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  • 1. Dhillon, Gurpreet
    et al.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Can a cloud be really secure?: a Socratic dialogue2011In: Computers, privacy and data protection: an element of choice / [ed] Serge Gutwirth, Yves Poullet, Paul De Hert, Ronald Leenes, Berlin: Springer, 2011, p. 345-360Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Helin, Sven
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Prenkert, Frans
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Samverkan mellan aktörer i industriella nätverk skapar nya utmaningar för informationssäkerheten2017In: Informationssäkerhet och organisationskultur / [ed] J. Hallberg, P. Johansson, F. Karlsson, F. Lundberg, B. Lundgren, M. Törner, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 1, p. 61-75Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Hedström, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Managing information systems security: compliance between users and managers2009In: E-Hospital, ISSN 1374-321X, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 30-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Hedström, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Social action theory for understanding information security non-compliance in hospitals: the importance of user rationale2013In: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, E-ISSN 1758-5805, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 266-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Employees' compliance with information security policies is considered an essential component of information security management. The research aims to illustrate the usefulness of social action theory (SAT) for management of information security.

    Design/methodology/approach – This research was carried out as a longitudinal case study at a Swedish hospital. Data were collected using a combination of interviews, information security documents, and observations. Data were analysed using a combination of a value-based compliance model and the taxonomy laid out in SAT to determine user rationality.

    Findings – The paper argues that management of information security and design of countermeasures should be based on an understanding of users' rationale covering both intentional and unintentional non-compliance. The findings are presented in propositions with practical and theoretical implications: P1. Employees' non-compliance is predominantly based on means-end calculations and based on a practical rationality, P2. An information security investigation of employees' rationality should not be based on an a priori assumption about user intent, P3. Information security management and choice of countermeasures should be based on an understanding of the use rationale, and P4. Countermeasures should target intentional as well as unintentional non-compliance.

    Originality/value – This work is an extension of Hedström et al. arguing for the importance of addressing user rationale for successful management of information security. The presented propositions can form a basis for information security management, making the objectives underlying the study presented in Hedström et al. more clear

  • 5.
    Hedström, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Utveckling av praktikanpassad informationssäkerhetspolicy2017In: Informationssäkerhet och organisationskultur / [ed] Jonas Hallberg, Peter Johansson, Fredrik Karlsson, Frida Lundberg, Björn Lundgren, Marianne Törner, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Hedström, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Allen, J. P.
    School of Management, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, USA.
    Value conflicts for information security management2011In: Journal of strategic information systems, ISSN 0963-8687, E-ISSN 1873-1198, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 373-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A business’s information is one of its most important assets, making the protection of information a strategic issue. In this paper, we investigate the tension between information security policies and information security practice through longitudinal case studies at two health care facilities. The management of information security is traditionally informed by a control-based compliance model, which assumes that human behavior needs to be controlled and regulated. We propose a different theoretical model: the value-based compliance model, assuming that multiple forms of rationality are employed in organizational actions at one time, causing potential value conflicts. This has strong strategic implications for the management of information security. We believe health care situations can be better managed using the assumptions of a value-based compliance model.

  • 7.
    Hedström, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Availability in Practice2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Kajtazi, Miranda
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Bulgurcu, Burcu
    Boston College, Boston Ma, USA.
    New Insights Into Understanding Manager’s Intentions to Overlook ISP Violation in Organizations through Escalation of Commitment Factors2015In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Human Aspects of Information Security & Assurance (HAISA 2015), Pöymouth: Plymouth University , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses managers’ intentions to overlook their employees’ Information Security Policy (ISP) violation, in circumstances when on-going projects have to be completed and delivered even if ISP violation must take place to do so. The motivation is based on the concern that ISP violation can be influenced by escalation of commitment factors. Escalation is a phenomenon that explains how employees in organizations often get involved in nonperforming projects, commonly reflecting the tendency of persistence, when investments of resources have been initiated. We develop a theoretical understanding based on Escalation of Commitment theory that centres on two main factors of noncompliance, namely completion effect and sunk costs. We tested our theoretical concepts in a pilot study, based on qualitative and quantitative data received from 16 respondents from the IT – industry, each representing one respondent from the management level. The results show that while some managers are very strict about not accepting any form of ISP violation in their organization, their beliefs start to change when they realize that such form of violation may occur when their employees are closer to completion of a project. Our in-depth interviews with 3 respondents in the follow-up study, confirm the tension created between compliance with the ISP and the completion of the project. The results indicate that the larger the investments of time, efforts and money in a project, the more the managers consider that violation is acceptable

