion chamber, time, temperature, feeding rate, input (chlorine), and so forth may have an influence on the formation of PCDD/PCDF.
    • There may be different processes dominating to form PCDD or PCDF.
    • The amount of PCDD and PCDF formed differs between types of thermal processes.
    • Within the same process categories, e.g., MSWIs, hazardous waste incinerators, steel mills, etc., the PCDD/PCDF pattern is very similar.
    • Formation of PCDD/PCDF can be prevented by addition of "inhibitors" such as sulfur- or nitrogen-containing agents.
    • Results from field investigations, i.e., waste wood combustion and a new technology for thermal treatment of municipal solid waste, support these basic findings.
  • 26.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    United Nations Environment Programme, DTIE Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Abad, E.
    Martrat, G.
    van Bavel, B.
    Ericsson, I.
    de Boer, J.
    New POPs in Ambient Air Samples Using Passive Air Samplers2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76, p. 1533-1536Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    UNEP/DTIE Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Abad, E.
    Laboratory of Dioxins, Environmental Chemistry Department, IDÆA-CSIC Barcelona, Spain.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    de Boer, J.
    Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Bogdal, C.
    Institute of Chemical and Bioingeneering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Malisch, R.
    State Institute for Chemical and Veterinary Analysis of Food, Freiburg, Germany.
    The need for capacity building and first results for the Stockholm convention global monitoring plan2013In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 46, p. 72-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) established an effectiveness evaluation to assess the efficiency of measures taken by Parties under the Convention. Among these measures, a Global Monitoring Plan requires countries to analyze core matrices for POPs. To assist countries in setting up networks for these core matrices and to generate high-quality, comparable results, the United Nations Environment Program has implemented projects in 32 developing countries. The results demonstrate the worldwide presence of POPs in air and in humans, although at different scales.

  • 28.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    UNEP Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Cao, Z.
    Huang, J.
    Wang, B.
    Deng, S.
    Yu, G.
    PCDD/PCDF Inventories 1990 vs. 20122012In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 74, p. 1521-1524Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Cheung, C. K.
    Institute for Natural Resources and Waste Management, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, China.
    Wong, M. H.
    Institute for Natural Resources and Waste Management, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, China.
    PCDD/PCDF, chlorinated pesticides and PAH in Chinese teas2002In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 46, no 9-10, p. 1429-1433, article id PII S0045-6535(01)00264-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four samples of Chinese tea (two green teas, and two brick teas) were analyzed for their concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), chlorinated pesticides and PAH. The infusions prepared from these teas were also analyzed for PCDD/PCDF. The levels of DDT and its metabolites in tea leaves were within the safety limit of 0.2 mg/kg. Rather high levels of total PAH were obtained in brick tea (1048-1162 mg/kg), when compared with green tea (497-517 mg/kg). In terms of PCDD/PCDF, the concentrations of green tea and brick tea differed by a factor of 16, while the concentrations of all infusions were within a factor of 2. The dioxin concentrations in green tea leaves can be explained through uptake of atmospheric PCDD/PCDF. The higher concentrations in the brick tea leaves are due the longer exposure time, and to certain extent, the use of old leaves, branches and roots when making the tea, and additional components such as soil particulates through contamination. Certain Chinese populations drinking a large amount of brick tea (>31 per day) indicated that individuals of these populations consume more tea than Europeans or North Americans result in a comparably higher intake of PCDD/PCDF. Tea consumption can attribute to up to 10% of the TDI recommended by WHO (only PCDD/PCDF considered, no PCB analyzed).

