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  • 1. Agarwal, Natasha
    et al.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Atithi Devo Bhava? (The Guest is Equivalent to God?)2015In: Observer Research Foundation Issue Brief, no 91, p. 1-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Agarwal, Natasha
    et al.
    Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, Dehli, India.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Getting more out of India's 'Tourist Visa on Arrival' scheme2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Government of India has extended the ‘Tourist Visa on Arrival’ scheme - now expected to be renamed 'Visa Online (ETA)' scheme - from five countries in 2010 to 44 countries in 2014. In this article, Natasha Agarwal and Magnus Lodefalk highlight some of the limitations in the design and implementation of the scheme, and make recommendations for maximising its economic benefit and effectiveness.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Statistics Sweden, Örebro, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Poldahl, Andreas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Female Top Management in Family Firms and Non-family Firms: Evidence from Total Population Data2018In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, no 3, p. 303-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We exploit information on ownership, management and kinship to study the representation of women in top management teams in Swedish family and non-family firms among domiciled limited liability firms over the years 2004 to 2010. The share of female top managers is analysed across listed and non-listed firms as well as across industries. We then estimate the likelihood that a woman is elected into the top management team in family and non-family firms using a probit regression model where we control for firm- and individual-level characteristics, including the gender distribution of the firm and kinship relations to existing board members and firm owners. We find that non-listed family firms are more likely to appoint female top managers, whereas we find no differences among listed firms. Moreover, we find that the gender composition and kinship structures of firms influence the appointment of female top managers.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Statistics Sweden, Örebro, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Poldahl, Andreas
    Statistics Sweden, Örebro, Sweden.
    The Characteristics and Performance of Family Firms: Exploiting information on ownership, governance and kinship using total population data2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Family firms are often considered characteristically different from non-family firms, and the economic implications of these differences have generated significant academic debate. However, our understanding of family firms suffers from an inability to identify them in total population data, as this requires information on owners, their kinship and involvement in firm governance, which is rarely available. We present a method for identifying domiciled family firms using register data that offers greater accuracy than previous methods. We then apply it to data from Statistics Sweden concerning firm ownership, governance and kinship over the years 2004-2010. Next, we use Swedish data to estimate these firms’ economic contribution to total employment and gross domestic product (GDP) and compare them to private domiciled non-family firms in terms of their characteristics and economic performance. We find that the family firm is the prevalent organizational form, contributing to over one-third of all employment and GDP. Family firms are common across industries and sizes, ranging from the smallest producers to the largest multinational firms. However, their characteristics differ across sizes and legal forms, thereby indicating that the seemingly contradictory findings among previous studies on family firms may be due to unobserved heterogeneity. We furthermore find that they are smaller than private non-family firms in employment and sales and carry higher solidity, although they are more profitable. These differences diminish with firm size, however. We conclude that the term ‘family firm’ contains great diversity and call for increased attention to their heterogeneity.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. SCB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Poldahl, Andreas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. SCB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Characteristics of Family Firms: Exploiting Information on Ownership, Kinship and Governance Using Total Population Data2018In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 539-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Family firms are often considered characteristically different from non-family firms. However, our understanding of family firms suffers from an inability to identify them in total population data; information is rarely available regarding owners, their kinship, and their involvement in firm governance. We present a method for identifying domiciled family firms using register data; this method offers greater accuracy than previous methods. We apply this method to Swedish data concerning firm ownership, governance, and kinship from 2004 to 2010. We find that the family firm is a significant organizational form, contributing over one third of all employment and gross domestic product (GDP). Family firms are common in most industries and range in size. Furthermore, we find that, compared to private non-family firms, family firms have fewer total assets, employment, and sales and carry higher solidity, although family firms are more profitable. These differences diminish with firm size. We conclude that the term “family firm” includes a large variety of firms, and we call for increased attention to their heterogeneity.

  • 6.
    Gidehag, Anton
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kunskapsöverföring för tillväxt: Sambanden mellan produktivitet och rekrytering av nyckelkompetens hos små och medelstora företag2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Gidehag, Anton
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Recruiting for Small Business Growth: Micro-Level Evidence2017In: International Reveiw of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2009-2822, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 151-174, article id 1554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the link between new employees in leading positions and subsequent productivity in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Managers and professionals are likely to possess important tacit knowledge. They are also in a position to influence the employing firm. Exploiting rich and comprehensive panel data for Sweden in the 2001-2010 period and employing semi-parametric and quasi-experimental estimation techniques, we find that newly recruited professionals have a positive and statistically significant impact on the productivity of the hiring SME. For newly recruited managers there is no general link to the productivity of the hiring SME. We also find that professionals with experience from international firms and enterprise groups contribute the most to total factor productivity. Overall, the findings suggest the importance of mobility of key personnel for productivity-enhancing knowledge spillovers to SMEs.

  • 8.
    Gidehag, Anton
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University. Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Recruiting for Small Business Growth: Micro-level EvidenceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the link between new employees in leading positions and subsequent productivity in small- and medium-sized (SME) enterprises. Managers and professionals are likely to possess important tacit knowledge. They are also in a position to influence the employing firm. Exploiting rich and comprehensive panel data for Sweden in the 2001-2010 period and employing semi-parametric and quasi-experimental estimation techniques, we find that newly recruited leading personnel have a positive and statistically significant impact on the productivity of the hiring SME. Interestingly, our results suggest that professionals with experience from international firms and enterprise groups contribute the most to total factor productivity. Overall, the findings suggest the importance of mobility of leading personnel for productivity-enhancing knowledge spillovers to SMEs. 