  • 9.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Att analysera värderingar bakom informationssäkerhet2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Dhillon, GurpreetVirginia Commonwealth University, Richmond VA, USA.Harnesk, DanLuleå Tekniska Universitet, Luleå, Sweden.Kolkowska, EllaÖrebro University, Örebro University School of Business.Hedström, KarinÖrebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Proceedings of the 2011 European Security Conference (ESC’11): Exploring emergent frontiers in identity and privacy management2011Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Informatics, CERIS.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Prenkert, Frans
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Business Administration, INTERORG.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Informatics, CERIS.
    Helin, Sven
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Inter-organisational information sharing in the public sector: A longitudinal case study on the reshaping of success factors2017In: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 567-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, public organisations need to share information in order to complete their tasks. Over the years, scholars have mapped out the social and organisational factors that affect the success or failure of these kinds of endeavours. However, few of the suggested models have sought to address the temporal aspect of inter-organisational information sharing. The aim of this paper is to investigate the reshaping of social and organisational factors of inter-organisational information sharing in the public sector over time. We analysed four years' worth of information sharing in an inter-organisational reference group on copper corrosion in the context of nuclear waste management. We could trace how factors in the model proposed by Yang and Maxwell (2011) were reshaped over time. Two factors in the model – concerns of information misuse and trust – are frequently assessed by organisations and are the most likely to change. In the long run we also found that legislation and policies can change.

  • 12.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    En översikt av informationssäkerhet i Sverige2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    En översikt av informationssäkerhetsforskning i Sverige2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Inter-organisational information sharing: Between a rock and a hard place2015In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Human Aspects of Information  Security & Assurance (HAISA 2015), Plymouth UK: Plymouth University , 2015, p. 71-81Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although inter-organisational collaboration is common, most information security (IS) research has focused on IS issues within organisations. Confidentiality, integrity of data and availability (CIA) and responsibility, integrity of role, trust, and ethicality (RITE) are two sets of principles for managing IS that have been developed from an intra-organisational, rather static, perspective. The aim of this paper is thus to investigate the relation between the CIA and RITE principles in the context of an inter-organisational collaboration, i.e., collaboration between organisations. To this end we investigated inter-organisational collaboration and information sharing concerning Swedish cooper corrosion research in the field a long-term nuclear waste disposal. We found that in an inter-organisational context, responsibility, integrity of role and ethicality affected the CIA-principles, which in turn affected the collaborating actors’ trust in each other over time.

  • 15.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Prenkert, Frans
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Inter-organisational information security: a systematic literature review2016In: Information & Computer Security, ISSN 2056-4961, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 418-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to survey existing inter-organisational information securityresearch to scrutinise the kind of knowledge that is currently available and the way in which thisknowledge has been brought about.

    Design/methodology/approach: The results are based on a literature review of inter-organisational information security research published between 1990 and 2014.

    Findings: The authors conclude that existing research has focused on a limited set of research topics.A majority of the research has focused management issues, while employees’/non-staffs’ actualinformation security work in inter-organisational settings is an understudied area. In addition, themajority of the studies have used a subjective/argumentative method, and few studies combinetheoretical work and empirical data.

    Research limitations/implications: The findings suggest that future research should address abroader set of research topics, focusing especially on employees/non-staff and their use of processes andtechnology in inter-organisational settings, as well as on cultural aspects, which are lacking currently;focus more on theory generation or theory testing to increase the maturity of this sub-field; and use abroader set of research methods.

    Practical implications: The authors conclude that existing research is to a large extent descriptive,philosophical or theoretical. Thus, it is difficult for practitioners to adopt existing research results, suchas governance frameworks, which have not been empirically validated.

    Originality/value: Few systematic reviews have assessed the maturity of existinginter-organisational information security research. Findings of authors on research topics, maturity andresearch methods extend beyond the existing knowledge base, which allow for a critical discussionabout existing research in this sub-field of information security.

  • 16.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Törner, Marianne
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine at Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Guest editorial: Value Conflicts and Information Security Management2018In: Information and Computer Security, ISSN 2056-4961, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 146-149Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Karni, Liran
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Klein, Gunnar O.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    EMPARK: Internet of Things for Empowerment and Improved Treatment of Patients with Parkinson's Disease2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study aims to assess the effects of patient-directed feedback from remote symptom, medication, and disease activity monitoring on patient empowerment and treatment in Parkinson’s disease (PD).

