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  • 1.
    Bergens, Oscar
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Cardiorespiratory Fitness Does Not Offset Adiposity-Related Systemic Inflammation in Physically Active Older Women2019In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 104, no 9, p. 4119-4126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT: Chronic inflammation increases diabetes risk and may be exacerbated by excess adipose tissue. Whether cardiovascular fitness can offset chronic inflammation associated with excess adipose tissue in older adults is unclear.

    OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to examine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on links between adiposity and pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers related to metabolic risk in physically active older women.

    DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional study comprising older community-dwelling women (n = 109; age, 65-70 yr).

    MAIN OUTCOME: Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using a standardized submaximal test and participants were categorized into high and low adiposity-related metabolic risk (body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and total fat mass). The inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, IL-18, adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α) were analyzed.

    RESULTS: Regardless of adiposity measure, women in the metabolic high-risk group had significantly (P<0.05) elevated CRP and lower adiponectin levels. Levels of IL-6 and MIP1-α were significantly elevated in the high-risk group defined by WHR and total fat mass. IL-18 level was significantly elevated in the high-risk group based on WHR only. Importantly, a high cardiorespiratory fitness level did not attenuate the detrimental links between adiposity measures and inflammation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, cardiorespiratory fitness does not offset the detrimental links between adiposity and several inflammatory biomarkers related to metabolic risk in physically active older women. Reducing abdominal adipose tissue in older adults should be emphasized in efforts aiming to attenuate age-related systemic inflammation and metabolic risk regardless of cardiorespiratory fitness.

  • 2.
    Edholm, Peter
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Physical function in older adults: Impacts of past and present physical activity behaviors2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 415-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While physical activity (PA) may counteract age-related functional decline and loss of independence at old age, to what extent physical function is influenced by past or present PA behaviors is currently unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine relationships between both past and present PA behaviors and components of physical function in older women. A physical function score based on the 6-minute walk test, squat jump, and single-leg-stance balance was aggregated in 60 older women (65-70 years). Present PA behavior was assessed by accelerometry (Actigraph) and past leisure-time PA was self-reported, where times in sports-related activities and in walking were analyzed separately. Analysis of differences in physical function across tertiles of PA behaviors was adjusted by DXA-derived fat mass. Physical activity level at present age and engagements in sports-related activities before retirement age, excluding walking, were both associated (P < 0.05) to physical function. Time spent in PA of at least moderate intensity was associated with physical function (P < 0.05), whereas no corresponding relationships to either sedentary time or time in light intensity PA were observed. In conclusion, PA behaviors at present age and engagement in sports-related activities performed during adulthood are both related to physical function in older women. Being physically active at old age infers beneficial effects on physical function, even in individuals with a past or present sedentary lifestyle, which supports public health efforts aiming at increasing daily time in PA of at least moderate intensity to preserve physical function in older women.

  • 3.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Anders
    Department of Statistics, Örebro University, 701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Department of Physical Education and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Physical activity in relation to aerobic fitness and body fat in 14- to 15-year-old boys and girls2001In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 85, no 3-4, p. 195-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the strength of the relationship between different variables of physical activity and aerobic fitness and body fat in adolescent boys and girls. Activity energy expenditure (AEE), time spent in a sedentary state, and time spent engaged in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA, > or = 50% peak oxygen uptake, VO2peak) were assessed by the minute-by-minute heart rate monitoring method in 82 randomly selected 14- to 15-year olds (42 boys, 40 girls). Body fat was determined by measuring skinfold thicknesses. VO2peak was measured by indirect calorimetry. Somatic maturity level was determined by percentages of adult (i.e. 18 years) height attained at examination. AEE was related to aerobic fitness for both genders (boys, r = 0.30, P = 0.056; girls, r = 0.45, P = 0.003). For boys, there was a significant relationship between maturity level and VO2peak (r = 0.48, P < 0.001). For both genders, body fat was significantly and negatively related to VO2peak (r = -0.48 and r = -0.43, P < 0.01). Body fat and maturity explained 47% of the variation in VO2peak in boys, whereas AEE and body fat explained 22% of the variation in VO2peak in girls. No significant associations between physical activity variables and the data on body fat were observed. The total amount of physical activity (AEE) was related to VO2peak, at least in adolescent girls. Although VO2peak seems to be influenced by the maturity level in adolescent boys, the data support the promotion of a daily active lifestyle among young people.

  • 4.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Yngve, Agneta
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Heart rate as an indicator of the intensity of physical activity in human adolescents2001In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 85, no 3-4, p. 244-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were, in a group of adolescents, firstly to identify the absolute heart rates (HR) and the percentages of maximal heart rates (HRmax) corresponding to 40%, 60% and 80% of peak oxygen uptake (PVO2), secondly to identify absolute and relative (%PVO2) oxygen uptakes (VO2) corresponding to HR of 120, 140 and 160 beats.min-1, and thirdly to examine a possible effect of fatness and fitness on the relationship between HR and VO2. The subjects were 127 (60 boys, 67 girls) adolescents with a mean age of 14.8 (SD 0.3) years. The HR and VO2 were measured by means of an incremental exercise test to exhaustion. Linear regressions were performed for the HR-VO2 and VO2-HR relationships using absolute and relative (%HRmax, %PVO2) data for each individual. From these regressions, target HR and VO2 were computed. Average target HR corresponding to 40%, 60% and 80% of PVO2 were: 119 (SD 9), 145 (SD 9), 171 (SD 8), and 120 (SD 10), 146 (SD 8), 172 (SD 8) beats.min-1 for boys and girls, respectively. Average VO2 corresponding to HR of 120, 140 and 160 beats.min-1 were: 22 (SD 5), 30 (SD 5), 38 (SD 6) and 18 (SD 4), 24 (SD 4), 31 (SD 4) mlO2.kg-1.min-1 for boys and girls, respectively. An analysis of covariance showed a significant fitness effect (P < 0.001) for predicted VO2 at all HR studied. The results suggest that the use of absolute HR to define exercise intensity levels when assessing young people's physical activity using HR monitoring detracts from the validity of the interpretation of the data.