  • 9.
    Gidehag, Anton
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Recruiting for Small Business Growth: Micro-level EvidenceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the link between new employees in leading positions and subsequent productivity in small- and medium-sized (SME) enterprises. Managers and professionals are likely to possess important tacit knowledge. They are also in a position to influence the employing firm. Exploiting rich and comprehensive panel data for Sweden in the 2001-2010 period and employing semi-parametric and quasi-experimental estimation techniques, we find that newly recruited leading personnel have a positive and statistically significant impact on the productivity of the hiring SME. Interestingly, our results suggest that professionals with experience from international firms and enterprise groups contribute the most to total factor productivity. Overall, the findings suggest the importance of mobility of leading personnel for productivity-enhancing knowledge spillovers to SMEs. 

  • 10.
    Graneli, Anna
    et al.
    Kommerskollegium.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Temporary Expats for Export: Firm-Level EvidenceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the relation between temporary expats in firms and exports. Temporary expats are positively associated with exports. The within-firm-destination-country link with export intensity is substantially larger for services than for merchandise and for exports of heterogeneous services and merchandise than for exports of homogeneous products. Additionally, the association with exports is stronger for temporary than for permanent expats. Furthermore, our evidence suggests that temporary expats are positively related to exports by assisting firms in overcoming informal trade barriers. Overall, our findings suggest the importance of the temporary movement of persons for providing firms with up-to-date links to export markets.

  • 11.
    Graneli, Anna
    et al.
    National Board of Trade, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Temporary Expats for Exports: Firm-Level Evidence2014In: ETSG annual conference, 11-13 September 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karpaty, Patrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kneller, Richard
    GEP, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University. The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Do Immigrants Spur Offshoring?: Firm-Level EvidenceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshoring is an important aspect of firms’ internationalization. However, offshoring comes at a cost, especially where information or trust is lacking. Immigrant employees could reduce such offshoring costs through their knowledge of their former home countries and via access to foreign networks. We develop a framework of heterogeneous final-good firms to guide our empirical analysis and draw on new employer-employee data for approximately 12,000 Swedish firms during the time period 1998-2007. Our results support the hypothesis that immigrant employees spur offshoring activities by firms through lower offshoring costs. Hiring one additional foreign-born worker can increase offshoring up to three percent on average, with skilled migrants having the strongest effects. 

  • 13.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karpaty, Patrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kneller, Richard
    GEP, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Do Immigrants Spur Offshoring?: Firm-Level Evidence2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshoring provides firms with opportunities for internationalization and growth. But, offshoring comes at a cost, especially in presence of inadequate information and trust friction. Immigrant employees could reduce such offshoring transaction costs through their knowledge of former home countries and via access to foreign networks. This is the first firm-level study on migration and offshoring. In estimating a firm-level gravity model on new employer-employee data for approximately 12,000 Swedish firms during the time period 1998-2007, we are able to show that immigrant employees have a significant and positive impact on offshoring. Hiring one additional foreign-born worker can spur offshoring with up to three percent on average, and even more to low-income countries. The findings of this study could have potentially important policy implications. In addition to showing that immigrants could provide options for countries that aim to promote offshoring, the results introduce a completely new channel through which migration may promote development, through offshoring. This could encourage governments of developed nations to enhance their emphasis on migration as a tool for supporting private sector development in emerging economies.

  • 14.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brexflektioner: Vilka blir de ekonomiska konsekvenserna av att Storbritannien lämnar EU?2016In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 15-27Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En kommande brexit kommer att få politiska och ekonomiska konsekvenser, inte minst genom minskad utrikeshandel och försämrat ekonomiskt samarbete i Europa. Vi diskuterar de ekonomiska konsekvenserna av en brexit, med fokus på handel och handelspolitik. Förmodligen har de negativa ekonomiska konsekvenserna underskattats eftersom den handelshämmande effekten av minskad migration inte beaktats. Vår slutsats är att brexit kommer att försämra den ekonomiska integrationen mellan EU och Storbritannien samt leda till en försvagad brittisk handelspolitik, vilket särskilt kan drabba Sverige. För att minimera kostnaderna av brexit bör Sverige eftersträva ett så ambitiöst och heltäckande ekonomiskt partnerskapsavtal mellan EU och Storbritannien som möjligt. 

  • 15.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Lund University, S-220 07 Lund, Sweden and Ministry for Foreign Affairs.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Investigating the link between immigrant employeesand firm tradeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    a heterogeneous firm trade model. By exploiting a rich employer–employee panel for Sweden, we show that immigrants’ skills and lengths of stay strongly influence the association with firm trade. The link is stronger for smaller firms and for differentiated goods but similar across detailed product margins of trade. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that.immigrants facilitate trade by lowering information friction and by infusing trust into business. 

  • 16.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    The Ratio Institute, Stocholm, Sweden; Stockholm Chamber of Commerce, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Migrants' Influence on Firm-level Exports2016In: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 477-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the role of migrants in trade using a firm-level approach. We exploit a new employer–employee panel for Sweden, which encompasses close to 600,000 full-time employees, approximately 12,000 firms and data for 176 countries for the period 1998–2007. The resulting analysis provides novel firm-level evidence on the trade-migration relationship. Foreign-born workers have a positive association with firm exports. However, immigrants do not have an unconditional positive impact on firm trade. Mainly small firms gain from hiring foreign-born workers, and migrants need to be skilled and recently arrived to have a clear positive impact on firm export performance.

