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  • 1.
    Alzghoul, Ahmad
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Division of Computing Science, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Backe, Björn
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Department of Information Technology, Division of Computing Science, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Byström, Arne
    Bosch Rexroth Mellansel AB, Mellansel, Sweden.
    Liljedahl, Bengt
    Bosch Rexroth Mellansel AB, Mellansel, Sweden.
    Comparing a knowledge-based and a data-driven method in querying data streams for system fault detection: A hydraulic drive system application2014In: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 65, no 8, p. 1126-1135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of fault detection and diagnosis has been the subject of considerable interest in industry. Fault detection may increase the availability of products, thereby improving their quality. Fault detection and diagnosis methods can be classified in three categories: data-driven, analytically based, and knowledge-based methods.

    In this work, we investigated the ability and the performance of applying two fault detection methods to query data streams produced from hydraulic drive systems. A knowledge-based method was compared to a data-driven method. A fault detection system based on a data stream management system (DSMS) was developed in order to test and compare the two methods using data from real hydraulic drive systems.

    The knowledge-based method was based on causal models (fault trees), and principal component analysis (PCA) was used to build the data-driven model. The performance of the methods in terms of accuracy and speed, was examined using normal and physically simulated fault data. The results show that both methods generate queries fast enough to query the data streams online, with a similar level of fault detection accuracy. The industrial applications of both methods include monitoring of individual industrial mechanical systems as well as fleets of such systems. One can conclude that both methods may be used to increase industrial system availability.

  • 2.
    Alzghoul, Ahmad
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Division of Computing Science, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Department of Information Technology, Division of Computing Science, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Addressing concept drift to improve system availability by updating one-class data-driven models2015In: Evolving Systems, ISSN 1868-6478, E-ISSN 1868-6486, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 187-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data-driven models have been used to detect system faults, thereby increasing industrial system availability. The ability to search data streams while dealing with concept drift are challenges for data-driven models. The objective of this work is to demonstrate a general method to manage concept drift when using one-class data-driven models. The method has been used to develop an automatically retrained and updated polygon-based model. In this paper, the available industrial data allowed for use of one-class data-driven models, and the polygon-based model was selected because it has previously been successful. Possible scenarios that allow one-class data-driven models to be retrained or updated were identified. Based on the identified scenarios, a method to automatically update a polygon-based model online is proposed. The method has been tested and verified using data collected from a Bosch Rexroth Mellansel AB hydraulic drive system. Data representing relevant faults was inserted into the data set in close collaboration with engineers from the company. The results show that the developed polygon-based model method was able to address the concept drift issue and was able to significantly improve the classification accuracy compared to the static polygon-based model. Thereby, the model could significantly improve industrial system availability when applied in the relevant production process. This paper shows that the developed polygon-based model requires small memory space while its updating procedure is simple and fast. Finally, the identified scenarios may be helpful as input for supporting other one-class data-driven models to cope with concept drift, thus increasing the generalizability of the results.

  • 3.
    Alzghoul, Ahmad
    et al.
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Increasing availability of industrial systems through data stream mining2011In: Computers & industrial engineering, ISSN 0360-8352, E-ISSN 1879-0550, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 195-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving industrial product reliability, maintainability and thus availability is a challenging task for many industrial companies. In industry, there is a growing need to process data in real time, since the generated data volume exceeds the available storage capacity. This paper consists of a review of data stream mining and data stream management systems aimed at improving product availability. Further, a newly developed and validated grid-based classifier method is presented and compared to one-class support vector machine (OCSVM) and a polygon-based classifier.

    The results showed that, using 10% of the total data set to train the algorithm, all three methods achieved good (>95% correct) overall classification accuracy. In addition, all three methods can be applied on both offline and online data.

    The speed of the resultant function from the OCSVM method was, not surprisingly, higher than the other two methods, but in industrial applications the OCSVMs' comparatively long time needed for training is a possible challenge. The main advantage of the grid-based classification method is that it allows for calculation of the probability (%) that a data point belongs to a specific class, and the method can be easily modified to be incremental.

    The high classification accuracy can be utilized to detect the failures at an early stage, thereby increasing the reliability and thus the availability of the product (since availability is a function of maintainability and reliability). In addition, the consequences of equipment failures in terms of time and cost can be mitigated.

  • 4.
    Alzghoul, Ahmad
    et al.
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Backe, Björn
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Data stream forecasting for system fault prediction2012In: Computers & industrial engineering, ISSN 0360-8352, E-ISSN 1879-0550, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 972-978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Competition among today’s industrial companies is very high. Therefore, system availability plays an important role and is a critical point for most companies. Detecting failures at an early stage or foreseeing them before they occur is crucial for machinery availability. Data analysis is the most common method for machine health condition monitoring. In this paper we propose a fault-detection system based on data stream prediction, data stream mining, and data stream management system (DSMS). Companies that are able to predict and avoid the occurrence of failures have an advantage over their competitors. The literature has shown that data prediction can also reduce the consumption of communication resources in distributed data stream processing. In this paper different data-stream-based linear regression prediction methods have been tested and compared within a newly developed fault detection system. Based on the fault detection system, three DSM algorithms outputs are compared to each other and to real data. The three applied and evaluated data stream mining algorithms were: Grid-based classifier, polygon-based method, and one-class support vector machines (OCSVM). The results showed that the linear regression method generally achieved good performance in predicting short-term data. (The best achieved performance was with a Mean Absolute Error (MAE) around 0.4, representing prediction accuracy of 87.5%). Not surprisingly, results showed that the classification accuracy was reduced when using the predicted data. However, the fault-detection system was able to attain an acceptable performance of around 89% classification accuracy when using predicted data.

  • 5.
    Alzghoul, Ahmad
    et al.
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Data stream mining for increased functional product availability awareness2011In: Functional Thinking for Value Creation: Proceedings of the 3rd CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product Service Systems, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany, May 5th - 6th, 2011 / [ed] Hesselbach, J. & Herrmann, C., Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 237-241Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional Products (FP) and Product Service Systems (PSS) may be seen as integrated systems comprising hardware and support services. For such offerings, availability is key. Little research has been done on integrating Data Stream Management Systems (DSMS) for monitoring (parts of) a FP to improve system availability. This paper introduces an approach for how data stream mining may be applied to monitor hardware being part of a Functional Product. The result shows that DSMS have the potential to significantly support continuous availability awareness of industrial systems, especially important when the supplier is to supply a function with certain availability.