  • 5.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden;.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden;.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden;.
    Total daily energy expenditure and pattern of physical activity measured by minute-by-minute heart rate monitoring in 14-15 year old Swedish adolescents2000In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 195-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and patterns of physical activity among Swedish male and female adolescents and to relate the amount and intensity of physical activity to existing recommendations (energy expenditure equal to or above 12.4 kJ/kg/day or accumulation of 30 min/day in moderate physical activity equal to 4.5 times sedentary energy expenditure or more).

    DESIGN: TDEE, physical activity level (PAL=TDEE/BMR), energy expenditure (EE) and time spent in different intensities of physical activity were assessed by using minute-by-minute heart rate monitoring in combination with laboratory measured sedentary energy expenditure (SEE) and peak oxygen uptake.

    SETTING: Department of Physical Education and Health, Orebro University, and Department of Clinical Physiology, Orebro Medical Centre Hospital, Sweden.

    SUBJECTS: Eighty-two 14-15 y old adolescents (42 boys, 40 girls) from the city of Orebro, randomly selected through a two-stage sampling procedure.

    RESULTS: TDEE was 12.8 MJ/day and 10.0 MJ/day for boys and girls respectively (P<0.001) and PAL was 1.74 and 1.67 (NS). Forty-four percent and 47%, respectively, of TDEE referred to EE in physical activity, of which 70% for both genders referred to light physical activity (corresponding to <4.5 times SEE). Eleven boys and 14 girls had an EE lower than 12.4 kJ/kg/day and/or did not accumulate 30 min/day in physical activity >/=4.5 SEE. Those (n=20) with the highest PAL values (>2.01 and 1.81, respectively) spent 149 min/day at a >/=4.5 SEE intensity level compared to 40 min/day for those (n=30) with the lowest PAL values (<1.55 and 1.45, respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: Swedish adolescent boys and girls are similarly physically active. The major amount of time devoted to physical activity refers to light physical activity. At least thirty percent of adolescents seem not to achieve appropriate levels of physical activity considered to be beneficial for health.

  • 6.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Karsten
    Institute of Sport Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Wedderkopp, Niels
    Institute of Sport Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Westerterp, Klaas
    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Physical activity assessed by activity monitor and doubly labeled water in children2001In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 275-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To validate the Computer Science and Application's (CSA) activity monitor for assessment of the total amount of physical activity during two school-weeks in 9-yr-old children and to develop equations to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) from activity counts and anthropometric variables.

    METHODS: A total of 26 children (15 boys and 11 girls, mean age 9.1 +/- 0.3 yr) were monitored for 14 consecutive days. TEE was simultaneously measured by the doubly labeled water method. Averaged activity counts (counts.min(-1)) were compared with data on: 1) TEE, 2) AEE = TEE minus basal metabolic rate (BMR; estimated from predictive equations), and 3) daily physical activity level (PAL = TEE/BMR).

    RESULTS: Physical activity determined by activity counts was significantly related to the data on energy expenditures: TEE (r = 0.39; P < 0.05), AEE (r = 0.54; P < 0.01), and PAL (r = 0.58; P < 0.01). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that TEE was significantly influenced by gender, body composition (body weight or fat free mass), and activity counts (R(2) = 0.54--0.60). AEE was significantly influenced by activity counts and gender (R(2) = 0.45). There were no significant differences between activity counts and PAL in discriminating among activity levels with "low" (PAL < 1.56), "moderate" (1.57 < or = PAL > or = 1.81), and "high" (PAL > 1.81) intensity.

    CONCLUSION: Activity counts from the CSA activity monitor seems to be a useful measure of the total amount of physical activity in 9-yr-old children. Activity counts contributed significantly to the explained variation in TEE and was the best predictor of AEE.

  • 7.
    Hosford-Donovan, Adrian
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Wåhlin-Larsson, Britta
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Observational and mechanistic links between C-reactive protein and blood pressure in elderly women2016In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 89, p. 52-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is hypothesized that chronic systemic inflammation contributes to the age-related decline in cardiovascular function. The aim of the present study was to combine an assessment of the relationship between the serum level of C-reactive protein (CRP) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 108 elderly women (65 and 70 years) with an in-vitro exploration of the effects of CRP on the proliferative and angiogenic potential of endothelial cells exposed to serum in elderly women. Based on the median CRP level in our population, LowCRP (CRP<1.3mg/L) and HighCRP (>1.3mg/L) groups were identified. Body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were significantly higher in the HighCRP group than in the LowCRP group (p<0.05). The influence of CRP on SBP and DBP remained significant after adjustments for BMI and use of antihypertensive medication (p<0.05). When adjusting for waist circumference the observed influence of CRP on SPB was attenuated (p=0.062). We next evaluated the ability to form capillary tubes (angiogenesis assay) and the proliferation rate of endothelial cells exposed to the sera of elderly women. Increased serum CRP levels were associated with an increased doubling time of endothelial cells (R(2)=0.39; p<0.05) and decreased capillary tube length (R(2)=0.30; p<0.05), indicating a reduction in the proliferation rate of endothelial cells and angiogenic potential. In conclusion, chronic inflammation influences blood pressure in elderly women and compromises endothelial cell function, thus contributing to the age-related decline in vascular health.

