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  • 1.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Does migration increase foreign trade?: Firm-level evidence2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karpaty, Patrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kneller, Richard
    GEP, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University. The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Do Immigrants Spur Offshoring?: Firm-Level EvidenceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshoring is an important aspect of firms’ internationalization. However, offshoring comes at a cost, especially where information or trust is lacking. Immigrant employees could reduce such offshoring costs through their knowledge of their former home countries and via access to foreign networks. We develop a framework of heterogeneous final-good firms to guide our empirical analysis and draw on new employer-employee data for approximately 12,000 Swedish firms during the time period 1998-2007. Our results support the hypothesis that immigrant employees spur offshoring activities by firms through lower offshoring costs. Hiring one additional foreign-born worker can increase offshoring up to three percent on average, with skilled migrants having the strongest effects. 

  • 3.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karpaty, Patrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kneller, Richard
    GEP, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Do Immigrants Spur Offshoring?: Firm-Level Evidence2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshoring provides firms with opportunities for internationalization and growth. But, offshoring comes at a cost, especially in presence of inadequate information and trust friction. Immigrant employees could reduce such offshoring transaction costs through their knowledge of former home countries and via access to foreign networks. This is the first firm-level study on migration and offshoring. In estimating a firm-level gravity model on new employer-employee data for approximately 12,000 Swedish firms during the time period 1998-2007, we are able to show that immigrant employees have a significant and positive impact on offshoring. Hiring one additional foreign-born worker can spur offshoring with up to three percent on average, and even more to low-income countries. The findings of this study could have potentially important policy implications. In addition to showing that immigrants could provide options for countries that aim to promote offshoring, the results introduce a completely new channel through which migration may promote development, through offshoring. This could encourage governments of developed nations to enhance their emphasis on migration as a tool for supporting private sector development in emerging economies.

  • 4.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brexflektioner: Vilka blir de ekonomiska konsekvenserna av att Storbritannien lämnar EU?2016In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 15-27Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En kommande brexit kommer att få politiska och ekonomiska konsekvenser, inte minst genom minskad utrikeshandel och försämrat ekonomiskt samarbete i Europa. Vi diskuterar de ekonomiska konsekvenserna av en brexit, med fokus på handel och handelspolitik. Förmodligen har de negativa ekonomiska konsekvenserna underskattats eftersom den handelshämmande effekten av minskad migration inte beaktats. Vår slutsats är att brexit kommer att försämra den ekonomiska integrationen mellan EU och Storbritannien samt leda till en försvagad brittisk handelspolitik, vilket särskilt kan drabba Sverige. För att minimera kostnaderna av brexit bör Sverige eftersträva ett så ambitiöst och heltäckande ekonomiskt partnerskapsavtal mellan EU och Storbritannien som möjligt. 

  • 5.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden; Global Labor Organization.
    Do Migrants Facilitate Internationalization?: A Review of the LiteratureManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How migration relates to internationalization has been a prominent question in international economics for a long time and its relevance for policy has increased with the amplified political focus on migration. But the role of migration for internationalization is not as obvious as the standard theory suggests, and tightening migration could have unexpected consequences for both developing and developed countries. In this paper we review and discuss over 100 papers published about migrants’ role in international trade and foreign direct investment, from pioneering country-level studies to nascent firm-level studies that utilize employer-employee data. To our knowledge, this is the first paper offering a wide-ranging review of the different strands of theory on the relationship between migration and internationalization, as well as new empirical findings. Although the evidence suggests that migration can facilitate internationalization, we also note substantial gaps and inconsistencies in the extant literature. The aim of this paper is to encourage future research and assist policymakers in their efforts to promote internationalization, and better understand the economic effects of changes in migration policy.

  • 6.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    The Ratio Institute, Stocholm, Sweden; Stockholm Chamber of Commerce, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Migrants' Influence on Firm-level Exports2016In: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 477-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the role of migrants in trade using a firm-level approach. We exploit a new employer–employee panel for Sweden, which encompasses close to 600,000 full-time employees, approximately 12,000 firms and data for 176 countries for the period 1998–2007. The resulting analysis provides novel firm-level evidence on the trade-migration relationship. Foreign-born workers have a positive association with firm exports. However, immigrants do not have an unconditional positive impact on firm trade. Mainly small firms gain from hiring foreign-born workers, and migrants need to be skilled and recently arrived to have a clear positive impact on firm export performance.