  • 17.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Migration kan främja internationalisering2015In: Ekonomiska samfundets tidskrift, ISSN 0013-3183, E-ISSN 2323-1378, p. 44-53Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New Ways of Promoting Internationalization – What Role for Migration?

    This article summarizes the large number of theoretical and empirical studies on the role of migration for internationalization and discusses relevant policy implications in a Nordic context. Migration is assumed to lower costs associated with internationalization through knowledge and contacts. We survey the evidence and conclude that migration has a real potential to contribute to countries’ and firms’ internationalization. However, there is considerable co-influence from several factors. The potential of migration to facilitate internationalization should be better utilised in trade policy-making.

  • 18. Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Mångfald och internationalisering: utlandsfödda personer bidrar till internationaliseringen av svenska företag2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    The Brexit Trade Disruption Revisited2016In: The Estey Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, ISSN 1496-5208, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 41-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The UK leaving the European Union, a ‘Brexit,’ would have economic and political implications. One of the most profound economic impacts would be on trade—the EU is the UK’s most important trade partner, with approximately half of UK total trade. A Brexit would imply looser economic integration between the UK and EU. In addition to the trade barriers that would arise from leaving the single market, there would also be negative trade policy effects. Previous analyses of the cost of a Brexit to the UK economy in terms of trade have probably underestimated the impact because they overlook the trade- enhancing role of migration. A Brexit would be likely to limit migration, which, in turn, would aggravate the exit’s trade-disruptive effect. 

  • 20.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    The Role of Foreign Networks for Trade in Services: Firm-level Evidence2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides novel evidence of a positive and significant influence of firm investment into foreign networks – through the hiring of foreign-born workers in the firm – on both the propensity to export services as well as the intensity in exports. Because trade barriers are higher for services than for goods, and since trade in services is more sensitive to informal trade barriers, firm investment in access to foreign networks could in particular help to increase services exports. Investment in foreign links could benefit the overall access in the same cluster of firms,which, however, lowers the incentive for the individual firm to invest in such linkages itself. This study formalizes this idea that that the world can become ‘smaller’ through firms’ strategic trade-related decisions. We investigate whether firm investment to obtain access to foreign networks impacts exports of services by estimating a fixed effects panel model on a comprehensive firm-level dataset for Sweden and looking in particular at investment in links through the hiring of immigrants. Instrumental variable estimation mitigates the endogeneity concern. In addition to the key finding, our results demonstrate that weaker export experience enhances the role of investment into foreign networks in terms of propensity to export. As an ancillary result, we find that the skill level of foreignborn workers and the time elapsed since immigration also impact the degree to which firms can utilize foreign-born personnel as an investment to gain access to networks abroad. Our results provide a new understanding of how firms can overcome trade barriers that specifically impede services by investing in foreign networks, for example, through the hiring of foreign-born personnel. In this, our study emphasizes the need for policymakers to increase labor market participation among the foreign-born population as to way to promote internationalization in terms of services exports.

  • 21.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    The Role of Foreign Networks for Trade in Services: Firm-Level EvidenceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides novel evidence of a positive and significant influence of firm investment into foreignnetworks – through the hiring of foreign-born workers in the firm – on both the propensity to export services as wellas the intensity in exports. Because trade barriers are higher for services than for goods, and since trade in services ismore sensitive to informal trade barriers, firm investment in access to foreign networks could in particular help toincrease services exports. Investment in foreign links could benefit the overall access in the same cluster of firms,which, however, lowers the incentive for the individual firm to invest in such linkages itself. This study formalizesthis idea that that the world can become ‘smaller’ through firms’ strategic trade-related decisions. We investigatewhether firm investment to obtain access to foreign networks impacts exports of services by estimating a fixedeffects panel model on a comprehensive firm-level dataset for Sweden and looking in particular at investment inlinks through the hiring of immigrants. Instrumental variable estimation mitigates the endogeneity concern. Inaddition to the key finding, our results demonstrate that weaker export experience enhances the role of investmentinto foreign networks in terms of propensity to export. As an ancillary result, we find that the skill level of foreignbornworkers and the time elapsed since immigration also impact the degree to which firms can utilize foreign-bornpersonnel as an investment to gain access to networks abroad. Our results provide a new understanding of how firmscan overcome trade barriers that specifically impede services by investing in foreign networks, for example, throughthe hiring of foreign-born personnel. In this, our study emphasizes the need for policymakers to increase labormarket participation among the foreign-born population as to way to promote internationalization in terms ofservices exports.

  • 22.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Trade and migration: firm-level evidenceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration has been associated with higher levels of trade. Previous studies interpret this as evidence of migrants’ ability to lower trade costs. Nevertheless, no study has investigated the impact of migrants on firms’ foreign trade. Thus, they fail to both provide evidence on the role that migrants may play in lowering firms’ trade costs, and exactly through which mechanisms the impact is derived. This study, being the first to study in depth the impact of immigration on trade at the firm level, bridges this gap in research. It utilizes new and unique employer-employee data for 12,000 Swedish firms, for the period 1998-2007, in a firm-level gravity framework. It provides novel firm-level evidence, demonstrating a significant, positive, and robust impact of immigrants in raising firms’ foreign trade. Migrants are found to increase trade both on the extensive and intensive product margin. Further, the study is able to conclude that the sustained effect mainly derives from lower information frictions through superior knowledge of foreign-markets, although contacts are also important.