  • 30.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    University of Bayreuth, Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Cooper, K.
    Rutgers University, Cook College, New Brunswick, USA .
    Bergek, S.
    Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå Sweden .
    Hjelt, M.
    Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå Sweden .
    Rappe, C.
    Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå Sweden .
    Bonner, M.
    Bonner Analytical Testing Co., Hattiesburg, MS, USA .
    Howell, F.
    University of Southern Mississippi, Department of Biological Sciences, Hattiesburg, MS, USA .
    Willett, K.
    Texas A&M University, Department of Veterinary Physiology & Pharmacology, College Station, TX, USA .
    Safe, S.
    Texas A&M University, Department of Veterinary Physiology & Pharmacology, College Station, TX, USA .
    PCDD, PCDF, and PCB in farm-raised catfish from southeast United States - Concentrations, sources, and CYP1A induction1998In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 37, no 9-12, p. 1645-1656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nine catfish fillets, three catfish nuggets, two feed samples, and one pond sediment were analyzed for PCDD, PCDF, and-PCB. Farm-raised catfish from Mississippi, Alabama, and Arkansas contained significant levels of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD and PCDF. In addition, a large number of non-2,3,7,8-substituted congeners were present in all samples. The catfish fillets and catfish nuggets also contained high concentrations of dioxin-like PCB, as well as a number of non-dioxin-like PCB. The TEQ based on PCDD and PCDF ranged from 9.5 to 43.0 pg/g lipid and the TEQ based on PCB ranged from 0.45 to 4.9 pg/g lipid for all catfish samples. The dioxin-like PCB contributed 4-16% to the total TEQ (PCDD/PCDF/PCB) for the catfish samples. The major source for the PCDD, PCDF, and PCB appears to be from feed and not from pond sediment. Immunoreactive CYP1A protein was elevated 2.5 fold in the pond-raised catfish compared to the aquarium-raised one. The results of this study suggest that the PCDD/PCDF are more important than the PCB in the CYP1A induction.

  • 31.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    University of Bayreuth, Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Cooper, K. R.
    Rutgers University, E.O.H.S.I., Piscataway, USA .
    Bergek, S.
    Umeå University, Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå, Sweden .
    Hjelt, M.
    Umeå University, Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå, Sweden .
    Rappe, C.
    Umeå University, Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå, Sweden .
    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) in food samples collected in southern Mississippi, USA1997In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 34, no 5-7, p. 1411-1419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n 1994, we analyzed 43 foodstuff samples from local supermarkets in southern Mississippi, USA, for PCDD/PCDF. 2,3,7,8-Cl4DD could be quantified in 31 of these samples. On a lipid basis, levels in meat (0.53-1.10 pg I-TEQ/g) and dairy products (0.42-1.10 pg I-TEQ/g) were slightly lower than those reported from other industrialized countries. While levels in dairy samples from the United States and Europe are comparable, there is a difference in the contribution of individual congeners to the I-TEQ: for example, in milk samples from Germany approximately 40% of the I-TEQ is due to the presence of 2,3,4,7,8-Cl5DF while in the Mississippi samples this congener only contributes 16%. The highest concentrations of PCDD/PCDF in our study were detected in the farm-raised catfish (10.2-27.8 pg I-TEQ/g). A unique finding was that in addition to the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/PCDF the catfish samples contained many non-2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. This is unusual because vertebrate animals selectively eliminate or metabolize the non-2,3,7,8-substituted congeners.

  • 32.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    de Boer, J.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Assessment of Results for the 2nd Interlaboratory Study of POPs Laboratories2016In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 78, p. 777-780Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Biochemie, Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Faillard, H.
    Biochemie, Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Separation and determination of neuraminic acids in nanogram quantities by liquid chromatography: A comparative study with different amino phases1985In: Chromatographia, ISSN 0009-5893, E-ISSN 1612-1112, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 231-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuraminic acid derivatives were separated easily by liquid chromatography on amino phases and using acetonitrile/15 mM phosphate buffer, pH 5.2 as mobile phase. Detection at 200 nm allowed determination of substances in the nanomole range. All solvent systems were used isocratically at room temperature. The separation did not depend on ion-exchange but on a partition mechanism, the solutes being separated according to their polarity. Thus, it was possible to optimize the resolution by varying the stationary phase and the composition of the eluent.

  • 34.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Herrmann, G.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Schramm, K.-W.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Hutzinger, O.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Application of QSARS to predict potential aquatic toxicities of organochlorine pesticides1990In: Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 0277-2248, E-ISSN 1029-0486, Vol. 26, no 1-4, p. 157-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On the basis of physico‐chemical data, such as water solubility and vapour pressure as well as acute toxicity tests we developed an ecotoxicological model for preliminary hazard assessment. By use of the reciprocal product from log H and LC50 we developed a suitable ranking system that allows us to predict potential damage to aquatic organisms through pesticides

  • 35.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Hutzinger, O.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Sources and sinks of dioxins: Germany1992In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 25, no 7-10, p. 1487-1491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion processes are known to produce dioxins and especially municipal waste incineration is thought to have the highest contribution to the general background. On the other hand the general acceptance of non-thermal waste treatment methods such as composting is much higher than incineration. The results of an estimation on the input of PCDD/PCDF to Germany show that besides the thermal processes so-called sinks for pollutants, such as sewage sludge, compost, and foliage represent a reservoir to release dioxins by use in agriculture.