  • 7.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden; Global Labor Organization.
    Migration and Servicification: Do Immigrant Employees Spur Firm Exports of Services?2019In: The World Economy, ISSN 0378-5920, E-ISSN 1467-9701, Vol. 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Services play an increasingly important role in production, employment and international trade but are subject to substantially higher trade costs relative to manufactured goods. Knowledge of how these trade costs can be mitigated is important for facilitating trade of services. In this paper, we analyze the role of immigrant employees as facilitators of firm exports of services, a role that remains largely unexamined. We bridge the gap in existing research by drawing on new data for nearly 30,000 Swedish firms during the period 1998-2007 within a heterogeneous firm framework. The results have important policy implications. As the multilateral approach to facilitating trade is challenged and more countries are imposing measures to restrict the cross-country mobility of people, policymakers may need to find new ways to promote exports of services. Our results indicate that immigrant employees spur firms’ export of services activities: hiring one additional foreign-born worker can increase services exports by approximately 2.5 percent, on average, with a stronger effect found for skilled and newly arrived immigrants. Therefore, policymakers could leverage the findings of this study to implement initiatives that utilize high-skilled immigrants to promote services exports.

  • 8.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Migration kan främja internationalisering2015In: Ekonomiska samfundets tidskrift, ISSN 0013-3183, E-ISSN 2323-1378, p. 44-53Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New Ways of Promoting Internationalization – What Role for Migration?

    This article summarizes the large number of theoretical and empirical studies on the role of migration for internationalization and discusses relevant policy implications in a Nordic context. Migration is assumed to lower costs associated with internationalization through knowledge and contacts. We survey the evidence and conclude that migration has a real potential to contribute to countries’ and firms’ internationalization. However, there is considerable co-influence from several factors. The potential of migration to facilitate internationalization should be better utilised in trade policy-making.

  • 9.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Ratio, Stockholm, Stockholms Handelskammare.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Migration och företagens internationalisering: en kunskapsöversikt2015Report (Other academic)
  • 10. Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Mångfald och internationalisering: utlandsfödda personer bidrar till internationaliseringen av svenska företag2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    The Brexit Trade Disruption Revisited2016In: The Estey Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, ISSN 1496-5208, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 41-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The UK leaving the European Union, a ‘Brexit,’ would have economic and political implications. One of the most profound economic impacts would be on trade—the EU is the UK’s most important trade partner, with approximately half of UK total trade. A Brexit would imply looser economic integration between the UK and EU. In addition to the trade barriers that would arise from leaving the single market, there would also be negative trade policy effects. Previous analyses of the cost of a Brexit to the UK economy in terms of trade have probably underestimated the impact because they overlook the trade- enhancing role of migration. A Brexit would be likely to limit migration, which, in turn, would aggravate the exit’s trade-disruptive effect. 

  • 12.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    The Role of Foreign Networks for Trade in Services: Firm-level Evidence2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides novel evidence of a positive and significant influence of firm investment into foreign networks – through the hiring of foreign-born workers in the firm – on both the propensity to export services as well as the intensity in exports. Because trade barriers are higher for services than for goods, and since trade in services is more sensitive to informal trade barriers, firm investment in access to foreign networks could in particular help to increase services exports. Investment in foreign links could benefit the overall access in the same cluster of firms,which, however, lowers the incentive for the individual firm to invest in such linkages itself. This study formalizes this idea that that the world can become ‘smaller’ through firms’ strategic trade-related decisions. We investigate whether firm investment to obtain access to foreign networks impacts exports of services by estimating a fixed effects panel model on a comprehensive firm-level dataset for Sweden and looking in particular at investment in links through the hiring of immigrants. Instrumental variable estimation mitigates the endogeneity concern. In addition to the key finding, our results demonstrate that weaker export experience enhances the role of investment into foreign networks in terms of propensity to export. As an ancillary result, we find that the skill level of foreignborn workers and the time elapsed since immigration also impact the degree to which firms can utilize foreign-born personnel as an investment to gain access to networks abroad. Our results provide a new understanding of how firms can overcome trade barriers that specifically impede services by investing in foreign networks, for example, through the hiring of foreign-born personnel. In this, our study emphasizes the need for policymakers to increase labor market participation among the foreign-born population as to way to promote internationalization in terms of services exports.

  • 13.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Trade and migration: firm-level evidenceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration has been associated with higher levels of trade. Previous studies interpret this as evidence of migrants’ ability to lower trade costs. Nevertheless, no study has investigated the impact of migrants on firms’ foreign trade. Thus, they fail to both provide evidence on the role that migrants may play in lowering firms’ trade costs, and exactly through which mechanisms the impact is derived. This study, being the first to study in depth the impact of immigration on trade at the firm level, bridges this gap in research. It utilizes new and unique employer-employee data for 12,000 Swedish firms, for the period 1998-2007, in a firm-level gravity framework. It provides novel firm-level evidence, demonstrating a significant, positive, and robust impact of immigrants in raising firms’ foreign trade. Migrants are found to increase trade both on the extensive and intensive product margin. Further, the study is able to conclude that the sustained effect mainly derives from lower information frictions through superior knowledge of foreign-markets, although contacts are also important.