  • 8.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Motion mot inflammation: fysisk aktivitet viktigt för äldres hälsa2018In: Idrottsforskning, ISSN 2002-3944, article id 9 janArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Santoro, Aurelia
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Franceschi, Claudio
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Impact Of Physical Activity On N-glycan Profile In Older Adults2019In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 542-542Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of regular physical activity (PA) on prevention of chronic diseases are not fully understood. It is currently suggested that N-linked enzymatic glycosylation, a post-translational modification modulating the biological function of several proteins, may contribute to disease development. Nevertheless, the influence of PA on N-glycans in humans has never been explored.

    PURPOSE: To explore serum N-glycan profile in a sample of community-dwelling older women with different objectively assessed PA levels and metabolic risk status.

    METHODS: Components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and serum N-glycans analyzed using DSA-FACE technology were assessed in 109 older community-dwelling women (65-70 yrs). Ten peaks, each representing a unique N-glycan structure were detected. Adherence to PA guidelines was determined using accelerometry. Participants daily engaged in 30 minutes of MVPA were classified as meeting PA guidelines.

    RESULTS: Significant differences in N-glycan peaks were indicated when comparing women adhering to the PA guideline to those less active: when adjusted by MetS, a 12% (p = 0.006) and a 13% (p = 0.004) lower level of NA3 (peak 8) and NA4 (peak 10), respectively, were evident among the physically active women compared to those less active. In contrast to findings based on the MVPA threshold, no differences in N-glycan peaks were observed between PA groups when based on the lower intensity threshold, which may indicate that the influence on N-glycan levels by PA is intensity-sensitive.

    CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to PA guidelines is related to a favorable N-glycan profile, regardless of metabolic risk status. This proposed effect on N-glycans only occurs above the moderate PA-intensity threshold. Our findings support the promotion of a physically active lifestyle as a supporting non-pharmacological public health approach.

  • 10.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Wåhlin-Larsson, Britta
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bergens, Oscar
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Chronic Systemic Inflammation, Physical Activity and Skeletal Muscle in Elderly2017In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 234-234Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: It t is hypothesized that chronic systemic inflammation is influenced by physical activity level and is involved in the age-related decline in muscle function. The impact of physical activity behaviours on the level of C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in elderly women is investigated. The impact of chronic systemic inflammation on muscle mass and the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind the putative inflammation-mediated action on human muscle cells are explored.

    METHODS: Total amount of sedentary time, 30-minute periods of sedentary time and breaks in sedentary behaviour and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were assessed using accelerometry in a cohort of 89 elderly women. Serum HsCRP and TNF-α are were measured. The proliferative and metabolic capacity of human muscle cells obtained from vastus lateralis and exposed to CRP are assessed.

    RESULTS: No variables of sedentary behaviour were significantly associated with the level of CRP or TNF-α. In contrast, time spent in MVPA was inversely associated with the level of CRP, independently of sedentary behaviour and waist circumference, but not TNF-α. Serum CRP levels were inversely associated to skeletal muscle mass. Elevated serum CRP levels were associated to reduced proliferative rate of human muscle cells and changes in the regulation of the size muscle cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: Elevation in the inflammatory status in elderly is influenced by the amount of time spent in MVPA and exerts detrimental effects on skeletal muscle mass.

  • 11.
    Montiel Rojas, Diego
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Ponsot, Elodie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Brummer, Robert Jan
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Fairweather-Tait, Susan
    Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom.
    Jennings, Amy
    Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom.
    de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.
    Department of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Berendsen, Agnes
    Department of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Pietruszka, Barbara
    Department of Human Nutrition, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Madej, Dawid
    Department of Human Nutrition, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Caumon, Elodie
    Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Meunier, Nathalie
    Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Malpuech-Brugere, Corinne
    Unité de Nutrition Humaine, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, Université Clermont Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Guidarelli, Giulia
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Santoro, Aurelia
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; Interdepartmental Center “L. Galvani” (CIG), University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Franceschi, Claudio
    Bellaria Hospital, Institute of Neurological Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Short Telomere Length Is Related to Limitations in Physical Function in Elderly European Adults2018In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, article id 1110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims to explore the potential influence of leucocyte telomere length (LTL) on both a single indicator and a composite construct of physical functioning in a large European population of elderly men and women across diverse geographical locations. A total of 1,221 adults (65-79 years) were recruited from five European countries within the framework of NU-AGE study. The physical functioning construct was based on the 36-item Short Form Health Survey. Handgrip strength was used as a single indicator of muscle function and LTL was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR. Women had significantly longer (p < 0.05) LTL than men. Participants in Poland had significantly shorter LTL than in the other study centers, whereas participants in the Netherlands had significantly longer LTL than most of the other centers (p < 0.01). An analysis of LTL as a continuous outcome against physical functioning by using linear models revealed inconsistent findings. In contrast, based on an analysis of contrasting telomere lengths (first vs. fifth quintile of LTL), a significant odds ratio (OR) of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.1 -2.6; p < 0.05) of having functional limitation was observed in those belonging to the first LTL quintile compared to the fifth. Interestingly, having the shortest LTL was still related to a higher likelihood of having physical limitation when compared to all remaining quintiles (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1 -2.1; p < 0.05), even after adjustment by study center, age, sex, and overweight status. Collectively, our findings suggest that short LTL is an independent risk factor that accounts for functional decline in elderly European populations. The influence of LTL on functional limitation seems driven by the detrimental effect of having short telomeres rather than reflecting a linear dose-response relationship.