  • 23.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Lunds universitet.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Trade, Migration and Integration: Evidence and Policy ImplicationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes departure in the unique position taken bySwedish policymakers recently in giving explicit emphasis to migration as a tool for increasing trade. We attempt to put this positionto empirical scrutiny.Our results demonstrate thatmigrants spur exports, especially along the extensive product margin of trade and for differentiated products, but with no significant impact on imports. This suggests that for small open economies with many immigrants being refugees, the aim of using migration to facilitate trade may only be effective with respect to exports. This paper also contributes to the literature on trade and migration by exploiting data on gender and age, which allow usto draw inferences on the underlying impact channels. We adoptan instrumental variable approach to address the endogeneity issue due to potential reverse causality. The pattern of results is consistent with the hypothesis that migration mainly reducesfixed trade costs derived from information and trust friction across migrant host and source countries. Importantly, the results imply that policymakers may be able to promote tradeby improvingimmigrants’ labor market integrationrather than being restricted to more liberal immigration policies, which is generally more controversial.

  • 24.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholm Chamber of Commerce and The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University. National Board of Trade, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Trade, Migration and Integration: Evidence and Policy Implications2015In: The World Economy, ISSN 0378-5920, E-ISSN 1467-9701, Vol. 38, no 12, p. 2013-2048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes as its point of departure the unique position recently adopted by Swedish policymakers emphasizing migration as a tool to increase trade. We attempt to empirically scrutinize this position. Our results demonstrate that migrants stimulate exports, especially along the extensive product margin of trade and for differentiated products, but have no significant impact on imports. This finding suggests that for small open economies where numerous immigrants are refugees, the strategy of using migration to facilitate trade may only be effective with respect to exports. This paper also contributes to the literature on trade and migration by exploiting data on gender and age, which allow us to draw inferences on the underlying impact channels. We adopt an instrumental variable approach to address the endogeneity issue due to potential reverse causality. The pattern of results is consistent with the hypothesis that migration primarily reduces fixed trade costs resulting from information and trust friction across migrant host and source countries. Importantly, the results imply that policymakers may be able to promote trade by improving immigrants’ labor market integration instead of simply being restricted to promoting more liberal immigration policies, which is generally more controversial.

  • 25.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Nationalekonomiska institutionen, Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Utlandsfödda främjar företagens utrikeshandel2012In: Ekonomisk debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 45-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mångfald i arbetskraften har betydelse för internationaliseringen av svenska företag. Personer födda i andra länder har kompetens som sänker trösklarna för internationalisering. De besitter användbara kunskaper om affärskultur, politik, religion och språk i sina tidigare hemländer. De har även tillgång till nätverk och kontakter i sina födelseländer som kan underlätta för internationella affärer. Denna artikel presenterar nya forskningsresultat som tyder på att mångfald i arbetskraften gynnar företagens utrikeshandel. Effekten kan förstärkas genom utbildning, samt genom att bättre underhålla nätverk och kontakter i ursprungsländerna. Företag kan därför använda mångfald som ett internationaliseringsfrämjande instrument.

  • 26.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Utlandsfödda kan främja företagens export av tjänster2015In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 28-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekonomin blir alltmer tjänsteorienterad. Sveriges BNP utgörs nu till ca 70 pro- cent av tjänster. Den andel av arbetskraften som sysselsätts inom tjänstesektorn ökar, samtidigt som industrin blir mer tjänsteintensiv. Men trots att karaktären på svensk utrikeshandel följer en liknande trend brister förståelsen av vad som driver och hämmar tjänsteutrikeshandeln. Denna kunskapslucka har fått oön- skade konsekvenser och kan förklara varför insatser för att underlätta interna- tionalisering avseende tjänster har fått en undanskymd roll i handelspolitiken. Denna artikel analyserar hur utlandsfödda inverkar på företagens utrikeshan- del med tjänster. Vi finner stöd för att svenska företag kan öka sin tjänsteutrikes- handel genom att anställa utlandsfödda med högskoleutbildning.

  • 27.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Utlandsfödda och företagens internationalisering: Ett lyft för tjänsteexporten?2014Report (Other academic)
  • 28. Kinnman, Susanna
    et al.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    A global Baltic: potential gains from trade liberalisation in the Baltic Sea states2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What would a “Global Baltic”, liberalised to the rest of the world, mean for national income and trade patterns of the Baltic Sea region? Although the countries have displayed substantial economic growth and trading activity over the last decade, facilitated by politico-economic reforms, significant trade barriers still exist. Their removal might further boost the economies of the region. The aim of this study is to analyse the potential effects from unilateral trade liberalisation, using a CGE-model with monopolistic competition. Besides addressing the “usual suspects” (tariffs, subsidies and services barriers) and trade facilitation in the main simulation, we also address some non-tariff-measures (NTM) in a separate simulation. The NTM-simulation is based on recently released data. The effect of a “Global Baltic” would be a substantial boost to national income and trade of the region: a 1 and 0.9 percent increase in regional income, in the main and the NTM-scenario, respectively. Particularly strong results are found for the group of emerging economies. The largest income gains stem from a country’s own liberalisation. With respect to the different simulation elements, trade facilitation and reductions in NTMs bring the major sources of gains. In the main as well as the NTM scenario, income effects are primarily due to elimination of dead-weight losses caused by rules and regulations at, or behind the border and more efficient allocation of resources. The income effects from scale economies are slightly negative in both scenarios on an aggregate level. On a country level, the results show that different reforms create different incentives for production, and that the net-effect on a country’s national income will to a large extent be related to which sectors are expanding/contracting. Structurally, the expected joint effect of the two simulation scenarios is a move towards services and industrial production and export.