  • 14.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Lunds universitet.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Trade, Migration and Integration: Evidence and Policy ImplicationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes departure in the unique position taken bySwedish policymakers recently in giving explicit emphasis to migration as a tool for increasing trade. We attempt to put this positionto empirical scrutiny.Our results demonstrate thatmigrants spur exports, especially along the extensive product margin of trade and for differentiated products, but with no significant impact on imports. This suggests that for small open economies with many immigrants being refugees, the aim of using migration to facilitate trade may only be effective with respect to exports. This paper also contributes to the literature on trade and migration by exploiting data on gender and age, which allow usto draw inferences on the underlying impact channels. We adoptan instrumental variable approach to address the endogeneity issue due to potential reverse causality. The pattern of results is consistent with the hypothesis that migration mainly reducesfixed trade costs derived from information and trust friction across migrant host and source countries. Importantly, the results imply that policymakers may be able to promote tradeby improvingimmigrants’ labor market integrationrather than being restricted to more liberal immigration policies, which is generally more controversial.

  • 15.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholm Chamber of Commerce and The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University. National Board of Trade, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Trade, Migration and Integration: Evidence and Policy Implications2015In: The World Economy, ISSN 0378-5920, E-ISSN 1467-9701, Vol. 38, no 12, p. 2013-2048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes as its point of departure the unique position recently adopted by Swedish policymakers emphasizing migration as a tool to increase trade. We attempt to empirically scrutinize this position. Our results demonstrate that migrants stimulate exports, especially along the extensive product margin of trade and for differentiated products, but have no significant impact on imports. This finding suggests that for small open economies where numerous immigrants are refugees, the strategy of using migration to facilitate trade may only be effective with respect to exports. This paper also contributes to the literature on trade and migration by exploiting data on gender and age, which allow us to draw inferences on the underlying impact channels. We adopt an instrumental variable approach to address the endogeneity issue due to potential reverse causality. The pattern of results is consistent with the hypothesis that migration primarily reduces fixed trade costs resulting from information and trust friction across migrant host and source countries. Importantly, the results imply that policymakers may be able to promote trade by improving immigrants’ labor market integration instead of simply being restricted to promoting more liberal immigration policies, which is generally more controversial.

  • 16.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Nationalekonomiska institutionen, Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Utlandsfödda främjar företagens utrikeshandel2012In: Ekonomisk debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 45-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mångfald i arbetskraften har betydelse för internationaliseringen av svenska företag. Personer födda i andra länder har kompetens som sänker trösklarna för internationalisering. De besitter användbara kunskaper om affärskultur, politik, religion och språk i sina tidigare hemländer. De har även tillgång till nätverk och kontakter i sina födelseländer som kan underlätta för internationella affärer. Denna artikel presenterar nya forskningsresultat som tyder på att mångfald i arbetskraften gynnar företagens utrikeshandel. Effekten kan förstärkas genom utbildning, samt genom att bättre underhålla nätverk och kontakter i ursprungsländerna. Företag kan därför använda mångfald som ett internationaliseringsfrämjande instrument.

  • 17.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Utlandsfödda kan främja företagens export av tjänster2015In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 28-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekonomin blir alltmer tjänsteorienterad. Sveriges BNP utgörs nu till ca 70 pro- cent av tjänster. Den andel av arbetskraften som sysselsätts inom tjänstesektorn ökar, samtidigt som industrin blir mer tjänsteintensiv. Men trots att karaktären på svensk utrikeshandel följer en liknande trend brister förståelsen av vad som driver och hämmar tjänsteutrikeshandeln. Denna kunskapslucka har fått oön- skade konsekvenser och kan förklara varför insatser för att underlätta interna- tionalisering avseende tjänster har fått en undanskymd roll i handelspolitiken. Denna artikel analyserar hur utlandsfödda inverkar på företagens utrikeshan- del med tjänster. Vi finner stöd för att svenska företag kan öka sin tjänsteutrikes- handel genom att anställa utlandsfödda med högskoleutbildning.

  • 18.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Utlandsfödda och företagens internationalisering: Ett lyft för tjänsteexporten?2014Report (Other academic)
1 - 18 of 18
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