  • 12.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Physical activity assessed by accelerometry in children2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity (PA) is likely to constitute an important aspect of health-related behaviour in growing children. However, the knowledge on levels and patterns of PA in children is limited, due to the difficulty of precisely measuring this complex behaviour in normal daily living. Information on variables that significantly contributes to the variability in PA patterns is warranted as it may inform strategies for promoting physically active lifestyles in school-age youth. The overall purpose of the present studies was to increase the knowledge about the use of accelerometry when assessing PA in children, and examine sources of variability in objectively assessed PA behaviour in children. The study samples included 1954 nine- and 15-year-old children from four geographical locations in Europe (Norway, Denmark, Estonia and Portugal), and additionally 16 Swedish seven-year-old boys and girls. PA was assessed by the MTI accelerometer during free-living conditions, including both weekdays and weekend days. A part of the PA assessment was conducted using different time sampling intervals (epochs). Predictions of estimates of daily energy expenditure from accelerometer output were calculated using previously published equations. Potential correlates of PA behaviour were assessed by self-report. The main findings were; a) the epoch setting had a significant effect when interpreting time spent at higher intensities of PA in young children, b) predicted energy expenditure differed substantially between equations, c) between- and within-day differences in overall levels of PA, time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and time spent sedentary differed between age, gender and geographical location, d) outdoor play and sports participation were differentially associated with objectively measured PA in 9- and 15-year-old children. It is concluded that the sporadic nature of children’s physical activity require very short epoch settings for detecting high intensity PA, and that different published equations for estimations of daily energy expenditure cannot be used interchangeably. The interpretations of average energy expenditure from available equations should be made with caution. Based on a large sample of children of different ages, weekend days and leisure time during weekdays seem appropriate targets when promoting PA in order to increase the proportion of children achieving current recommendations on health enhancing PA. Further, significant correlates of PA behaviour dependent on age group are presented, which should be considered when planning interventions for promoting PA in school-age youth.

    List of papers
    1. Assessing physical activity among children with accelerometers using different time sampling intervals and placements
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing physical activity among children with accelerometers using different time sampling intervals and placements
    2002 (English)In: Pediatric Exercise Science, ISSN 0899-8493, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 87-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate (a) the effect of five different time sampling intervals (epoch settings) on different intensity levels when assessing physical activity with an accelerometer (CSA, WAM 7164), and (b) whether the placement of the monitor (on the hip and back) would affect the outcome. Sixteen children (aged 7 yrs) were monitored for four consecutive days. A significant main epoch effect was found for time spent at very high (p < 01) and high (p < 01) intensity activities. No significant difference between the two placements regarding total amount of physical activity (cnts times mm super (-1)) or different intensity levels was observed. In conclusion, different time sampling intervals, but not placement, should be carefully considered when assessing physical activity.

    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Biomedicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2875 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-01-17 Created: 2008-01-17 Last updated: 2019-09-20Bibliographically approved
    2. Comparison of equations for predicting energy expenditure from accelerometer counts in children
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of equations for predicting energy expenditure from accelerometer counts in children
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 643-650Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Several prediction equations developed to convert body movement measured by accelerometry into energy expenditure have been published. The aim of this study was to examine the degree of agreement between three different prediction equations, when applied to data on physical activity in a large sample of children. We examined 1321 children (663 boys, 658 girls; mean age 9.6+/-0.4 years) from four different countries. Physical activity was measured by the MTI accelerometer. One equation, derived from doubly labeled water (DLW) measurements, was compared with one treadmill-based (TM) and one room calorimeter-based (CAL) equation (mixture of activities). Predicted physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) was the main outcome variable. In comparison with DLW-predicted PAEE, both laboratory-derived equations significantly (P<0.001) overestimated PAEE by 17% and 83%, respectively, when based on a 24-h prediction, while the TM equation significantly (P<0.001) underestimated PAEE by 46%, when based on awake time only. In contrast, the CAL equation agreed better with the DLW equation under the awake time assumption. Predicted PAEE differ substantially between equations, depending on time-frame assumptions, and interpretations of average levels of PAEE in children from available equations should be made with caution. Further development of equations applicable to free-living scenarios is needed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford: Blackwell, 2008
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2876 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0838.2007.00694.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-01-17 Created: 2008-01-17 Last updated: 2019-09-20Bibliographically approved
    3. Between- and within-day variability in physical activity and inactivity in 9- and 15-year-old European children
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Between- and within-day variability in physical activity and inactivity in 9- and 15-year-old European children
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 10-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To examine differences in levels of physical activity (PA), time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) and time spent sedentary between and within days in children from four European countries, 1954 9 - and 15-year-olds were included. PA was measured during 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days using the manufacturing technology-incorporated (MTI) accelerometer. Average count per minute, time spent sedentary, time spent at MVPA and the proportion of children accumulating > or =60 min of MVPA were calculated. Data were compared between weekdays and weekend days and between school time and leisure-time. Although not entirely consistent across countries, overall PA, time spent sedentary and the proportion of children accumulating > or =60 min of MVPA were higher during weekdays compared with weekend days. Differences in overall PA between school time and leisure-time were highly inconsistent between countries. Few children (4-31%) accumulated > or =60 min of MVPA either during school time or during leisure-time. Differences in activity patterns between weekdays and weekend days are explained by less accumulated time in MVPA during weekend days. Weekend days and leisure-time during weekdays seem appropriate targets when promoting PA in order to increase the proportion of children achieving current recommendations on health-enhancing PA.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science; Biomedicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2877 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0838.2007.00762.x (DOI)000262901500003 ()18248534 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-59149094073 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2008-01-17 Created: 2008-01-17 Last updated: 2019-09-20Bibliographically approved
    4. Correlates of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Correlates of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study)
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    2009 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 9, article id 322Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Identifying leisure time activities performed before and after school that influence time in physical activity (PA) and/or time spent sedentary can provide useful information when designing interventions aimed to promote an active lifestyle in young people. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between mode of transportation to school, outdoor play after school, participation in exercise in clubs, and TV viewing with objectively assessed PA and sedentary behaviour in children.