  • 6.
    Eklund, Patrik
    et al.
    Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Mats
    Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Winter, Michael
    Department of Computer Science, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada.
    Many-Valued and Many-Sorted Structure Relations2019In: Proceedings of the 21st International Dependency and Structure Modeling Conference / [ed] Harold (Mike) Stowe; Tyson R. Browning; Steven D. Eppinger; Jintin Tran; Paulo Montijo, 2019, p. 141-150Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    System-of-systems engineering and related models of engineering design require intertwining of structures, respectively, at least for components in products, engineering and business activities, and people involved in those activities as also specifically connected with production and its management. In this paper we describe the logical machinery of system-of-systems engineering and related models of engineering design in sufficient so as to enable to describe the algebraic foundation of the many-valued logic that is inherent in these systems and structures. We are thus essentially unravelling the hidden and underlying logic of these systems and their related information and process structures, focusing on interaction between elements of the system

  • 7.
    Eklund, Patrik
    et al.
    Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Many-valued logic in manufacturing2016In: 11th International Symposium Advances in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Eklund, Patrik
    et al.
    Computer Science, Logic and applications, Umeå University, Umeå. Sweden.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Uncertainty of value and structure2019In: Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the International Fuzzy Systems Association and the European Society for Fuzzy Logic and Technology (EUSFLAT 2019), 2019, Vol. 1, p. 370-375Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we argue that `uncertainty of information' traditionally focuses more on `uncertainty' leaving `information' mostly as unravelled. We also aim to explain why that is so, and we then provide suggestions on how to overcome the situation, as related to applications involving information structures.

  • 9. Johanson, Mathias
    et al.
    Johansson, Lars-Åke
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Turning an hourglass into a diamond inter-organizational collaborative work in the enterprise of the future2011In: 15th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics (WMSCI 2011), 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Johanson, Mathias
    et al.
    Alkit Communications AB, Mölndal, Sweden .
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Collaborative innovation through distributed engineering services2009In: Proceedings of International Multi-Conference on Engineering and Technological Innovation, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid advancement in information and communication technology in recent decades has presented new opportunities for carrying out sophisticated engineering work in distributed teams, using tools and techniques collectively referred to as Distributed Collaborative Engineering (DCE). This kind of on-line collaboration not only cuts costs due to reduced travel, but also fosters innovation in product development, by bringing together groups of people in collaborative teams with complementary competences, that would otherwise be difficult to realize. Moreover, the convergence of technologies for telecommunication and information technology now makes it possible for companies specialized in collaboration technology to deliver sophisticated services for DCE, which can be purchased by engineering companies on a pay-per-use basis. By outsourcing the installation, management and support of the collaboration tools, the engineering companies can focus on their product development projects while harnessing the full potential of DCE to become more efficient and competitive. We believe that this new way of conducting engineering work will be an important key to innovation in the future. In this paper, we analyze the requirements for delivering DCE as a service and describe the implications this has in terms of systems design, business models and competence requirements. Furthermore, in addition to the primary return on investment in DCE services, we cite cost reductions and reduced CO2 emissions as further benefits.

  • 11.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Marjavaara, Daniel
    LKAB, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Simulation driven processing function development, offering and operation2012In: ASME 2012 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE2012), New York, USA: ASME Press, 2012, Vol. 3, p. 1561-1572Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s industry, functional provision is becoming more and more important, necessitating increased simulation support. In this paper, the objective is to present a modeling and simulation approach for simulation-driven design (SDD) to support function development. The scope of this paper is simulation support for developing hardware equipment used in processing industry. The research is founded on industrial needs identified through two parallel interview-based studies in the Swedish process industry. Both companies explore doing business with functional products rather than hardware, in scenarios where the responsibility for and availability of the functions may remain with the service provider. One as-is and one future (to-be) scenario are presented. A decomposition of a general processing function (applicable to both companies) describes how the companies transfer machine input to output specifications. The decomposition includes customer and provider value and the paper demonstrates, as part of the results and based on the SDD approach, how that value may be increased through evaluation and prioritization. Additionally, the SDD approach shows that it is possible to identify a set of solutions which meet the specified requirements, supporting evaluation and prioritization of business offers and activities.

  • 12.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Division of Product and Production Development, Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Division of Product and Production Development, Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Stefan
    PM/PD Press Hardening Tech Centers, Tool CAE Analyst, GESTAMP HardTech AB, Luleå, Sweden .
    Lundin, Michael
    Division of Product and Production Development, Computer Aided Design, Lulea University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    State of the art in simulation driven design2013In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 68-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last few decades, and in order to increase product development efficiency, simulations strategies have been developed to guide designers towards better solutions rather than to verify suggested and basically unevaluated solutions. Such approaches are often called Simulation Driven Design (SDD), which is of interest in this review. The objective of this paper is to show the research evolution of SDD and identify the state of the art in SDD methodology. The literature review comprises several hundred references, of which 79 are included in this paper. The results comprise the state of the art in simulation driven design including the history, various definitions, criteria and effects of using SDD approaches.

  • 13.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Editorial2013In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology (LTU), Luleå, Sweden.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology (LTU), Luleå, Sweden.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology (LTU), Luleå, Sweden.
    Functional Products: Goodbye to the industrial age2012In: Ericsson Business Review., ISSN 1653-9486, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 21-24Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    et al.
    Polhem Laboratory, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Polhem Laboratory, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Polhem Laboratory, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Törlind, Peter
    Polhem Laboratory, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Polhem Laboratory, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Elfström, Bengt-Olof
    Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Information driven collaborative engineering: enabling functional product innovation2005In: Challenges in Collaborative Engineering - CCE '05: the knowledge perspective in collaborative engineering : proceedings of the International Workshop 14th-15th April 2005, Sopron, Hungary in conjunction with DDECS '05 / [ed] Gianni Jacucci, Adam Pawlak, Kurt Sandkuhl, Jönköping, Sweden: Department of Computer & Electrical Engineering, School of Engineering, Jönköping University , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses Information Driven Collaborative Engineering (IDCE) as an enabler of Functional Product Innovation (FPI). It discusses challenges that arise in functional product development and how distributed collaborative work will be affected. Finally the paper proposes bringing the domains of Distributed Collaborative Engineering (DCE) and Knowledge Enabled Engineering (KEE) together to form IDCE, in order to meet these challenges.