  • 29.
    Kinnman, Susanna
    et al.
    Kommerskollegium.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    A global Baltic: potential gains from trade liberalisation in the Baltic sea states2009In: Baltic Journal of Economics, ISSN 1406-099X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 55-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Though the Baltic Sea countries have displayed substantial growth and trading activity over the last decade, facilitated by reforms, significant trade barriers still exist. We analyse their implications, using a CGE-model. Besides the “usual suspects” (tariffs, subsidies and services barriers) and trade facilitation, we address non-tariff-measures (NTM) in a separate scenario. We find that the reforms would substantially boost national income and trade, especially for the group of emerging economies. Income gains are primarily due to elimination of dead-weight losses caused by rules and regulations and improved resource allocation. Jointly, the simulations indicate a move towards services and industrial production and export.

  • 30. Kinnman, Susanna
    et al.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Economic implications of the Doha round2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the key elements of the WTO Doha round are simulated and the main implications for international trade and national income are analysed. Based on negotiation positions at the recent Hong Kong ministerial conference, a number of Doha scenarios are carefully designed and implemented. All scenarios encompass goods, services and agricultural liberalisation as well as trade facilitation. For goods liberalisation, a so-called Swiss formula with two coefficients is used to cut bound tariff rates. Agricultural tariffs are cut according to a tiered linear formula with four bands. Considerable attention has been given to the modelling of trade facilitation. Indirect as well as direct trade transaction costs are modelled, using detailed cross-country data. For simulation of the services liberalisation we use quantitative estimates of the indirect trade barriers for each region and sector. The simulation results show that all regions in the aggregation gain in the simulated Doha scenarios, with a particularly strong result for developing countries. In this respect, the Doha round can be called a development round. A conservative estimate is that global income increases with 0.2-0.7 percent of initial GDP per year, depending on the level of liberalisation. Trade facilitation contributes the most to these results, with increased market access for non-agricultural goods coming in second place. However, services reforms contribute the least, as small real market openings are expected. Overall, simulations indicate the importance of countries’ own liberalisation for their national income gains. Therefore, a “round for free” does not seem to be a valid concept. Furthermore, the importance of a broad-based round is underlined. Excluding some elements of liberalisation from the round may turn potential gains into losses, for some countries.

  • 31.
    Kinnman, Susanna
    et al.
    Kommerskollegium.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    What is at Stake in the Doha Round?2007In: The World Economy, ISSN 0378-5920, E-ISSN 1467-9701, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 1305-1325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the key elements of the WTO Doha Round are simulated and the main implications for international trade and national income are analysed. Based on negotiation information, three scenarios are designed. All scenarios encompass goods, services and agricultural liberalisation as well as trade facilitation. For goods liberalisation, a so-called Swiss formula is used to cut bound tariff rates. Agricultural tariffs are cut according to a tiered linear formula. Attention has been given to the modelling of trade facilitation. Indirect as well as direct trade transaction costs are modelled. For simulation of the services liberalisation quantitative estimates of indirect trade barriers are used. The simulation results show that all regions in the aggregation gain in the simulated Doha scenarios, with a particularly strong result for developing countries. A conservative estimate is that global income increases with 0.2–0.7 per cent of initial GDP, depending on the level of liberalisation. Trade facilitation contributes the most to these results, with increased market access for non-agricultural goods coming in second place. Overall, simulations indicate the importance of countries' own liberalisation for their national income gains, and the importance of a broad-based round.

  • 32.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio.
    Behovet av en ny handelspolitik2017In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 3-5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio.
    Den trumpska hästen2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 3-5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Hur undervisar vi i nationalekonomi?2013In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 41, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Servicification of European manufacturing: evidence from Swedish micro level data2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European manufacturing seems to servicify - use and sell more services - but knowledge is poor. We illuminate the phenomenon using detailed and comprehensive micro level data at both the firm and enterprise group level for Sweden (1997-2006). We find that manufacturing is servicifying substantially. On the input side, services and qualified services are increasingly characterising in-house activity in manufacturing. On the output side, manufacturing's share of services sales in total sales is up as well as services exports. Moreover, we show that services sales are much greater (almost 60 percent higher) when all activities in manufacturing's enterprise groups are considered. This has not been shown for a European country before. It means that when we consider enterprise groups, the large discrepancy in manufacturing's services diversification between Canada and the EUcountries vanishes, at the least for Sweden. The results imply that treating services and manufacturing separately - e.g. in EU’s trade negotiations - may be out of date. Finally, the findings illustrate the value of enterprise group level data when studying structural economic changes.

  • 36.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Servicification of Firms and Trade Policy Implications2017In: World Trade Review, ISSN 1474-7456, E-ISSN 1475-3138, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 59-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the OECD countries, the decline of manufacturing and its employment implications have long been matters of concern. Recently, policymakers in several countries have set out to achieve reindustrialization. The servicification of firms is related to these concerns and aspirations. However, servicification and particularly its role in trade policy have received limited attention. I review micro-level evidence and discuss implications. I find that imported, domestic and exported services are all important to contemporary firm competitiveness and participation in international value chains. Therefore, historic policymaking divides between trade in manufactures and services, between export and import interests, and among modes of supply are becoming less relevant. I conclude by suggesting potential steps forward.