    Background: There is a need to empower patients with PD to be able to understand better and control their disease using prescribed medication and following recommendations on lifestyle. The research project EMPARK will develop an Internet of Things system of sensors, mobile devices to deliver real-time, 24/7 patient symptom information with the primary goal to support PD patients empowerment and better understanding of their disease. The system will be deployed in patient homes to continuously measure movements, time-in-bed and drug delivery from a micro-dose levodopa system. Subjective symptom scoring, time of meals and physical activities will be reported by the patients via a smartphone application. Interfaces for patients and clinicians are being developed based on the user center design methodology to ensure maximal user acceptance. 

    Methods: This is a randomized controlled trial where 30 PD patients from 2 university clinics in Sweden will be randomized to receive (intervention group) or not (control group) continuous feedback from the results of the EMPARK home monitoring for 2 weeks. Disease-specific (UPDRS, PDQ-39), Quality of Life (QoL) (modified EuroQoL EQ-5D) and empowerment questionnaires will be collected prior and after the intervention. The correlation of technology-based objective and patient-reported subjective parameters will be assessed in both groups. Interviews will be conducted with the clinicians and observations will be made about the patient-clinician interaction to assess the potential treatment benefits of the intervention.

    Results: Preliminary results from workshops with patients and clinicians show potential to improve patient empowerment and disease control among patients. Completion of the trial will show the degree of patient empowerment, individualized treatment, and patientclinician interactions.

    Conclusions: Raising patients’ awareness about disease activity and home medication is possible among PD patients by providing them with feedback from the results of a home monitoring system. This randomized, controlled trial aims to provide evidence that this approach leads to improved patient empowerment and treatment results.

  • 18.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    A Value Perspective on Information System Security: Exploring IS security objectives, problems and value conflicts2009Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The inability to understand the social aspects in IS security is pointed out as one of the biggest and most difficult problems in the IS security area. By applying a value perspective on IS security this thesis contributes to increased understanding of social aspects in relation to IS security and peoples’ security behaviours. The thesis especially contributes to the discussion concerning reasons for the lack of compliance with IS security rules and policies.

     

    The aim of the thesis is to create an understanding of the relationship between formal and informal aspects of IS security by understanding peoples’ behaviour and values in an organization. Formal aspects are related to routines, policies, and guidelines for how information should be handled, while informal aspects are related to people’s attitudes, values and behaviour. This thesis focuses on IS security values on formal and informal systems and also value conflicts between these two.

     

    Formal and informal values as well as value conflicts were studied and exemplified in a case study in an academic environment at three different departments. The study resulted in a list of formal and informal IS security objectives important at the different departments and a number of IS security problems caused by value conflicts. Values related to formal aspects of IS security were different at the different departments, while values identified at the informal level were similar at the different departments and related to business values. Different IS security problems and different value conflicts were identified at the different departments. The conclusion from the case study is that values related to what should be achieved with IS security were similar on the formal and informal level while value conflicts appear in relation to how IS security is implemented. Most of the identified value conflicts that caused IS security problems were related to conflicts between formal values such as: control, standardization, planning emphasized by persons responsible for IS security and informal values such as freedom, creativity and flexibility emphasized by users. Value conflicts lead to different IS security problems and ultimately to insufficient IS security.

     

    The main contributions from applying a value perspective in IS security are: a wider view of IS security objectives, a wider view of IS security problems and an understanding of the reasons for how problems might occur. Another aspect is the increased understanding of the rationalities behind implemented IS security strategies and IS security behaviours by identifying and analysing values and value conflicts in formal and informal systems.

  • 19.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    A method for analyzing value-based compliance in systems security2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this thesis is to design a method that supports analysis of different values that come into play in compliance and non compliance situations within information systems security (ISS). The thesis addresses the problem of lack of ISS compliance methods that support systematic analysis of compliant and non-compliant behaviours as well as the reasons for these behaviours. The problem is addressed by designing a method that supports analysis of different values that come into play in compliance and non compliance situations in ISS. The method is called Value Based Compliance method (VBC method).

    Research questions: The main research question of the thesis is: How should a method for analysis of different values that come in play in compliance and non-compliance situations within ISS be designed? This research question is answered by answering three sub-questions: 1) What values and goals (perspective) should the VBC method realize? 2) What underpinning design principles should the VBC method build on? 3) How should the VBC method be constructed to realize the VBC perspective and to incorporate the design principles?

    Research method: Design Science Research (DSR) was chosen as a research approach in this thesis. DSR prescribe how to carry on a design process of an artefact with preserved rigor and relevance. The approach is both useful in order to solve real life problems and theoretically ground suchproblems. The VBC method is informed by a number of kernel theories and based on current knowledge in ISS compliance literature. The method is also empirically tested in three different contexts, during six DSR cycles.