    Methods

    A total of 1327 nine- and 15-year-old children from three European countries (Norway, Estonia, Portugal) participated as part of the European Youth Heart Study. PA was measured during two weekdays and two weekend days using the MTI accelerometer, and average percent of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and time spent sedentary were derived. Potential correlates were assessed by self-report. Independent associations between self-reported correlates with percent time in MVPA and percent time sedentary were analysed by general linear models, adjusted by age, gender, country, measurement period, monitored days and parental socio-economic status.

    Results

    In 9-year-olds, playing outdoors after school was associated with higher percent time in MVPA (P < 0.01), while participation in sport clubs was associated with higher percent time in MVPA (P < 0.01) in 15-year-olds. No associations with percent time sedentary were observed in either age group.

    Conclusion

    Frequency of outdoor play after school is a significant correlate for daily time in MVPA in 9-year-olds, while this correlate is attenuated in favour of participation in sport and exercise in clubs in 15-year-olds. Targeting walking to school or reduced TV viewing time in order to increase time in daily MVPA in children is unlikely to be sufficient. Correlates related to time spent sedentary need further examination.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: BioMed Central, 2009
    Keywords
    assessment, accelerometer, children, health behaviours
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science; Biomedicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2878 (URN)10.1186/1471-2458-9-322 (DOI)000270675100001 ()19735565 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-70349311819 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2009-06-03 Created: 2009-05-25 Last updated: 2019-09-20Bibliographically approved
  • 13.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Andersen, Lars Bo
    Ommundsen, Yngvar
    Froberg, Karsten
    Sardinha, Luis B.
    Piehl-Aulin, Karin
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Correlates of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study)2009In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 9, article id 322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Identifying leisure time activities performed before and after school that influence time in physical activity (PA) and/or time spent sedentary can provide useful information when designing interventions aimed to promote an active lifestyle in young people. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between mode of transportation to school, outdoor play after school, participation in exercise in clubs, and TV viewing with objectively assessed PA and sedentary behaviour in children.

    Methods

    A total of 1327 nine- and 15-year-old children from three European countries (Norway, Estonia, Portugal) participated as part of the European Youth Heart Study. PA was measured during two weekdays and two weekend days using the MTI accelerometer, and average percent of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and time spent sedentary were derived. Potential correlates were assessed by self-report. Independent associations between self-reported correlates with percent time in MVPA and percent time sedentary were analysed by general linear models, adjusted by age, gender, country, measurement period, monitored days and parental socio-economic status.

    Results

    In 9-year-olds, playing outdoors after school was associated with higher percent time in MVPA (P < 0.01), while participation in sport clubs was associated with higher percent time in MVPA (P < 0.01) in 15-year-olds. No associations with percent time sedentary were observed in either age group.

    Conclusion

    Frequency of outdoor play after school is a significant correlate for daily time in MVPA in 9-year-olds, while this correlate is attenuated in favour of participation in sport and exercise in clubs in 15-year-olds. Targeting walking to school or reduced TV viewing time in order to increase time in daily MVPA in children is unlikely to be sufficient. Correlates related to time spent sedentary need further examination.

  • 14.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Anderssen, Sigmund A.
    Andersen, Lars Bo
    Froberg, Karsten
    Riddoch, Chris
    Sardinha, Luis B.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Between- and within-day variability in physical activity and inactivity in 9- and 15-year-old European children2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 10-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To examine differences in levels of physical activity (PA), time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) and time spent sedentary between and within days in children from four European countries, 1954 9 - and 15-year-olds were included. PA was measured during 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days using the manufacturing technology-incorporated (MTI) accelerometer. Average count per minute, time spent sedentary, time spent at MVPA and the proportion of children accumulating > or =60 min of MVPA were calculated. Data were compared between weekdays and weekend days and between school time and leisure-time. Although not entirely consistent across countries, overall PA, time spent sedentary and the proportion of children accumulating > or =60 min of MVPA were higher during weekdays compared with weekend days. Differences in overall PA between school time and leisure-time were highly inconsistent between countries. Few children (4-31%) accumulated > or =60 min of MVPA either during school time or during leisure-time. Differences in activity patterns between weekdays and weekend days are explained by less accumulated time in MVPA during weekend days. Weekend days and leisure-time during weekdays seem appropriate targets when promoting PA in order to increase the proportion of children achieving current recommendations on health-enhancing PA.

  • 15.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Bergens, Oscar
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Physical Activity Alters Inflammation in Older Adults by Different Intensity Levels2018In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 1502-1507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To examine the influence of reallocating time spent at different objectively measured physical activity (PA) behaviours on markers of systemic inflammation in older women with different levels of metabolic risk.

    METHODS: Accelerometer-based monitoring of PA was conducted in a population of community-dwelling older women (n = 111; age = 65-70 yr) for determination of daily sedentary time, time in light (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Blood samples were collected for the assessment of the systemic inflammatory markers CRP, fibrinogen and adiponectin. Metabolic risk was assessed by standardized procedures based on definitions for the metabolic syndrome. Data were analysed by linear regression models based on isotemporal substitution analysis.