  • 16.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    et al.
    The Faste Laboratory, Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Pahkamaa, Andreas
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    The Faste Laboratory, Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    The Faste Laboratory, Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Goldak, John
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada .
    Pavasson, Jonas
    The Faste Laboratory, Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Mechanics of materials and structures: a simulation-driven design approach2011In: Journal of Mechanics of Materials and Structures, ISSN 1559-3959, E-ISSN 2157-5428, Vol. 6, no 1-4, p. 277-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering product development has developed considerably over the past decade. In order for industry to keep up with continuously changing requirements, it is necessary to develop new and innovative simulation methods. However, few tools and methods for simulation-driven design have been applied in industrial settings and proven to actually drive the development and selection of the ideal solution. Such tools, based on fundamental equations, are the focus of this paper. In this paper the work is based on two cases of mechanics of materials and structures: welding and rotor dynamical simulations. These two examples of simulation-driven design indicate that a larger design space can be explored and that more possible solutions can be evaluated. Therefore, the approach improves the probability of innovations and finding optimal solutions. A calibrated block dumping approach can be used to increase the efficiency of welding simulations when many simulations are required.

  • 17.
    Kyösti, Petter
    et al.
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Reed, Sean
    Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, U.K..
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Andrews, John
    Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, U.K..
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Dunnett, Sarah
    Department of Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, U.K..
    Simulation of industrial support systems in the context of functional products2011In: Proceedings of the 19th AR2TS Advances in Risk and Reliability Technology Symposium / [ed] Darren Prescott, Rasa Remenyte-Prescott, Nottingham: University of Nottingham , 2011, p. 275-288Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional Products, consisting of hardware and service support systems owned by the supplier, are sold to customers with a guaranteed availability of the function. The availability achieved is dependent on the reliability of both hardware and the service support system. The reliability of the latter can be defined as its ability to provide the required maintenance services in a timely manner. This paper reports simulation of a service support system from an industrial case study in order to predict its reliability. To identify and develop a suitable case together with an industrial partner company, a number of phone meetings were held in order to explain the research question, interview knowledgeable people and plan on-site visits and interviews. A number of interviews face to face were carried out with the industrial partners, where the goal was to obtain enough information to be able to model the support system correctly. The research involved both qualitative information gathering and applied computer aided simulation. An improved model for simulating a service support system is developed that considers the context in which the maintenance procedures are performed within a Functional Product. A software implementation of the model, developed by the authors, is applied to simulate the case study service support system in various scenarios such as different personnel availability and number of systems supported. The results show how the modeling can be used to improve and predict the reliability of the service support system

  • 18.
    Larsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Polhem Laboratory, Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Törlind, Peter
    Polhem Laboratory, Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Bergström, Mattias
    Polhem Laboratory, Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Polhem Laboratory, Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Polhem Laboratory, Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Design for versatility: the changing face of workspaces for collaborative design2005In: Proceedings ICED 05, the 15th International Conference on Engineering Design / [ed] Samuel, A. & Lewis, W. (eds.), Melbourne: The Institution of Engineers, Australia , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a fiercely competitive business climate, which is increasingly characterized by global alliances, partnerships and outsourcing agreements, companies struggle to decrease the negative impact of geographic distance on development efforts. The role of workspaces for collaborative design is gaining considerable attention, and there is currently an increasing interest in moving from individual tools or technologies to a more inclusive view of collaborative workspaces. This paper reports on the underlying motivation and justification for a new collaborative design studio at Luleå University of Technology, Sweden. The studio provides a rapid-response environment, in which the significance of issues raised through ethnographic observations of engineering work can be evaluated and solutions offered.

  • 19.
    Larsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Polhem Laboratory, Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Polhem Laboratory, Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Åkerström, Patrik
    Polhem Laboratory, Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Computer visualisations in design for maintainability2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of research at the Polhem Laboratory is to develop technologies for product development and manufacturing through integration of design, development, manufacturing, materials engineering and maintenance in Swedish industry. Concurrent engineering, which is a central theme of this research, is instrumental for developing products with shorter lead times at lower cost and for adapting products for manufacturing and maintenance. One purpose of the work presented was to show its applications in the field of Design For Maintainability where computer visualisations might improve the early design process. Another purpose of this work was to use modern information technology, and especially computer graphics, to develop a method to visualize the disassembly / assembly of a mechanical product. An important feature of this work was that 'visualizations,' rather then plain animations, were to be developed; the difference being that visualizations includes information about tools, times and explanations aswell as images of the moving parts. Integrating the use of conventional CAD-programmes with the use of animation programmes also makes it easier to use older models in new projects and thereby shortening lead times.

  • 20.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Uppsala DataBase Laboratory (UDBL), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kalhori, Vahid
    AB Sandvik Coromant, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Helgoson, Martin
    AB Sandvik Coromant, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Nyström, Mattias
    Masticon AB, Ekerö, Sweden.
    Liljedahl, Bengt
    Bosch Rexroth Mellansel AB, Mellansel, Sweden.
    Mäki, Rikard
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    UDBL, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    A function innovation model for the manufacturing industry2016In: Journal of Multi Business Model Innovation and Technology, ISSN 2245-8832, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the need for innovation in order to achieve sustainable growth and business development within the manufacturing industry, and further how that can be enabled by striving towards functions. Adopting an open perspective, the paper proposes a function innovation model involving academia, potential function providers and customers in order to create a long-term win-win situation between function providers and their customers.

  • 21.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    A development process for Functional Products: hardware, software, service support system and management of operation2012In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 16, no 3/4, p. 284-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development process for a Functional Product (FP) is complex and there is a need to coordinate, monitor, control and share information as well as to communicate properly among the parties involved in the process. This paper proposes a conceptual development process to manage the FP development, including development of hardware, software, service support system, and how to manage the operation of an FP. Further, challenges related to the integrated development of FPs are also discussed.

  • 22.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Functional product development: what information should be shared during the development process?2012In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 95-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development process for a Functional Product (FP) is complex and there is a need to share information as well as to communicate it among the parties involved in the process. The paper concerns shared information that is of specific interest when developing FPs, in contrast to information that must be shared during a general product or service development process. The findings are compiled in a conceptual table comprising such specific information items pertaining to both the initial development as well as post development parts of an FPs lifecycle. This table can be used as an aid to any development process or method, as it points out information items that must necessarily be shared, but not how they to be shared.

  • 23.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Reed, Sean
    Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre (NTEC), University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
    Alzghoul, Ahmad
    Uppsala DataBase Laboratory (UDBL), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Use of Cloud Services in Functional Products: Availability Implications2014In: Product Services Systems and Value Creation: Proceedings of the 6th CIRP Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, Elsevier, 2014, Vol. 16, p. 368-372Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the potential use of cloud services in Functional Products (FP) and its possible implications for availability. Further, how the implications for availability can be understood via modelling and simulation is addressed. The paper adds further specificity to literature by indicating the FP constituents for which cloud services are applicable and adequate.