  • 37.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Servicification of manufacturing: evidence from Sweden2013In: International Journal of Economics and Business Research, ISSN 1756-9850, E-ISSN 1756-9869, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 87-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are signs that manufacturing is becoming increasingly focused on services; this process is known as servicification. Despite suggestive evidence, large gaps remain in our knowledge regarding this process. This paper contributes to closing these gaps by discussing the phenomenon, arriving at some conjectures and examining them empirically. Comprehensive datasets at both the firm and enterprise group level are developed for Sweden. Changes in manufacturing during the period from 1997 to 2006 are analysed in depth. The results show that manufacturing has been servicifying substantially. On the input side, services and qualified services are increasingly characteristic of in-house activity. On the output side, manufacturing has been accounting for an increasing share of services in total sales and exports. Moreover, we show that diversification is much greater (almost 60% higher) when all activities in the manufacturing industry’s constituent enterprise groups are considered. The results imply that the practice of treating services and manufacturing separately – e.g., in trade policymaking – may be out-of-date. Finally, the findings illustrate the value of enterprise group-level data when studying structural economic changes.

  • 38.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Servicification of Manufacturing: Evidence from Swedish Firm and Enterprise Group Level DataManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry in industrialised countries is often argued to servicify - use and sell more services - but knowledge is poor. We examine the phenomenon using detailed and com-prehensive micro level data at both the firm and enterprise group level for Sweden (1997-2006). We find that manufacturing is servicifying substantially. Services and qualified services are increasingly characterising in-house activity in manufacturing. The results imply that treat-ing services and manufacturing separately - for instance in trade policy negotiations - may be inappropriate in industrialised countries. Finally, the findings illustrate the value of enterprise group level data when studying structural economic changes.

  • 39.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Servicification of Manufacturing Firms Makes Divides in Trade Policymaking Antiquated2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The decline of manufacturing in OECD countries and job implications has been a long-time concern. Recently, policy-makers have set out for reindustrialisation. A trend related to these concerns and aspirations is the servicification of manufacturing – the increase in use, produce and sales of services. However, servicification of firms and its role for foreign trade and policy have only received limited attention. This paper reviews micro- level evidence and discusses trade policy implications. Servicification is found in several countries, including China, and there are indications that imported, domestic and exported services are key for the competitiveness of today’s manufacturing firms and their participation in international value chains. Therefore, the historic divides in trade-policy-making between trade in manufactures and services, between offensive and defensive interests, and between modes of supply are largely antiquated. Potential trade policy implications also include to: reform how governments consult business for trade negotiations; facilitate cross-border movement of persons; and cut tariffs on services embodied and embedded in manufactures and their sales. 

  • 40.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Servicification of Manufacturing Firms Makes Divides in Trade Policy-Making AntiquatedManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The decline of manufacturing in OECD countries and job implications has been a long-time concern. Recently, policy-makers have set out for reindustrialisation. A trend related to these concerns and aspirations is the servicification of manufacturing – the increase in use, produce and sales of services. However, servicification of firms and its role for foreign trade and policy have only received limited attention. This paper reviews micro-level evidence and discusses trade policy implications. Servicification is found in several countries, including China, and there are indications that imported, domestic and exported services are key for the competitiveness of today’s manufacturing firms and their participation in international value chains. Therefore, the historic divides in trade-policy-making between trade in manufactures and services, between offensive and defensive interests, and between modes of supply are largely antiquated. Potential trade policy implications also include to: reform how governments consult business for trade negotiations; facilitate cross-border movement of persons; and cut tariffs on services embodied and embedded in manufactures and their sales.

  • 41.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Tackling barriers to firm trade: liberalisation, migration and servification2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses how to tackle barriers to firm trade and the consequences thereof. In Essay 1, we carefully model trade liberalisation scenarios that include the key elements of the WTO Doha round, scenarios that are implemented in a computable general equilibrium model. The simulation results indicate particularly strong gains for developing countries from liberalisation. A conservative estimate is that global income increases by approximately 0.2-0.7 per cent of initial GDP, depending on the degree of liberalisation, with trade facilitation contributing the most to these results. Overall, simulations indicate the importance of countries’ own liberalisation for national income gains and of a broad-based round of trade negotiations. In Essay 2, we analyse the mechanisms through which immigrant employees help firms overcome informal barriers to trade, based on a heterogeneous- firm trade model. By exploiting a rich employer-employee panel for Sweden, we show that immigrants’ skills and length-of-stay strongly influence their impact on firm trade. The link is also stronger for smaller firms and for differentiated goods, but similar across product margins of trade. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that immigrant employees facilitate firm trade by lowering information frictions and infusing trust into business relationships through knowledge of foreign markets and access to networks. Essay 3 is concerned with structural changes in the Swedish economy with respect to services in manufacturing. Despite suggestive evidence, large gaps remain in our knowledge about the process of servicification, a process whereby manufacturing focuses increasingly on services. We therefore analyse these changes in manufacturing in depth. The results show that manufacturing has been servicifying substantially. In Essay 4, the role of services for manufacturing firm exports is analysed The microeconometric results suggest that service inputs affect a firm’s export capabilities. Overall, Essay 4 provides new firm-level evidence for the role of services as inputs in manufacturing.