    RESULTS: Reallocating 30 minutes of sedentary time with either time in LPA (β = -0.47; p<0.05) or MVPA (β = -0.42; p<0.05) was related to reduced fibrinogen level, whereas no corresponding effect was evident when shifting time in LPA with time in MVPA, while holding sedentary time constant. In contrast, reallocating a 30-minute time period in sedentary (β = -0.70; p<0.01) or LPA (β = -0.71; p<0.01) with MVPA was associated with a significant reduction in CRP level, while no impact on CRP was observed when a time period of sedentary behavior was replaced with LPA. Importantly, all significant influences on fibrinogen and CRP by displacement of different PA behaviours remained after adjustment for metabolic risk status among participants. No significant associations with adiponectin were observed.

    CONCLUSION: Altogether, this work supports the existence of different intensity thresholds mediating beneficial effects of PA on important clinical markers of systemic inflammation in older women across different stages of disease prevention.

  • 16.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Brage, Sören
    Riddoch, Chris
    Anderssen, Sigmund A.
    Sardinha, Luis B.
    Wedderkopp, Niels
    Andersen, Lars Bo
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Comparison of equations for predicting energy expenditure from accelerometer counts in children2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 643-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several prediction equations developed to convert body movement measured by accelerometry into energy expenditure have been published. The aim of this study was to examine the degree of agreement between three different prediction equations, when applied to data on physical activity in a large sample of children. We examined 1321 children (663 boys, 658 girls; mean age 9.6+/-0.4 years) from four different countries. Physical activity was measured by the MTI accelerometer. One equation, derived from doubly labeled water (DLW) measurements, was compared with one treadmill-based (TM) and one room calorimeter-based (CAL) equation (mixture of activities). Predicted physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) was the main outcome variable. In comparison with DLW-predicted PAEE, both laboratory-derived equations significantly (P<0.001) overestimated PAEE by 17% and 83%, respectively, when based on a 24-h prediction, while the TM equation significantly (P<0.001) underestimated PAEE by 46%, when based on awake time only. In contrast, the CAL equation agreed better with the DLW equation under the awake time assumption. Predicted PAEE differ substantially between equations, depending on time-frame assumptions, and interpretations of average levels of PAEE in children from available equations should be made with caution. Further development of equations applicable to free-living scenarios is needed.

  • 17.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Sjöström, Michael
    Assessing physical activity among children with accelerometers using different time sampling intervals and placements2002In: Pediatric Exercise Science, ISSN 0899-8493, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 87-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate (a) the effect of five different time sampling intervals (epoch settings) on different intensity levels when assessing physical activity with an accelerometer (CSA, WAM 7164), and (b) whether the placement of the monitor (on the hip and back) would affect the outcome. Sixteen children (aged 7 yrs) were monitored for four consecutive days. A significant main epoch effect was found for time spent at very high (p < 01) and high (p < 01) intensity activities. No significant difference between the two placements regarding total amount of physical activity (cnts times mm super (-1)) or different intensity levels was observed. In conclusion, different time sampling intervals, but not placement, should be carefully considered when assessing physical activity.

  • 18.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Halvardsson, Patrik
    School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Adherence to DASH-Style Dietary Pattern Impacts on Adiponectin and Clustered Metabolic Risk in Older Women2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While dietary patterns are related to the age-related progression of chronic diseases, to what extent different dietary patterns influence inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in older adults remains to be elucidated. Additionally, potential moderating effects by physical activity (PA) become important to clarify. Here, we hypothesize that dietary patterns are linked to inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers and that these links are independent of PA. The present study aims to explore links between two dietary constructs and biomarkers of systemic inflammation and metabolic health in older women, while considering time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 112 community-dwelling older women (65-70 years old) was performed. Dietary constructs based on the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and the dietary inflammatory index (DII) were determined from food records. MVPA was objectively assessed using accelerometry. Metabolic outcomes (waist circumference, systolic/diastolic blood pressures and levels of glucose, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol) and inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen and adiponectin) were determined using standardized procedures and a clustered metabolic risk score was derived. Adherence to DASH-style diet was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with a lower clustered metabolic risk, where women in the highest adherence group had a significantly (p < 0.05) lower waist circumference and blood glucose level compared to those in the lowest group. Further, a significantly higher (p < 0.05) adiponectin level was observed in the high DASH adherence group compared to those with low adherence. Notably, adjustment by waist circumference did not alter links with either adiponectin or blood glucose level. Importantly, all observed links remained significant after further adjustment for time in MVPA. Finally, no significant associations were observed when the dietary pattern was defined by the DII. The findings of this study demonstrate that DASH-style diets promote a systemic anti-inflammatory environment, while also mitigating clustered metabolic risk in older women. A key finding is that favourable impacts of the DASH-style diet are independent of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA, which further strengthens healthy eating behaviours as a key target for clinical and public health interventions designed to prevent age-related metabolic abnormalities.

  • 19.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet gav positiva effekter på graden av åldersinflammation2018In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 115, no 16, p. 720-720, article id E43FArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Montiel Rojas, Diego
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Impact of Meeting Different Guidelines for Protein Intake on Muscle Mass and Physical Function in Physically Active Older Women2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 1156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of dietary protein intake on muscle mass and physical function in older adults is important for the prevention of age-related physical limitations. The aim of the present study was to elucidate links between dietary protein intake and muscle mass and physical function in older women meeting current guidelines of objectively assessed physical activity. In 106 women (65 to 70 years old), protein intake was assessed using a 6-day food record and participants were classified into high and low protein intake groups using two Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) thresholds (0.8 gkg(-1) bodyweight (BW) and 1.1 gkg(-1) BW). Body composition, aerobic fitness, and quadriceps strength were determined using standardized procedures, and self-reported physical function was assessed using the SF-12 Health Survey. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry and self-report. Women below the 0.8 gkg(-1) BW threshold had a lower muscle mass (p < 0.05) with no differences in physical function variables. When based on the higher RDA threshold (1.1 gkg(-1) BW), in addition to significant differences in muscle mass, women below the higher threshold had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher likelihood of having physical limitations. In conclusion, the present study supports the RDA threshold of 0.8 gkg(-1) BW of proteins to prevent the loss of muscle mass and emphasizes the importance of the higher RDA threshold of at least 1.1 gkg(-1) BW to infer additional benefits on constructs of physical function. Our study also supports the role of protein intake for healthy ageing, even in older adults meeting guidelines for physical activity.