  • 24.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Product & Production Development/Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Plankina, Daria
    Product & Production Development/Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Lideskog, Håkan
    Product & Production Development/Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Product & Production Development/Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Product & Production Development/Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Functional product development: criteria for selection of design methods on strategic and operational levels2013In: The Philosopher's Stone for Sustainability: Proceedings of the 4th CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, Tokyo, Japan, November 8th–9th, 2012 / [ed] Yoshiki Shimomura, Koji Kimita, Springer, 2013, p. 25-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper proposes criteria that can be used for selection of design methods on strategic and operational levels in Functional Product development. The paper draws on research from general product development and specific research within Product-Service Systems and Functional Products, combined with empirical data from interviews with four organizations concerned with Functional Product development. The use of many design methods requires resources such as knowledge and skills, which may not always be feasible to keep in-house. However, the key design methods needed in-house should be identified, added to the set of approved design methods and granted adequate resource allocation.

  • 25.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Sas, Daria
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Lideskog, Håkan
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    UDBL - Uppsala Database Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    UDBL - Uppsala Database Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Defining Functional Products through their constituents2015In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on empirical studies combined with a literature review, the paper proposes a comprehensive framework defining Functional Products (FP) through their constituents. The framework adds additional specificity to the literature by identifying and discussing existing and emerging constituents of FP, shedding further light on what is needed to create a long and trustful win-win situation between providers and customers in an FP context.

  • 26.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology.
    A modelling and simulation approach for linking design activities to business decisions2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The business environment of the manufacturing industry is changing from a hardware-based product focus to a process and function focus. A current industrial interest is the development and sale of functions. This function could be realised as a product based on hardware, software and services, and may be sold as a function rather than as hardware. This function view is referred to as Functional Products (FP). The new focus for the customer is on value rather than hardware. This presents new challenges for how engineering hardware design may best be carried out. Sale of functional products requires a changed business model in which the price of the functional product is related to the functionality of the product itself; hence the name functional product. The supplier can in such a scenario no longer sell maintenance and spare parts. Instead, these activities become a cost, thus motivating the supplier to increase process efficiency, decrease internal production cost by using less energy per produced unit andincrease knowledge about use-cases. The researcher's challenge is how to create new knowledge regarding functional product development for academic as well as for industrial benefit. The research question was formulated as: How may methods or tools for design process modelling and simulation be developed to support functional product development? Four case studies were carried out in Swedish industry. Case study 1 was carried out in cooperation with Hägglunds Drives AB. Case study 2 was carried out in cooperation with companies Hägglunds Drives AB, Volvo Aero and Volvo Car Corporation. Case study 3 was carried out in cooperation Volvo Aero and Case study 4 was carried out in cooperation with nine industrial companies during the formation of the Faste Laboratory, Centre for Functional Product Innovation. Results include the need for integrating product development process and company strategy for functional product development and the identification of the need for new methods and tools to enable better understanding of technology and business processes. The research shows the possibility of evaluating cost and time of development before doing the actual product development work by modelling and simulating the design process. Thus, the knowledge that previously was implicit in the work process is made explicit and possible to manipulate for a desired outcome. Linking the future business cases to work processes by modelling and simulation enables knowledge re-use and work-process predictions concerning cost and time. Hence, modelling and simulation of work processes results in better knowledge of company development capacity earlier than before, thus allowing shorter reaction time to changes in the business domain.

    List of papers
    1. The use of product development process as a means of implementing company strategy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The use of product development process as a means of implementing company strategy
    2003 (English)In: 10th International Product Development Management Conference / [ed] Hustad, T. P. & Karlsson, C., EASIM, European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management , 2003Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    EASIM, European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management, 2003
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50845 (URN)
    Conference
    10th International Product Development Management Conference, Brussels, Belgium, June 10-11, 2003 EASIM, European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management
    Available from: 2016-06-14 Created: 2016-06-14 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Information driven collaborative engineering: enabling functional product innovation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Information driven collaborative engineering: enabling functional product innovation
    Show others...
    2005 (English)In: Challenges in Collaborative Engineering - CCE '05: the knowledge perspective in collaborative engineering : proceedings of the International Workshop 14th-15th April 2005, Sopron, Hungary in conjunction with DDECS '05 / [ed] Gianni Jacucci, Adam Pawlak, Kurt Sandkuhl, Jönköping, Sweden: Department of Computer & Electrical Engineering, School of Engineering, Jönköping University , 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses Information Driven Collaborative Engineering (IDCE) as an enabler of Functional Product Innovation (FPI). It discusses challenges that arise in functional product development and how distributed collaborative work will be affected. Finally the paper proposes bringing the domains of Distributed Collaborative Engineering (DCE) and Knowledge Enabled Engineering (KEE) together to form IDCE, in order to meet these challenges.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Jönköping, Sweden: Department of Computer & Electrical Engineering, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, 2005
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50820 (URN)91-975604-1-3 (ISBN)
    Conference
    CCE '05 ; the knowledge perspective in collabotative engineering, Sopron, Hungary, 14t-15th April, 2005
    Available from: 2016-06-14 Created: 2016-06-14 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Towards true collaboration in global design teams?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards true collaboration in global design teams?
    2005 (English)In: Proceedings ICED 05, the 15th International Conference on Engineering Design / [ed] Andrew Samuel, William Lewis, Barton: Institution of Engineers, Australia , 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s collaboration tools can support formal meetings to a certain extent, though there is still an immense potential for improvement when it comes to designing virtual and physical places where global design teams can collaborate in more ‘natural’ ways than existing distributed environments allow. One challenge for global product development is to support true collaboration within global design teams, where diversity and competences of the whole team can be utilized and where team members can think together rather then merely exchange information, opinions and divide work. This paper summarizes the results of several case studies and development projects performed within the Polhem Laboratory over the last four years and proposes challenges for future research. From our findings some of the most important challenges are how to support users with communication tools for more natural formal and informal communication (i.e. as a co-located team communicates), while automatically storing information and context from the distributed meetings.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Barton: Institution of Engineers, Australia, 2005
    Keywords
    computer supported cooperative work, computer aided design, distributed product development, distributed engineering
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Research subject
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50852 (URN)2-s2.0-84862636324 (Scopus ID)0-85825-788-2 (ISBN)
    Conference
    15th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED 05), Melbourne, Australia, August 15-28, 2005
    Available from: 2016-06-14 Created: 2016-06-14 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Demands on engineering design culture for implementing functional products
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demands on engineering design culture for implementing functional products
    2005 (English)In: Proceedings ICED 05, the 15th International Conference on Engineering Design, Melbourne, Australia, 15.-18.08.2005 / [ed] Samuel, A. & Lewis, W., Glasgow, United Kingdom: The Design Society, 2005, Vol. 35, p. 172-173Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial product development focused companies, such as car manufacturers, have traditionally developed and sold hardware products. In professional business-to-business relations, the integration of hardware and software with services has been identified as a shift in focus in the seller-buyer relationship from hardware development to function development and the way a sustainable economic performance could be achieved. Therefore, the common perception today of where the product is mainly hardware only, needs to be expanded to include a definition where it does not even have to have any hardware at all. Expanding the product definition therefore places additional demands on the design and development of hardware, software and services that may all be part of the functional product. Further, this article discusses how customer requirements need to be handled when developing a total offer in the form of a functional product. Finally, the traits needed in the engineer who is to develop it while being part of amulti-cultural team are discussed, possibly a geographically distributed team.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Glasgow, United Kingdom: The Design Society, 2005
    Series
    DS ; 35
    Keywords
    Design model, engineering design culture, functional products, manufacturing industry, profit model
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50836 (URN)2-s2.0-84862608059 (Scopus ID)0-85825-788-2 (ISBN)
    Conference
    5th International Conference on Engineering Design - ICED 05, Melbourne, Australia, 15 - 28 August, 2005
    Available from: 2016-06-14 Created: 2016-06-14 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    5. Functional product development challenges collaborative working environment practices
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functional product development challenges collaborative working environment practices
    2007 (English)In: International Journal of e-collaboration, ISSN 1548-3673, E-ISSN 1548-3681, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 63-80Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, an activity-based modeling and simulation approach to functional product development (FPD) is suggested as part of a simulation-driven CWE approach to meet the new demands that are placed on tools and methods used in industrial product development due to companies' transformation from hardware providers to function providers. The rationale for a simulation approach is discussed as well as the usefulness when applied on a process of work. An iterative data gathering and analysis process based on interviews and field notes is presented challenges for distributed working environment practices posed by the introduction of functional product development have been identified. They include four different and interrelated issues pertaining to approach, methods and tools, tolerances for errors and the ability to distribute new tools with extensive demands on usability and interoperability