  • 36.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Hutzinger, O.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Giesy, J. P.
    Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Center for Environmental Toxicology and Pesticide Research Center, Michigan State University, MI, USA.
    Utility of the QSAR modeling system for predicting the toxicity of substances on the European inventory of existing commercial chemicals1990In: Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 0277-2248, E-ISSN 1029-0486, Vol. 28, no 2-3, p. 167-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many chemicals are in common commercial use for which no information on the environmental fate or toxicity exists. Recent legislation requires that many substances be assessed for their toxicity to aquatic organisms within a very short time and determine which of these chemicals need to be studied in greater detail. It would be impossible to measure the acute and chronic effects of all of these compounds on a single organism, let alone a battery of different types of organisms, communities or ecosystems. Initially, the chemicals on the European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS) need to be screened and relative hazard to the environment determined. In response to OECD directives, there has been a great deal of activity by government and industry scientists. At the International Workshop on Advances in Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment it was concluded that quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) could and should be used in the hazard assessment process. Papers published in that volume outline the advantages, disadvantages, limitations, advances and research requirements.

    The QSAR, structure‐activity based chemical modeling and information system, which was developed by the US‐Environmental Protection Agency was used to predict the acute toxicity of 113 substances from the “Old Substances”; list of the German government to the four commonly used aquatic toxicity test organisms: Daphnia magna (DM), fathead minnow (FHM), rainbow trout (RBT), and blue‐gill sunfish (BG).

    Of these compounds the QSAR system predicted the acute toxicity of 87 substances towards fathead minnow. For the other three species examined the QSAR system could be used to predict toxicity for 78 compounds.

    The predicted toxicities were compared to observed toxicities of compounds which have been evaluated and stored in the “Aquire”; data base. Observed toxicity values were available for at least one species for 38 compounds. The toxicities of some compounds are well predicted while those of other compounds were not well predicted. Overall, the QSAR system accurately classified the acute toxicity ranges of 50%, 64%, 56% and 56% of the compounds investigated for DM, FHM, RBT and BG, respectively. Of the compounds studied 10 were very poorly predicted, of these the QSAR system overpredicted the toxicity of three, while underpredicting the toxicity of seven. Of these seven compounds, five contained amino groups.

  • 37.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Hutzinger, O.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Timms, C. W.
    Procter & Gamble GmbH, Schwalbach am Taunus, Germany.
    Dioxins: Sources of environmental load and human exposure1990In: Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 0277-2248, E-ISSN 1029-0486, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 157-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated dibenzo‐p‐dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) represent a class of tricylic, almost planar, aromatic ethers with 1 to 8 chlorine atoms. Congeners with substituents in the positions 2, 3, 7, and 8 are of special concern due to their toxicity, stability, and persistence. These compounds have been identified in almost all environmental compartments and humans.

    Dioxins are a potent carcinogen for animals and—at the moment—considered a probable carcinogen for humans. Actual toxicological risk assessment for humans are based on 2,3,7,8‐Cl4DD carcinogenicity studies on rodents. Tumorigenic effects were found for 2 strains of rats and 2 strains of mice. All dioxins and furans elicit common toxic and biological responses, starting with a specific binding to a protein receptor, but existing epidemiologic data do not provide definitive data on human health effects.

    Toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) have been developed by several agencies as a provisional method of risk assessment for complex mixtures of PCDD/PCDF.

    Dioxins have never been produced intentionally and have never served any useful purpose. They are formed in trace amounts as by‐products in industrial processes; for instance within the chemical industry, of the pulp and paper industry, metallurgical processes, processes for reactivation of granular carbon, dry cleaning, and the manufacture of flame‐retarded plastics.