    Contributions: The three main contributions from the thesis are: the VBC perspective, the design principles and the VBC method. The VBC perspective is in line with a social view on ISS’s role in organisation. This perspective is realized in the VBC method by analysing values and value conflicts that come in play in compliance and non-compliance situations. Thus this study contributes to the field of ISS by designing a method that realizes the social view on ISS’s role in an organisation. The five design principles for a VBC method is the second contribution. The design theory with the five empirically tested design principles may be the point of departure for development of other compliance methods focusing on analysis of values and value conflicts that come into play in relation to ISS compliance. The design principles contribute also to the ISS compliance field by 1) extending compliance analysis with consideration of the different rationalities (values and goals) 2) acknowledging the difference between rational and non-rational ISS actions and 3) emphasizing the importance of finding articulated as well as unarticulated ISS actions. Finally, the VBC method itself contributes to the ISS compliance research and practice by offering a formalized, theoretically and empirically grounded method for systematic analysis of compliance and non-compliance situations as well as rationalities that come into play in these situations.

  • 20.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Lack of compliance with IS security rules: value conflicts in Social Services in Sweden2009In: Security, assurance and privacy: organizational challenges / [ed] Gurpreet Dhillon, 2009, p. Article no. 15-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the problems highlighted within the ara of IS security is difficulty to handle humans’ security behaviors and praticularly a problem of lack of compliance between these behaviours and prescribed IS security rules. This paper presents findings form a case study at a municipality’s social services in Sweden. The aim of this study was to understand why social workers do not follow IS security rules. The understanding was gained by studying values behind prescribed IS security rules and values behind security behaviors. The major reason for lack of compliance with IS security rules among social workers were value conflicts between professional values and IS security values. The new IS security requirements required a culture change and developing of new work routines for social workers.

  • 21.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Security subcultures in an organization: exploring value conflicts2011In: The 19th European Conference on Information Systems proceedings: ITC and Sustainable Services Development / [ed] V. Tuunainen, J. Nandhakumar, M. Rossi, W. Soliman, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Security culture is considered as an important factor in overcoming the problem with employees’ lack of compliance with Information Security (IS) policies. Within one organization different subcultures might transcribe to different and sometimes even conflicting, values. In this paper we study such value conflicts and their implications on IS management and practice. Shein’s (1999) model of organizational culture is used as a tool supporting analysis of our empirical data. We found that value conflicts exists between different security cultures within the same organization and that users anchor their values related to IS in their professional values. Thus our empirical results highlight value conflicts as an important factor to take into account when security culture is developed in an organization. Moreover, we found Shein’s model as a useful tool for analysis of value conflicts between different subcultures in an organization.

  • 22.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Tekniken utmanar äldres integritet2016In: Äldre i centrum, ISSN 1653-3585, Vol. 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Understanding privacy in smart homes systems used in elderly care2016In: Online Proceedings of the 13th European, Mediterranean & Middle Eastern Conference on Information Systems (EMCIS), University of Piraeus , 2016, p. 444-455Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although privacy is considered as a main concern in developing and implementing smart home systems for elderly care (SHSEC), the concept of privacy in this context is unclear and there is a lack of tools supporting the analysis of privacy in this context. Moreover most of existing project aiming at development and implementation of SHSEC have a narrow technical focus ignoring the complex social and organizational context in which the technologies are used. In this paper we propose Actor Network Theory (ANT) as a suitable analytical tool for analyzing privacy in the context of SHSEC. The suitability will be illustrated through a case study. The paper also contributes to a better understanding of the socio-technical nature of privacy in this particular context where many different actors are involved and technology is an integrated part of the elderly’s life and home. As we will show, ANT can help us to understand how the privacy requirements are negotiated during the design process, which actors are involved, what their interests and preferences are regarding privacy and which actors clearly outweighed the others.

  • 24.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Value sensitive approach to information system security2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University. Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Values for information system security in an academic environment: a pilot study2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a process of identifying individual and organizational values within an academic environment. These values have been identified by using Value Sensitive Approach (VSA) in the area of Information System Security (ISS). VSA is a methodological framework for identifying organizational and individual values. We believe that ISS objectives and ISS strategy suitable for each specific type of organization can be decided by eliciting these values. The study resulted in a number of value areas related to university general issues (UGV) and ISS issues important within an academic environment. The UGV and the ISS values can be further analyzed and transformed into ISS objectives suitable within an academic environment. Furthermore the identified values should be considered when ISS strategy to achieve those objectives is decided. Results presented in this paper will contribute to the ongoing research efforts to view security problems from a more holistic, socio-organizational perspective