  • 21.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Santoro, Aurelia
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; Interdepartmental Center “L. Galvani” (CIG), University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Franceschi, Claudio
    University of Bologna and Institute of Neurological Sciences, Bellaria Hospital, Bologna, Italy.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Detrimental links between physical inactivity, metabolic risk and N-glycomic biomarkers of aging2019In: Experimental Gerontology, ISSN 0531-5565, E-ISSN 1873-6815, Vol. 124, article id UNSP 110626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: N-linked enzymatic glycosylation modulates the function of proteins and contributes to development of age-related metabolic abnormalities. Whether physical activity (PA) is linked to a specific N-glycan profile and can offset detrimental links between N-glycans and metabolic risk profile has never been explored. The aim of the present study is to assess serum N-glycan profile in older women with different PA levels and metabolic risk status.

    Materials and methods: Components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and serum N-glycans analyzed using DSAFACE technology were assessed in 109 older community-dwelling women (65-70 yrs). Ten peaks, each representing a unique N-glycan structure were detected. Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was assessed objectively using accelerometry. All analyses were adjusted by covariates.

    Results: Significantly elevated levels of NGA2FB (peak 2) and NA3F (peak 9) and lower level of the alpha(1,6)-arm monogalactosylated (NG1(6)A2F) (peak 3) were demonstrated in women with MetS compared to their healthier peers (p < 0.05). Importantly, women adhering to the PA guideline of time in MVPA had a 10% and a 12% lower level of NA3 (peak 8) and NA4 (peak 10), respectively, compared to those less active even after adjustment by MetS and covariates (p < 0.05). Interestingly, time spent in PA below the MVPA threshold was not linked to N-glycans.

    Conclusion: Novel links between PA behaviors and N-glycan profile are demonstrated in older adults, regardless of metabolic risk status. This proposed effect on N-glycans requires engagement in MVPA. This supports public health efforts to promote adherence to PA guidelines in older adults across different stages of disease prevention.

  • 22.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Tarum, Janelle
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Detrimental Links Between Inflammation and Muscle Mass are Moderated by Physical Activity in Older Adults2019In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 215-215Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While age-related elevations in systemic inflammation may contribute to the accelerated loss of skeletal muscle mass, previous findings have been based on a limited number of biomarkers. Moreover, whether links between inflammation and muscle mass are independent of protein intake and habitual physical activity (PA) remain unknown.

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to explore links between skeletal muscle mass and inflammatory biomarkers in older women with different metabolic risk status, while accounting for adherence to guidelines on protein intake and PA.

    METHODS: Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was assessed in 112 women (67±1.5 years) by bioelectrical impedance together with the equation of Janssen et al. (2002) to obtain muscle mass expressed in relation to body weight. Fasting blood samples were obtained following standardized protocols. Acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen were determined, together with the following inflammatory biomarkers: Adiponectin, Oncostatin-M (OSM), Leukemia inhibitory factor-receptor (LIF-R), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-12, and IL-18. Protein intake and PA were determined during 6 days by food record and accelerometry, respectively. Classification of metabolic risk status was based on the metabolic syndrome. Multivariate regression models were used to explore links between SMI and inflammatory biomarkers while adjusting for adherence to PA and protein intake guidelines and metabolic risk status.

    RESULTS: Variations in SMI were inversely linked to levels of CRP (β-coefficient: -0.47; p< 0.05) and OSM (-0.20 p< 0.05), where the OSM link was attenuated after further adjustment for PA. In contrast, positive links between SMI and adiponectin (0.19 p< 0.05) and LIF-R (0.24 p< 0.05) were observed, which both remained significant in fully adjusted models. Links to other biomarkers were non-significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: Several inflammatory markers are linked to skeletal muscle mass in older adults, where detrimental or beneficial actions are indicated depending on the biomarker. While adherence to PA guidelines moderates some of these links, others seem unaffected by either PA and protein intake or metabolic risk status. Further research is needed to elucidate mechanisms underlying these observations.

  • 23.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Wåhlin-Larsson, Britta
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Physical Activity and not Sedentary Time Influence on Metabolic Risk in Older Community-dwelling Women2017In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 789-789Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of developing the metabolic syndrome increases by older age, where older women typically engage in less health-enhancing physical activity (PA) than men. Whether sedentary behaviors influence on metabolic risk and related components in older adults, and if so to what extent such relationships are independent of PA behavior, remain unclear.

    PURPOSE: To examine cross-sectional associations of objectively assessed PA and sedentary behaviors on metabolic syndrome components and clustered metabolic risk in a sample of older community-dwelling women.

    METHODS: Components of the metabolic syndrome including waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting levels of plasma glucose, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were assessed in 120 community-dwelling older women (65-70 yrs). Total amount of PA (total counts per day), accumulated time spent in different intensities (sedentary, light (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA)), continuous bouts of sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time were assessed with accelerometers. Isotemporal substitution models were used to examine influence of PA and sedentary behavior on each componentof the metabolic syndrome and on a clustered metabolic risk score.