    The main pathway for dioxins to enter the environment is via combustion processes. Incineration is of special importance since PCDD/PCDF are directly released to the atmosphere from either stationary sources, such as municipal, hazardous and hospital waste incinerators, the combustion of sewage sludge, and scrap metal recycling, or diffuse sources, e.g. automobile exhausts, private home heating with fossil fuels, forest fires, and cigarette smoking. Furthermore, fires with PCB and PVC have additionally contributed to the total dioxin load. The emission gases can undergo long‐range transport, so that dioxins have been found even in remote areas.

    Besides the two primary sources (industrial processes and combustion processes) the release of dioxins from contaminated areas and waste dumps via the leachate and the application of sewage sludge for fertilization represents a third source of PCDD/PCDF.

    After more than 10 years of dioxin research the most important sources of PCDD/PCDF have been identified and analytical methods have been developed for their quantification in trace levels and in complex matrices.

    Various efforts have been undertaken to reduce the emission of dioxins: for example, optimization of combustion processes for municipal waste incineration, use of unleaded gasoline, ban of chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). More detail is provided in the pulp and paper section where changes have been initiated to significantly reduce the sources of PCDD/PCDF.

    However, relatively little is known about transport and transformation processes, so only rough estimates can be made. Photodegradation has been found to be the primary process for 2,3,7,8‐Cl4DD breakdown. A half‐life of 3–4 days has been estimated for photochemical degradation under oxidative conditions. Field studies on the fate of 2,3,7,8‐Cl4DD in soil gave a half‐life of 9.1 (Seveso) and 12 years (under special conditions: sand, erosion), respectively. Biodegradation seems to be negligible. Transfer factors soil‐plants for PCDD/PCDF have been determined—with a high degree of uncertainty—to be less than 0.1.

    Human exposure primarily occurs via ingestion whereas inhalation is a minor pathway. Dermal absorption can be neglected although skin contact to polluted surfaces may occur. Due to the lipophilicity of PCDD/PCDF and their potential for accumulation, foods such as meat and especially dairy products contribute most to the dioxin body burden of humans.

    Both national agencies and international organizations have recognized the significance of this problem and as a result have initiated regulations, recommendations and research programmes (1) to understand where and how PCDD/PCDF are formed, (2) to reduce their impact on the environment and to humans, and (3) to start remedial action on contaminated areas.

  • 38.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Hutzinger, Otto
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Lau, Christoph
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Cikryt, Peter
    Institute of Toxicology, University of Wiirzburg, Wiirzburg, Germany .
    Hosseinpour, Jamshid
    Okometric GmbH, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Case study of a highly dioxin contaminated sports field: Environmental risk assessment and human exposure1995In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 217-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper slag, containing high levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) was used as covering material of a community sports field. This led to a contamination up to 40 000 fold in comparison to background concentrations in soils. Levels and patterns of dioxins found in sediments of a nearby river proved a translocation of contaminated copper slag, while slightly elevated dioxin levels found in soil from nearby house gardens could not be attributed to the sports field as the source of dioxins.

    The annual flux of dioxins and furans to the environment was estimated using worst-case assumptions and the potential exposure of humans was deduced. Calculations of possible PCDD/PCDF-fluxes to the environment showed that only one major process - wind erosion - may have contributed to more than 90% of the total dioxin flux from the contaminated site to the surroundings, Based on PCDD/PCDF-exposure pathways for humans it was concluded that the PCDD/PCDF-content of the copper slag of the sports field did not pose a health hazard to athletes nor to the residents living in the neighbourhood.

  • 39.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    University of Bayreuth, Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Lau, C.
    University of Bayreuth, Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Eduljee, G.
    ERM, Eaton House, Wallbrook Court, Oxford, UK.
    Statistical analysis of patterns of PCDDs and PCDFs in stack emission samples and identification of a marker congener2000In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 283-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Samples from three major categories of thermal sources, namely municipal solid waste incinerators, hazardous waste incinerators and the iron and steel industry, were evaluated fur common patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. The major contributors to the total of the 17 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners and to the I-TEQ were identified. It was found that Cl8DD was the most abundant congener in most samples. However, the highest contribution to the toxic equivalent (I-TEQ) was attributable to 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF. More than 30% of the TER was a result of the presence of this congener. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that the emission pattern from the iron and steel industry were slightly different from those of the waste incineration. It was not possible tu differentiate between emissions from municipal solid waste and hazardous waste incinerators. Linear regression identified 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF as a potential marker analyte to predict I-TEQ concentrations of emission samples. However, whilst in theory such correlations may open new possibilities for application of screening techniques to predict the total I-TEQ of a sample of known origin by determining a single marker congener or surrogate compound, the study suggests that a screening technique based on the direct measurement uf the total I-TEQ of a sample is likely to offer a more robust conceptual foundation for PCDD/F screening.