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hersey, USA: IGI Global, 2007
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50840 (URN)10.4018/jec.2007100104 (DOI)
    Available from: 2016-06-14 Created: 2016-06-14 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
    6. Linking design process activities to the business decisions of the firm: an example from the aerospace industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linking design process activities to the business decisions of the firm: an example from the aerospace industry
    2010 (English)In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 141-157Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The research concerns identification of parameters important for the studied organisation's success in service concept design and delivery. Knowledge was gathered through interviews and participation in daily industrial work activities. The gathered knowledge was used for developing a MATLAB-based simulation model, of which the purpose is to improve the studied company's ability to develop hardware-based services at an early concept stage, and to simulate, beforehand, the predicted performance of a given service scenario. This approach minimises the cost of each concept and allows simulation of several different concepts before the actual work is done.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Bucks, United Kingdom: InderScience Publishers, 2010
    Keywords
    Aerospace industry, business decisions, design parameter identification, design process, predicting work activities, process modelling and simulation, service concept design
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50843 (URN)10.1504/IJPD.2010.034993 (DOI)2-s2.0-77956253510 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2016-06-14 Created: 2016-06-14 Last updated: 2018-05-02Bibliographically approved
    7. A process modelling and simulation approach for business decision support in pre-conceptual product design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A process modelling and simulation approach for business decision support in pre-conceptual product design
    2010 (English)In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 158-175Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses creation of a support tool (SIMULINK model) for collaborative work process modelling and optimisation based on Simulation Driven Design (SDD). The purpose is to improve the studied company's ability to develop hardware-based services in an early concept stage, and to predict performance of a given service scenario before development. The approach is useful as a decision-support tool in evaluating and prioritising business offers and activities in the business offer process. The modelling and simulation approach minimises the cost of each concept and allows simulation of a number of different concepts before the actual work is carried out

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Bucks, United Kingdom: InderScience Publishers, 2010
    Keywords
    Cost, delivery time, design support, functional product development, pre-conceptual product design, process modelling and simulation, SDD, simulation driven design
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50834 (URN)10.1504/IJPD.2010.034994 (DOI)2-s2.0-77956247403 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2016-06-14 Created: 2016-06-14 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
  • 27.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Functional product development challenges collaborative work practices2009In: Virtual Team Leadership and Collaborative Engineering Advancements: Contemporary Issues and Implications / [ed] Ned Kock, IGI Global, 2009, Vol. 203-216, p. 203-216Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing service-laden products in a virtual extended enterprise implies a wider distribution of resources and product development (PD) team members than what is the case today. In this setting, the challenge is getting a cross-disciplinary distributed team to collaborate effectively over distance using not only the tools available today, but also new tools and approaches. One such activity-based approach, based on an actual Volvo Aero service-provision process, is presented in this article. Supplying a physical product as part of a service contract within an extended enterprise demands increased speed and quality of the predictions the supplier wants to make in order to keep track of the product functionality, its cost effectiveness and lifecycle cost. One approach that has been proven in engineering is modeling and simulation, here implemented as activity-based simulation of an actual industrial work process that provides a maintenance service. The activity-based simulation approach is realized in the industry standard simulation environment MATLAB. It is created as a demonstrator of one of several future tools that may help a virtual extended enterprise to face the challenge of supplying function or services to the customer more effectively. Conclusions regarding Collaborative Working Environments include new requirements on quality of tools for supporting functional product development regarding knowledge availability, usability, security and interoperability. Conclusions also support the suggested approach concerning development of distributed, modular activity-based process simulation models as a suitable approach for supporting functional product development

  • 28.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Functional product development challenges collaborative working environment practices2007In: International Journal of e-collaboration, ISSN 1548-3673, E-ISSN 1548-3681, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 63-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, an activity-based modeling and simulation approach to functional product development (FPD) is suggested as part of a simulation-driven CWE approach to meet the new demands that are placed on tools and methods used in industrial product development due to companies' transformation from hardware providers to function providers. The rationale for a simulation approach is discussed as well as the usefulness when applied on a process of work. An iterative data gathering and analysis process based on interviews and field notes is presented challenges for distributed working environment practices posed by the introduction of functional product development have been identified. They include four different and interrelated issues pertaining to approach, methods and tools, tolerances for errors and the ability to distribute new tools with extensive demands on usability and interoperability