    List of papers
    1. What is at Stake in the Doha Round?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>What is at Stake in the Doha Round?
    2007 (English)In: The World Economy, ISSN 0378-5920, E-ISSN 1467-9701, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 1305-1325Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the key elements of the WTO Doha Round are simulated and the main implications for international trade and national income are analysed. Based on negotiation information, three scenarios are designed. All scenarios encompass goods, services and agricultural liberalisation as well as trade facilitation. For goods liberalisation, a so-called Swiss formula is used to cut bound tariff rates. Agricultural tariffs are cut according to a tiered linear formula. Attention has been given to the modelling of trade facilitation. Indirect as well as direct trade transaction costs are modelled. For simulation of the services liberalisation quantitative estimates of indirect trade barriers are used. The simulation results show that all regions in the aggregation gain in the simulated Doha scenarios, with a particularly strong result for developing countries. A conservative estimate is that global income increases with 0.2–0.7 per cent of initial GDP, depending on the level of liberalisation. Trade facilitation contributes the most to these results, with increased market access for non-agricultural goods coming in second place. Overall, simulations indicate the importance of countries' own liberalisation for their national income gains, and the importance of a broad-based round.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell, 2007
    Keywords
    Doha round; trade liberalisation; CGE; trade facilitation; services; WTO
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6034 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9701.2007.01045.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-03-18 Created: 2009-03-18 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Investigating the link between immigrant employeesand firm trade
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating the link between immigrant employeesand firm trade
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    a heterogeneous firm trade model. By exploiting a rich employer–employee panel for Sweden, we show that immigrants’ skills and lengths of stay strongly influence the association with firm trade. The link is stronger for smaller firms and for differentiated goods but similar across detailed product margins of trade. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that.immigrants facilitate trade by lowering information friction and by infusing trust into business. 

    Keywords
    trade, migration, firm-level analysis, trade costs, networks, information, trust
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-30110 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-08-02 Created: 2013-08-02 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Servicification of manufacturing: evidence from Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Servicification of manufacturing: evidence from Sweden
    2013 (English)In: International Journal of Economics and Business Research, ISSN 1756-9850, E-ISSN 1756-9869, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 87-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    There are signs that manufacturing is becoming increasingly focused on services; this process is known as servicification. Despite suggestive evidence, large gaps remain in our knowledge regarding this process. This paper contributes to closing these gaps by discussing the phenomenon, arriving at some conjectures and examining them empirically. Comprehensive datasets at both the firm and enterprise group level are developed for Sweden. Changes in manufacturing during the period from 1997 to 2006 are analysed in depth. The results show that manufacturing has been servicifying substantially. On the input side, services and qualified services are increasingly characteristic of in-house activity. On the output side, manufacturing has been accounting for an increasing share of services in total sales and exports. Moreover, we show that diversification is much greater (almost 60% higher) when all activities in the manufacturing industry’s constituent enterprise groups are considered. The results imply that the practice of treating services and manufacturing separately – e.g., in trade policymaking – may be out-of-date. Finally, the findings illustrate the value of enterprise group-level data when studying structural economic changes.

    Keywords
    manufacturing servicification, services, firm level, enterprise group level, outsourcing, deindustrialisation, Sweden, manufacturing industry, enterprise groups, structural economic changes
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-25503 (URN)10.1504/IJEBR.2013.054855 (DOI)
    Available from: 2012-08-29 Created: 2012-08-29 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    4. The role of services for manufacturing firms' exports
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of services for manufacturing firms' exports
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing firms have been increasingly focusing on services, a trend that is evident in their composition of input, in-house production and total sales. The services intensity of firms may affect their productivity and thereby their competitiveness abroad; services are also instrumental in connecting firms to foreign markets and can help them to differentiate their offerings from those of other firms. However, the relation between services and manufacturing exports has only been partially analysed in the previous literature. This study contributes to the field by discussing the role of services for firms and empirically testing a set of related conjectures. Export intensity is regressed on two services parameters, applying a fractional model to a rich panel of firms in Sweden in the period 2001-2007. The microeconometric results suggest that, after controlling for covariates and heterogeneity, service inputs affect a firms’ export capabilities: raising the proportion of services in in-house production yields higher export intensity on average. Furthermore, buying-in more services is associated with higher export intensity for firms in some industries. Overall, the study provides new firm-level evidence of the role of services as inputs in manufacturing.

    Keywords
    firm, export intensity, manufacturing, services, intangibles, innovation
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-25500 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-08-29 Created: 2012-08-29 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 42.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Tear down the trade policy silos!: Or, how the servicification of manufacturing makes divides in trade policy-making irrelevant2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing sector in OECD countries increasingly buys, produces, sells and exports services. This is now known as the servicification of manufacturing. This column, using firm-level data from Sweden, shows that as firms’ share of in-house services increases, so does their export intensity. The increasing complementarities between services and trade in goods thus imply that the different trade policies for goods and services are an antiquated divide.

  • 43.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Temporary expats for exports: micro-level evidence2016In: Review of World Economics, ISSN 1610-2878, E-ISSN 1610-2886, Vol. 152, no 4, p. 733-772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the relation between temporary expats in firms and exports, exploiting micro-level panel data on migration and trade. Temporary expats are positively associated with exports. Their link with export intensity is larger for services than for merchandise and for exports of differentiated services and merchandise than for exports of homogeneous products. Our evidence also suggests that temporary expats are positively related to exports by assisting firms in overcoming informal destination-specific barriers. Overall, our findings suggest the importance of the temporary movement of persons for providing firms with up-to-date links to export markets.