  • 40.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Lau, C.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Kjeller, L.-O.
    Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Rappe, C.
    Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Patterns and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans found in soil and sediment samples in southern Mississippi1996In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 421-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using hierarchical cluster analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), sediment and soil samples from the State of Mississippi were compared with the effluents of a pulp mill, a potential point source. Additionally, data of many known sources of PCDD/PCDF from the scientific literature were evaluated. Both methods were able to distinguish between different matrices with known PCDD/PCDF contamination (e.g. PCP, PCB, kraft pulp mill effluents). In some instances, a specific PCDD/PCDF source could be correlated to an environmental sample, e.g. the pattern of a U.S, brand of pentachlorophenate was found in sediment samples. None of the mathematical and statistical techniques could identify the pulp mill as the source of the PCDD/PCDF in the sediments and soils in the floodplain.

  • 41.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, FRG.
    Schramm, K.-W.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, FRG.
    QSAR generated octanol-water partition coefficients of selected mixed halogenated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans1990In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 20, no 10-12, p. 1597-1602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have calculated the values of pkow, water solubility, and Koc for chlorinated, brominated and mixed halogenated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans that have been identified in environmental samples. From the results it can be concluded that brominated and mixed halogenated dioxins and furans will show an ecological behaviour similar to that of the pure chlorinated compounds.

  • 42.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    United Nations Environment Programme DTIE Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, B.
    van der Veen, I.
    de Boer, J.
    Results from UNEPs 2nd Global Interlaboratory Assessment: Basic and New POPs2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76, p. 1497-1500Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    BIfA GmbH, Bavarian Institute of Waste Research, Augsburg, Germany.
    Van den Berg, Martin
    RITOX, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and related compounds: Update and recent developments1996In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 122-128Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van der Veen, Ike
    Vrije Universiteit, Environment & Health, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    de Boer, Jacob
    Vrije Universiteit, Environment & Health, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Bi-ennial Global Interlaboratory Assessment on Persistent Organic Pollutants: Third Round 2016/2017, Dioxin-like POPs and Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances2017In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 79, p. 237-240Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45. Gong, W.
    et al.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Wang, B.
    Huang, J.
    Yu, G.
    A review of emission factors for unintentional hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene from metal production2016In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 78, p. 1046-1049Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Gong, Wenwen
    et al.
    School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Xiaotu
    School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Bin
    School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Yu, Gang
    School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Emission factors of unintentional HCB and PeCBz and their correlation with PCDD/PCDF2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 230, p. 516-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) have been listed as unintentional POPs in the annex of the Stockholm Convention and thus, attracted attention by government and researchers. Since the intentional production and use has ceased in most countries, the unintentional releases to the environment have increased. This study gathered 206 and 78 emission factors (EFs) of unintentional HCB and PeCBz from scientific publications and governmental reports, respectively. Most of the EFs referred to the release vector "air" (EFAir) and to a less extent to "product" (EFProduct). EFs were proposed for different source categories/classes used in the Toolkit according to the technologies that released the HCB or PeCBz. Overall, lowest and highest EFAir for HCB were found in the metallurgical industry range from 1 μg/t in well controlled plants (coke, iron and steel) up to 40,000 μg/t (secondary zinc). EFs for PeCBz were in similar order of magnitude. Due to lack of data, EFs to water, land or residue cannot be proposed. Using linear regression and statistical analysis such as Pearson correlation, we found strongest correlation of EFAir between HCB and PeCBz (R(2) = 0.79, P < 0.01) and weaker, but still significant, correlations for EFAir between PCDD/PCDFTEQ and HCB (R(2) = 0.56; P < 0.01) or PeCBz (R(2) = 0.31 P < 0.01) for various thermal processes.