  • 29.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Hardware design as a basis for functional product development2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The business environment in manufacturing industry is changing from a hardware based product focus to a process and function focus. A current industrial interest is the development and sale of functions. This function could be realised as a product based on hardware, software and services and may be sold as a function rather than as hardware. This function view is referred to as Functional Products (FP). The new focus is on value for the customer rather than on hardware for the customer. This change creates new challenges for how engineering design of the hardware may best be carried out. To develop a functional product, several parties need to be involved in the particular project. These parties are suggested to be supplier, seller, sub- contractor, customer and end user. Since the functional product is not only consisting of hardware but also of services the relations between manufacturers and customers will change. Product development will be carried out in networks to an increasing degree where assignments, activities of, and relations between involved parties will be continuously changing. This thesis introduces the area of functional products and related literature from a hardware engineering design perspective. It starts from a holistic approach and introduce the area of functional products in relation to traditional hardware design and development. Product and process issues considered to be important are raised and discussed; value of hardware product versus value of functions, increased need for integration, communication and collaboration over cross-disciplinary borders, increased need for simulation support to be able to increase the predictability of design concepts. Simulation as an activity to verify the capabilities of the hardware product must be taken for granted in functional product business negotiation. Elongated needs exploration and identification stage are likely early on in functional product development. The concept verification stage in product development of functional products is suggested to increase until such times when integrated simulation support has been developed to support system simulation of functional products. Additionally, issues brought forward in this thesis include: -Suggestions on processes necessary for functional product development -Changes in value for the customer and ownership of the hardware with the introduction of the FP concept - Questions have been raised for how the engineering design activities actually will be affected with the introduction of functional products The thesis is seen as exploratory rather than verifying and invites discussion of the issues raised here, in order for these issues to be developed further.

    List of papers
    1. Design management lessons learned from two studies in new product design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design management lessons learned from two studies in new product design
    2003 (English)In: Proceedings of ICED 03, the 14th International Conference on Engineering Design, Stockholm / [ed] Folkeson, A., Glasgow, United Kingdom: The Design Society, 2003, Vol. 31, p. 515-516Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Glasgow, United Kingdom: The Design Society, 2003
    Series
    DS ; 31
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50837 (URN)1-904670-00-8 (ISBN)
    Conference
    ICED 03, 14th International Conference on Engineering Design, Stockholm, Sweden, 19 - 21 August, 2003
    Available from: 2016-06-14 Created: 2016-06-14 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    2. The use of product development process as a means of implementing company strategy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The use of product development process as a means of implementing company strategy
    2003 (English)In: 10th International Product Development Management Conference / [ed] Hustad, T. P. & Karlsson, C., EASIM, European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management , 2003Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    EASIM, European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management, 2003
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50845 (URN)
    Conference
    10th International Product Development Management Conference, Brussels, Belgium, June 10-11, 2003 EASIM, European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management
    Available from: 2016-06-14 Created: 2016-06-14 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 30.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Linking design process activities to the business decisions of the firm: an example from the aerospace industry2010In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 141-157Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The research concerns identification of parameters important for the studied organisation's success in service concept design and delivery. Knowledge was gathered through interviews and participation in daily industrial work activities. The gathered knowledge was used for developing a MATLAB-based simulation model, of which the purpose is to improve the studied company's ability to develop hardware-based services at an early concept stage, and to simulate, beforehand, the predicted performance of a given service scenario. This approach minimises the cost of each concept and allows simulation of several different concepts before the actual work is done.

  • 31.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    et al.
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Andrews, John
    Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom .
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Functional product system availability: simulation-driven design and operation through coupled multi-objective optimisation2011In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 119-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes on a conceptual level how the availability of functional products (consisting of hardware (HW) and a support system) may be simulated. The main objective of this paper is to present a simulation-driven methodology for predicting and optimising the availability and cost of functional products in both development and operation. The proposed simulation and optimisation methodology includes both HW and support system models, which coupled form a simulation model of a system (functional product) delivering the function. Two different simulation-driven methodologies are suggested in the paper: one for development and another for operation of functional products

  • 32.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    et al.
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Backe, Björn
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Kyösti, Petter
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Lindström, John
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Reed, Sean
    Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre NTEC, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
    A model for predicting and monitoring industrial system availability2012In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 140-157Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the integration of a sensor data stream monitoring system into a proposed functional product model capable of predicting functional availability. Such monitoring systems enable predictive maintenance to be carried out pre-emptive maintenance that is scheduled in response to imminent hardware failure and are in widespread use in industry. The industrial motivation for this research is that agreed upon system availability is a critical element of any business-to-business agreement regarding functional sales. Such a model is important when making strategic choices regarding FPs and can be used to develop a high availability product design through simulation driven development, as well as to provide operational decision support that reflects the current reality to enable optimal availability to be achieved in practice. The proposed model integrates hardware, support system and monitoring system models, and is able to incorporate actual operational data. It has been partly verified based on previous research.

  • 33.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    et al.
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, University Campus, Luleå, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Ove
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, University Campus, Luleå, Sweden.
    A process modelling and simulation approach for business decision support in pre-conceptual product design2010In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 158-175Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses creation of a support tool (SIMULINK model) for collaborative work process modelling and optimisation based on Simulation Driven Design (SDD). The purpose is to improve the studied company's ability to develop hardware-based services in an early concept stage, and to predict performance of a given service scenario before development. The approach is useful as a decision-support tool in evaluating and prioritising business offers and activities in the business offer process. The modelling and simulation approach minimises the cost of each concept and allows simulation of a number of different concepts before the actual work is carried out

  • 34.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    et al.
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Johanson, Mathias
    Alkit Communications AB.
    User-driven design of a flexible distance education environment rationale, lessons learned and future implications2008In: Sixth International Conference on Creating, Connecting and Collaborating through Computing, C5 2008 / [ed] Rose, K., Los Alamitos, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2008, p. 85-92, article id 4459471Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the challenges inherent in distributed education and presents the development of a distance education environment to meet the needs of educators and geographically dispersed students at Luleå University of Technology in northern Sweden. The design rationale and experiences from teaching in the environment are discussed.   During the course of the research, several prerequisites for quality distance education were identified, one of which is the main topic of this paper. Here, the needs identified by the educators who are to se the created environment are discussed. Those needs have led to the design of the environment, including physical spaces, tools and technologies.   Our results indicate that it is now possible to design a highly useful environment for distributed education at a much lower cost-to-quality ratio than only a few years ago. Such a system may be created in a way that allows teachers to earn to use the environment selfsufficiently. Thereby, the need for support staff is greatly diminished.   The results indicate that the use of appropriate methods and tools lets teachers work in a distributed environment in a way that closely resembles their normal way of work in a teaching situation. In addition, a strategy for future development of the environment, based on the results presented here and on previous research, is suggested.