    RESULTS: All associations between variables of sedentary behavior and metabolic risk were lost once variation in total accelerometer counts per day was adjusted for. Replacement of a 10-min time block of MVPA with either LPA or time in sedentary behaviors was related to an increase in WC and clustered metabolic risk score (zMS) (WC: β = 1.78 to 2.19 p < 0.01; zMS: β = 0.06 to 0.08, p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Detrimental influence of a sedentary lifestyle on metabolic health is likely explained by variations in amounts of PA rather than sedentary time per se. Given our findings, increased amounts of PA with an emphasis on increased time in MVPA should be recommended in order to promote a favorable metabolic health profile in older women.

  • 24.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Wåhlin-Larsson, Britta
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Physical activity and not sedentary time per se influences on clustered metabolic risk in elderly community-dwelling women2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 4, article id e0175496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Whether amount of time spent in sedentary activities influences on clustered metabolic risk in elderly, and to what extent such an influence is independent of physical activity behavior, remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine cross-sectional associations of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary behavior on metabolic risk outcomes in a sample of elderly community-dwelling women.

    Methods: Metabolic risk outcomes including waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting levels of plasma glucose, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were assessed in 120 community-dwelling older women (65-70 yrs). Accelerometers were used to retrieve daily sedentary time, breaks in sedentary time, daily time in light (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and total amount of accelerometer counts. Multivariate regression models were used to examine influence of physical activity and sedentary behavior on metabolic risk outcomes including a clustered metabolic risk score.

    Results: When based on isotemporal substitution modeling, replacement of a 10-min time block of MVPA with a corresponding time block of either LPA or sedentary activities was associated with an increase in clustered metabolic risk score (beta = 0.06 to 0.08, p < 0.05), and an increase in waist circumference (beta = 1.78 to 2.19 p < 0.01). All associations indicated between sedentary time and metabolic risk outcomes were lost once variation in total accelerometer counts was adjusted for.

    Conclusions: Detrimental influence of a sedentary lifestyle on metabolic health is likely explained by variations in amounts of physical activity rather than amount of sedentary time per se. Given our findings, increased amounts of physical activity with an emphasis on increased time in MVPA should be recommended in order to promote a favorable metabolic health profile in older women.

  • 25. Poortvliet, Eric
    et al.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Sjöström, Michael
    The European Youth Heart Survey (EYHS): an international study that addresses the multi-dimensional issues of CVD risk factors2003In: Forum of nutrition, ISSN 1660-0347, Vol. 56, p. 254-256Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26. Sjöström, Michael
    et al.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Adolescent nutrition: a multidimensional challenge2003In: Modern aspects of nutrition: present knowledge and future perspectives / [ed] I. Elmadfa, E. Anklam, J. König, 2003, Vol. 56, p. 253-254Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Strandberg, Emelie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Edholm, Peter
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Ponsot, Elodie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Wåhlin-Larsson, Britta
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Hellmén, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Engfeldt, Peter
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Department of Public Health and Caring Science, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Riserus, Ulf
    Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Clin NuDept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Clin Nutr & Metab, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Public Health and Caring Science, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial2015In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 119, no 8, p. 918-925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The delivery of efficient nonpharmacological treatment to prevent the loss of muscle mass in older adults is a major challenge, and information on the combined effects of training and diet is particularly important. Here we aimed to evaluate the effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy dietary approach (n-6/n-3 ratio < 2) in a population of healthy and physically active older women (65-70 years). The three-armed randomized controlled trial included a resistance training + healthy diet group (RT-HD), a resistance training group (RT), and controls (CON). All subjects included in the study were physically active and had low levels of serum inflammatory markers. In accordance with the dietary goals, the n-6/n-3 ratio dietary intake significantly decreased only in RT-HD by 42%. An increase in 1 repetition maximum in leg extension occurred in RT (+20.4%) and RT-HD (+20.8%), but not in CON. Interestingly, leg lean mass significantly increased only in RT-HD (+1.8%). While there were no changes in serum C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels, a significant decrease in serum level of the pro-inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid (-5.3 +/- 9.4%) together with an increase in serum n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (+8.3%) occurred only in RT-HD. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the effects of resistance training on muscle mass in healthy older adults can be optimized by the adoption of a healthy diet.

  • 28.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjoström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Effect of monitor placement and of activity setting on the MTI accelerometer output2003In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 320-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To examine the effect of monitor placement (hip vs back) and of activity setting (treadmill vs track) on the output from the Manufacturing Technology Inc. (MTI), activity monitor (model WAM 7164).

    METHODS: In a laboratory study, 28 subjects (14 men, 14 women) walked at a normal pace, walked at a fast pace, and jogged at a comfortable pace on an indoor track. These activities were repeated on a treadmill using the individual speeds from the track locomotion. Oxygen uptake was measured simultaneously using a portable metabolic system. One activity monitor was worn on the hip and one on the lower back. In a field study, 34 subjects (18 men, 16 women) each wore two monitors (hip and low back placement) for seven consecutive days. In the laboratory study, ANOVA showed significant effects of placement ( P = 0.009) and setting ( P < 0.001), indicating that activity counts differ between different body sites and different settings (track vs treadmill). Gross energy expenditure predictive equations were developed and thereafter evaluated in the field study. Time spent at moderate and vigorous intensity of physical activity was 38% and 85% ( P < 0.001) higher when calculated from the treadmill-based equations as compared to the track-based equations. Free-living physical activity estimates were not affected by the placement.

    CONCLUSION: The relationship between activity counts and energy expenditure during laboratory locomotion is placement and setting-specific. When habitual physical activity is assessed in free-living subjects, the treadmill derived relationship between energy expenditure and activity counts may overestimate time spent at moderate intensity of physical activity, whereas the placement of the monitor does not influence on the interpretation of the data.

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