  • 47.
    Gong, Wenwen
    et al.
    School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Xiaotu
    School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Bin
    School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Yu, Gang
    School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Reassessment and update of emission factors for unintentional dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 605, p. 498-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major goals of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is to continuously reduce the releases of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-paradioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from anthropogenic sources. Until now, most efforts have focused on the releases of PCDD/PCDF and to a lesser extent on unintentionally generated PCB, and therefore, release inventories reported as toxic equivalents (TEQ) do not include the twelve dioxin-like PCB (dl-PCB). In order to facilitate the development of national release inventories for the total TEQ - consisting of PCDD, PCDF and PCB - this study collected and summarized published emission factors (EFs) of unintentional dl-PCB or calculated them from measured data for the sources listed in the UNEP Toolkit. In total, 286 EFs for dl-PCB were found (or could be calculated) whereby 233 described release to air, 23 EFs addressed to residue, 25 EFs to product; and only 5 EFs addressed releases to land. Taking into account performance criteria such as the facility type and scale or abatement technologies, the EFs were grouped and assigned to the source categories and/or classes used in the UNEP Toolkit. With these newly added data and EFs of dl-PCB, the already existing EFs in the Toolkit can be improved and amended. In addition, a statistically significant correlation between the EFAir of dl-PCB proposed in this study and EFAir of PCDD/PCDF recommended in the Toolkit was observed.

  • 48.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Li, Y. M.
    Leslie, Heather
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in samples from African countries participating in the United Nations Environment Programme2011In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 73, p. 795-798Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Hauk, A.
    et al.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Richartz, H.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Schramm, K. W.
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Reduction of nitrated phenols: A method to predict half-wave-potentials of nitrated phenols with molecular modeling1990In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 717-728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The redox stability of 13 nitrated phenols was investigated using polarographic measured half-wave-potentials. These half-wave-potentials were compared with data from a semi-empirical quantum mechanic computer model. A good correlation was found between LUMO energy and the half-wave-potential for phenols, but for phenolates the correlation coefficient was lower, even when a multivariate regression model was used.

  • 50.
    Henry, Barbara J.
    et al.
    W.L. Gore & Associates Inc., Elkton MD, USA.
    Carlin, Joseph P.
    W.L. Gore & Associates Inc., Elkton MD, USA.
    Hammerschmidt, Jon A.
    W.L. Gore & Associates Inc., Elkton MD, USA.
    Buck, Robert C.
    The Chemours Company, Wilmington DE, USA.
    Buxton, L. William
    The Chemours Company, Wilmington DE, USA.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Seed, Jennifer
    Risk Assessment Consultant, Alexandria VA, USA.
    Hernandez, Oscar
    Bergeson & Campbell, Washington DC, USA.
    A critical review of the application of polymer of low concern and regulatory criteria to fluoropolymers2018In: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, ISSN 1551-3777, E-ISSN 1551-3793, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 316-334Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of fluorinated substances that are in the focus of researchers and regulators due to widespread presence in the environment and biota, including humans, of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Fluoropolymers, high molecular weight polymers within the PFAS group, have unique properties that constitute a distinct class within the PFAS group. Fluoropolymers have thermal, chemical, photochemical, hydrolytic, oxidative and biological stability. They have negligible residual monomer and oligomer content and low to no leachables. Fluoropolymers are practically insoluble in water and not subject to long-range transport. With a molecular weight well over 100,000 Da, fluoropolymers cannot cross the cell membrane. Fluoropolymers are not bioavailable or bioaccumulative, as evidenced by toxicology studies on PTFE: acute and subchronic systemic toxicity, irritation, sensitization, local toxicity on implantation, cytotoxicity, in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity, hemolysis, complement activation, and thrombogenicity. Clinical studies of patients receiving permanently implanted PTFE cardiovascular medical devices demonstrate no chronic toxicity or carcinogenicity, reproductive or developmental or endocrine toxicity. This paper brings together fluoropolymer toxicity data, human clinical data, and physical-chemical-thermal-biological data for review and assessment to show that fluoropolymers satisfy widely accepted assessment criteria to be considered as "Polymers of Low Concern". This review concludes that fluoropolymers are distinctly different from other polymeric and non-polymeric per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances and should be separated from them for hazard assessment or regulatory purposes. Grouping fluoropolymers with all classes of PFAS for "read across" or structure activity relationship assessment is not scientifically appropriate.

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