  • 35.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Division of Computing Science, Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kyösti, Petter
    Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Reed, Sean
    Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre (NTEC), Nottingham University, Nottingham, UK.
    Backe, Björn
    Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Evaluating availability of functional products through simulation2014In: Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, ISSN 1569-190X, Vol. 47, p. 196-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A functional product is an integrated package consisting of hardware, software and a service support system that provides a customer with a certain function and is sold under a performance-based contract that includes a functional availability guarantee. For the availability performance, prediction, optimisation and management of risk are therefore important concerns during product development. This paper describes a software tool that can generate an integrated model of a functional product from its design details and analyse it through simulation to provide availability performance information. The model's application to the analysis of a real industrial system is demonstrated. Such tools are important for the development and widespread adoption of functional products. The resulting analysis gave an indication of a suitable guaranteed functional availability level for the product and could be used to compare the performance of different design options.

  • 36.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    et al.
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    An activity based simulation approach to functional product development2006In: Challenges in collaborative engineering: CCE '06: State of the Art and Future Challenges in Collaborative Design: proceedings of the International Workshop April 19-20 2006, Prague, Czech Republic in conjunction with DDECS '06 / [ed] Leandro Soares Indrusiak, Lennart Karlsson, Adam Pawlak, Kurt Sandkuhl, Jönköping, Sweden: Department of Computer & Electrical Engineering, School of Engineering, Jönköping University , 2006, p. 107-118Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the new demands that are placed on tools and methods used in industrial product development due to the transformation of industrial companies from hardware producers to function providers, including some effects on collaborative engineering. Traditionally, manufacturing industry focuses on providing excellent goods, i.e. hardware. Services occur on an aftermarket, as an add-on to the developed hardware. By supplying functions, companies can gain control of the aftermarket. The responsibility and availability of the functions provided by hardware remains with the function provider as well as the responsibility for maintenance and spare parts. This approach, a new business mode, is a response to a necessity for business-to-business collaboration to gain economy––of-scale partnerships in the extended enterprise and ultimately to be able to develop competitive offers [1] [2]. Hence, the shift in view is a move towards providing functions, taking a lifecycle commitment for the hardware as well as optimizing the availability of its function in the customers’’ system. The redirection from hardware development to a process where development of functions is in focus is hereafter referred to as Functional Product Development.

  • 37.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    et al.
    Polhem Laboratory, Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden,.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Demands on engineering design culture for implementing functional products2005In: Proceedings ICED 05, the 15th International Conference on Engineering Design, Melbourne, Australia, 15.-18.08.2005 / [ed] Samuel, A. & Lewis, W., Glasgow, United Kingdom: The Design Society, 2005, Vol. 35, p. 172-173Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial product development focused companies, such as car manufacturers, have traditionally developed and sold hardware products. In professional business-to-business relations, the integration of hardware and software with services has been identified as a shift in focus in the seller-buyer relationship from hardware development to function development and the way a sustainable economic performance could be achieved. Therefore, the common perception today of where the product is mainly hardware only, needs to be expanded to include a definition where it does not even have to have any hardware at all. Expanding the product definition therefore places additional demands on the design and development of hardware, software and services that may all be part of the functional product. Further, this article discusses how customer requirements need to be handled when developing a total offer in the form of a functional product. Finally, the traits needed in the engineer who is to develop it while being part of amulti-cultural team are discussed, possibly a geographically distributed team.

  • 38. Löfstrand, Magnus
    et al.
    López-Mesa, Belinda
    Thompson, Graham
    The use of product development process as a means of implementing company strategy2003In: 10th International Product Development Management Conference / [ed] Hustad, T. P. & Karlsson, C., EASIM, European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management , 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    et al.
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Reed, Sean
    Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre NTEC, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Andrews, John
    Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre NTEC, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Dunnett, Sarah
    Department of Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Modelling and simulation of functional product system availability and support costs2012In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 16, no 3-4, p. 304-325Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional products (FP), total offers or product service systems, that comprise of both hardware (HW) and support services (SS) sold as an integrated offering under an availability guarantee, are becoming increasing popular in industry. This paper addresses, through modelling and simulation, the challenge faced by suppliers in developing an integrated HW and SS design to produce an FP which meets contracted availability. A recently published framework specified how an integrated model hardware and service support system model could be used to obtain functional availability predictions and perform simulation driven functional product development. This paper presents the first example of an integrated functional product model. It uses fault tree, Petri net and discrete event simulation techniques to enable the prediction of functional product availability and support costs. Such predictions are used here to evaluate and compare different service support system designs.

  • 40.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    et al.
    Division of Computer Aided Design, The Polhem Laboratory, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Swden.
    Thompson, Graham
    Design management lessons learned from two studies in new product design2003In: Proceedings of ICED 03, the 14th International Conference on Engineering Design, Stockholm / [ed] Folkeson, A., Glasgow, United Kingdom: The Design Society, 2003, Vol. 31, p. 515-516Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Paul, Satyam
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Discrete Time Sliding Mode Control of Milling Chatter2019In: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Springer-Verlag New York, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The technique of mitigating chatter phenomenon in an effective manner is an important issue from the viewpoint of superior quality machining process with quality production. In this paper, an innovative solution to control chatter vibration actively in the milling process is presented. The mathematical modelling associated with the milling technique is presented in the primary phase of the paper. In this paper, an innovative technique of discrete time sliding mode control(DSMC) is blended with Type 2 fuzzy logic system. Superior mitigation of chatter is the outcome of developed active controller. The Lyapunov scheme is implemented to validate the stability criteria of the proposed controller. The embedded nonlinearity in the cutting forces and damper friction are compensated in an effective manner by the utilization of Type-2 fuzzy technique. The vibration attenuation ability of DSMC-Type-2 fuzzy (DSMC-T2) is compared with the Discrete time PID (D-PID) and DSMC-Type-1 fuzzy (DSMC-T1) for validating the effectiveness of the controller. Finally, the numerical analysis is carried out to validate that DSMC-T2 is superior to D-PID and DSMC-T1 in the minimization of the milling chatter.