  • 44.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    The role of services for firms' export performance2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing firms are increasingly focusing on services. This trend is evident in their composition of input, in-house production and seemingly also in total sale. Manufacturing firms’ services intensity is likely to affect productivity and thereby their competitiveness abroad. However, only bits and pieces of the relation between services and manufacturing’s export performance have been analysed in theoretical and empirical literature. This study contributes by discussing the role of services for the manufacturing firm, arriving at some conjectures and testing them empirically. Export intensity is regressed on two services parameters, applying a fractional Tobit model to a rich panel of firms in Sweden in the period 2001-2007. The microeconometric results indicate that there is an effect of services inputs, while controlling for covariates and firm heterogeneity. Raising the proportion of services in in-house production yields higher export intensity. Furthermore, buying-in more services seems to affect export intensity positively although the effect is smaller than for in-house services. Overall, the study provides new firm-level evidence of the importance of services as an input into manufacturing. By using more services, the manufacturing firm may become more competitive internationally.

  • 45.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    The role of services for firms' export performance2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing firms are increasingly focusing on services. This trend is evident in their composition of input, in-house production and seemingly also in total sale. Manufacturing firms’ services intensity is likely to affect productivity and thereby their competitiveness abroad. However, only bits and pieces of the relation between services and manufacturing’s export performance have been analysed in theoretical and empirical literature. This study contributes by discussing the role of services for the manufacturing firm, arriving at some conjectures and testing them empirically. Export intensity is regressed on two services parameters, applying a fractional Tobit model to a rich panel of firms in Sweden in the period 2001-2007. The microeconometric results indicate that there is an effect of services inputs, while controlling for covariates and firm heterogeneity. Raising the proportion of services in in-house production yields higher export intensity. Furthermore, buying-in more services seems to affect export intensity positively although the effect is smaller than for in-house services. Overall, the study provides new firm-level evidence of the importance of services as an input into manufacturing. By using more services, the manufacturing firm may become more competitive internationally

  • 46.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    The role of services for manufacturing firm exports2014In: Review of World Economics, ISSN 1610-2878, E-ISSN 1610-2886, Vol. 150, no 1, p. 59-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing firms have been increasingly focusing on services, a trend that is evident in their composition of bought-in input and in-house production. The services intensity of firms may affect their productivity and thereby their competitiveness abroad; services are also instrumental in connecting firms to foreign markets and can help them to differentiate their offerings from those of other firms. However, the relation between services and manufacturing exports has only been partially analysed in the previous literature. This study contributes to the field by discussing the role of services for firms and empirically testing a set of related conjectures. Export intensity is regressed on two services input parameters, applying a fractional model to a rich panel of firms in Sweden in the period 2001–2007. The microeconometric results suggest that, after controlling for covariates and heterogeneity, service inputs affect a firms’ export capabilities: raising the proportion of services in in-house production yields higher export intensity on average. Furthermore, buying-in more services is associated with higher export intensity for firms in some industries. Overall, the study provides new firm-level evidence of the role of services as inputs in manufacturing.

  • 47.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    The role of services for manufacturing firms' exportsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing firms have been increasingly focusing on services, a trend that is evident in their composition of input, in-house production and total sales. The services intensity of firms may affect their productivity and thereby their competitiveness abroad; services are also instrumental in connecting firms to foreign markets and can help them to differentiate their offerings from those of other firms. However, the relation between services and manufacturing exports has only been partially analysed in the previous literature. This study contributes to the field by discussing the role of services for firms and empirically testing a set of related conjectures. Export intensity is regressed on two services parameters, applying a fractional model to a rich panel of firms in Sweden in the period 2001-2007. The microeconometric results suggest that, after controlling for covariates and heterogeneity, service inputs affect a firms’ export capabilities: raising the proportion of services in in-house production yields higher export intensity on average. Furthermore, buying-in more services is associated with higher export intensity for firms in some industries. Overall, the study provides new firm-level evidence of the role of services as inputs in manufacturing.

  • 48.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordås, Hildegunn Kyvik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Trade and Agriculture Directorate, OECD , Paris, France.
    Trading firms and trading costs in services: The case of Sweden2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper first portraits Swedish services exporters and services MNEs; second it analyses the determinants of services exports and affiliate sales; and third it studies the choice of mode of entering a foreign market. Emanating from a heterogeneous firm internationalization model, the main contribution of the paper is to explore the interaction between firm characteristics and foreign market characteristics, particularly policy-induced services trade barriers, in shaping services trade and investment patterns. Exploiting a large and very detailed firm-level dataset for the 2008-2013 period, the descriptive analysis finds that most exporting firms export one or two products to a few, most often other Nordic countries. Still, firms that export to 25 or more markets account for more than 80% of total export value. Furthermore, firms that export to 20 countries export more than 60% to their main destination country. Similar patterns are found for affiliate sales. Using a gravity approach we then study the determinants of the extensive and intensive margin of exports and affiliate sales in pooled as well as sector level regressions. We find that trade costs, both natural and policy-induced have the largest impact on the extensive margin of trade, suggesting that trade costs facing services exporters are mainly in the form of fixed entry costs. This is further supported by the finding that incumbency is the most important determinant of future exports and affiliate sales, and incumbents tend to be protected and thrive behind trade barriers.

  • 49.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Storey, Mark
    Naturvårdsverket.
    Climate measures and WTO rules on subsidies2005In: Journal of World Trade, ISSN 1011-6702, E-ISSN 2210-2795, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 23-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tang, Aili
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    The impact of hiring top workers on productivity: What is the role of absorptive capacity?2018In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 25, no 20, p. 1402-1406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the heterogeneous productivity impacts of hiring top workers on small and medium-sized enterprises, exploiting matched employer–employee panel data and employing within-firm as well as matching and difference-in-difference estimators. The results provide robust evidence that the productivity impact is stronger for firms with higher absorptive capacity. Technological laggards within an industry benefit more strongly from hiring top workers if their workforce is more well-educated.

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