  • 42.
    Paul, Satyam
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Intelligent Fault Detection Scheme for Drilling Process2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automatic fault detection system is an important aspect of industrial process and can contribute significantly for minimizing equipment downtime thus makingit a cost effective process. In this paper, an innovative model-based faultdetection (FD) system in combination with interval type-2 (IT2) Takagi-Sugeno(T-S) fuzzy system is developed for the detection of the faults in the drillbit of the drilling system. The proposed methodology validates the stabilityof the fault detection system in the presence of system uncertainties. Numerical analysis is carried out to prove the effectiveness of the theoretical approach. The effective methodology can be implemented in real time for detecting faults during downhole drilling operations.

  • 43.
    Reed, Sean
    et al.
    Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, U.K..
    Andrews, John
    Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, U.K..
    Dunnett, Sarah
    Department of Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, U.K..
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Modelling service support system reliability2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional Products, where the customer pays for the function and availability of a product instead of the product itself, are increasingly popular in capital intensive industries such as aerospace. Such products are integrated systems involving the combination of hardware and service support systems. The reliability prediction and optimisation of the service system that supports the hardware availability is essential to the feasibility of the product. These systems consist of maintenance procedures and resource provisions. Simulation based techniques are presented in this paper to analyse the reliability of support systems and their application is demonstrated through a simple example.

  • 44.
    Reed, Sean
    et al.
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Andrews, John
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Dunnett, Sarah
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Kyösti, Petter
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Backe, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    A modelling language for maintenance task scheduling2012In: 11th International Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management Conference and the Annual European Safety and Reliability Conference 2012, New York: Curran Associates, Inc., 2012, Vol. 1, p. 201-211Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a modelling language for representing the details necessary to analyse and model the implementation of maintenance strategies for generic hardware. The maintenance strategy determines which, and when, restorations and inspections should take place whilst the scheduling of maintenance tasks implements these goals. The manner of maintenance strategy implementation therefore has important implications for maintenance cost and other performance metrics. Despite this, maintenance strategy optimisation models found in the literature lack detailed maintenance implementation models, which may lead to inaccurate and misleading results. The presented modelling language permits the representation of all common constraints and outcomes between maintenance tasks that influence task schedules. In doing so, it provides a platform for the future development of maintenance task schedule modelling, planning and decision support tools. The modelling language is demonstrated through application to part of a car braking system.

  • 45. Reed, Sean
    et al.
    Andrews, John
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    The design and modelling of maintenance during the development of functional products or product service systems2012In: Enduring and cost-effective engineering support solutions: proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Through-life Engineering Services / [ed] Rajkumar Roy, Essam Shehab, Chris Hockley, Samir Khan, Cranfield, Bedford: Cranfield University Press , 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Reed, Sean
    et al.
    Centre for Risk and Reliability Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Alkit Communications AB, Mölndal, Sweden; Uppsala DataBase Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Estimating the availability of hydraulic drive systems operating under different functional profiles through simulation2015In: Safety and Reliability, ISSN 0961-7353, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 4-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydraulic drive systems are widely used in a variety of industrial applications where high torque and low speed rotational power are required. The advantages include maximum torque from zero speed, continuously variable speed within wide limits, high reliability and insensitivity to shock loads. A drive system consists of a hydraulic circuit, electric motors, hydraulic pumps, hydraulic motors and auxiliary components. The stress on the components, and hence wear and failure rate, varies with the torque and speed output by the drive. The reliability of a hydraulic drive system of a particular design can therefore vary significantly between installations operating in applications with different functional requirements. Predicting the availability of a drive system in a particular application is useful for several purposes such as optimising the system design and estimating support costs. This paper describes a simulation model, developed to estimate the availability of a hydraulic drive system in a given functional profile, consisting of output torque and speed time phase requirements. It outputs statistics on system availability and component failure rates. As an example, the simulation model is used to compare these statistics for a drive design operating under two distinct operational profiles.

  • 47.
    Reed, Sean
    et al.
    Centre for Risk and Reliability Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Alkit Communications AB, Mölndal, Sweden; Uppsala DataBase Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Estimating the availability of hydraulic drive systems operating under different functional profiles through simulation2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Reed, Sean
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, England.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Logical Representation of Maintenance Procedures for Verification and Analysis2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Reed, Sean
    et al.
    Resilience Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Andrews, John
    Resilience Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
    An efficient algorithm for computing exact system and survival signatures of K-terminal network reliability2019In: Reliability Engineering & System Safety, ISSN 0951-8320, E-ISSN 1879-0836, Vol. 185, p. 429-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient algorithm is presented for computing exact system and survival signatures of K-terminal reliability in undirected networks with unreliable edges. K-terminal reliability is defined as the probability that a subset K of the network nodes can communicate with each other. Signatures have several advantages over direct reliability calculation such as enabling certain stochastic comparisons of reliability between competing network topology designs, extremely fast repeat computation of network reliability for different edge reliabilities and computation of network reliability when failures of edges are exchangeable but not independent. Existing methods for computation of signatures for K-terminal network reliability require derivation of cut-sets or path-sets which is only feasible for small networks due to the computational expense. The new algorithm utilises binary decision diagrams, boundary set partition sets and simple array operations to efficiently compute signatures through a factorisation of the network edges. The performance and advantages of the algorithm are demonstrated through application to a set of benchmark networks and a sensor network from an underground mine.

  • 50.
    Reed, Sean
    et al.
    NTEC, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    FASTE Laboratory, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    FASTE Laboratory, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Andrews, John
    NTEC, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Service support system modelling language for simulation-driven development of functional products2013In: 2nd International Through-life Engineering Services Conference / [ed] Rajkumar Roy, Ashutosh Tiwari, Andy Shaw, Colin Bell and Paul Phillips, Elsevier, 2013, Vol. 11, p. 420-424Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A functional product (FP) comprises of an integrated package of hardware and support services sold under a performance-based contract. A barrier to the adoption of FP is the lack of tools for obtaining predictions of availability and support costs during product development. A previous paper by the authors described a simulation-driven development strategy for designing FP that are optimised for functional availability and support costs. This iterative strategy involves representing the FP design in a modelling language; using a software code to automatically generate and analyse a simulation model from this representation to produce detailed performance predictions; and using these predictions as feedback to improve the design. The use of a modelling language facilitates the representation of the design details within the hardware and support system that influence availability and support costs. This includes the maintenance process design, maintenance strategy design and maintenance resource availability design. In this paper, an overview of a modelling language the authors have developed for this purpose is described.

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