  • 26.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Values in managing of IS security2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Aderud, Johan
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Oscarson, Per
    Conflicts between usability and information security: a literature review2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    De Decker, Bart
    Dept. of Computer Science, IBBT-DistriNet, The Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, Belgium.
    Analyzing value conflicts for a work-friendly ISS policy implementation2012In: Information Security and Privacy Research / [ed] D. Gritzalis, S. Furnell, M. Theoharidou, Springer, 2012, p. 339-351Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing research shows that the Information Systems Security policies' (ISSPs) inability to reflect current practice is a perennial problem resulting in users' non-compliant behaviors. While the existing compliance approaches are beneficial in many ways, they do not consider the complexity of Information Systems Security (ISS) management and practice where different actors adhere to different and sometimes conflicting values. The unsolved value conflicts often lead to unworkable ISS processes and users' resistance. To address this shortcoming, this paper suggests a value conflicts analysis as a starting point for implementing work-friendly ISSPs. We show that the design and implementation of a work-friendly ISSP should involve the negotiation for different values held by the different actors within an organization.

  • 29.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Dhillon, Gurpreet
    Organizational power and information security rule compliance2011In: Future challenges in security and privacy for academia and industry / [ed] Jan Camenisch, Simone Fischer-Hübner, Yuko Murayama, Armand Portmann, Carlos Rieder, Berlin: Springer, 2011, p. 185-196Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes power relationships and the resulting failure in complying with information security rules. We argue that inability to understand the intricate power relationships in the design and implementation of information security rules leads to a lack of compliance with the intended policy. We conduct the argument through an empirical, qualitative case study set in a Swedish Social Services organization. Our findings suggest a relationship between dimensions of power and information security rules and the impact there might be on compliance behavior. This also helps to improve configuration of security rules through proactive information security management.

  • 30.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Dhillon, Gurpreet
    Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond VA, USA.
    Organizational power and information security rule compliance2013In: Computers & security (Print), ISSN 0167-4048, E-ISSN 1872-6208, Vol. 33, p. 3-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes power relationships and the resulting failure in complying with information security rules. It argues that an inability to understand the intricate power relationships in the design and implementation of information security rules leads to a lack of compliance with the intended policy. The argument is conducted through an empirical, qualitative case study set in a Swedish Social Services organization. Our findings indicate that various dimensions of power and how these relate to information security rules ensure adequate compliance. This also helps to improve configuration of security rules through proactive information security management.

  • 31.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Analyzing information security goals2012In: Threats, countermeasures, and advances in applied information security / [ed] Manish Gupta, John Walp, Raj Sharman, IGI Global , 2012, p. 91-110Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Information security goals in a Swedish hospital2009In: Security, assurance and privacy: organizaional challenges / [ed] Gurpreet Dhillon, 2009, p. Article no. 16-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the problems highlighted within the area of information security is that internatonal standards are implemented in organisations without adopting them to special organisational settings. This paper presents findings of information security goals found in policies, guidelines, and routines at a Swedish hospital. The purpose of the paper is to analyze the information security goals and relate them to confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA) that are traditional objectives for managing information security in organisations. A critical view on the CIA-triad has been taken in the study, to see how it is related to a hospital setting. Seven main information security goals and 63 sub-goals supporting the main goals were identified. We found that the CIA-triad covers three of these main-goals. Confidentiality and integrity, however, have a broader definition in the hospital-setting than the traditional definitions. In addition, we found four main information security goals that the CIA-triad fails to cover. These are ‘Follow information security laws, rules and standards,’ ‘Traceability,’ ‘Standardized formation’ and ‘Informed patients and/or family.’ These findings shows that there is a need to adopt the traditional information security objective to special organisational settings.

  • 33.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Information Security Goals in a Swedish Hospital2008In: The 31st Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Towards analysing the rationale of information security non-compliance: Devising a Value-Based Compliance analysis method2017In: Journal of strategic information systems, ISSN 0963-8687, E-ISSN 1873-1198, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 39-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employees’ poor compliance with information security policies is a perennial problem. Current information security analysis methods do not allow information security managers to capture the rationalities behind employees’ compliance and non-compliance. To address this shortcoming, this design science research paper suggests: (a) a Value-Based Compliance analysis method and (b) a set of design principles for methods that analyse different rationalities for information security. Our empirical demonstration shows that the method supports a systematic analysis of why employees comply/do not comply with policies. Thus we provide managers with a tool to make them more knowledgeable about employees’ information security behaviours. 

  • 35.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Privacy by Design Principles in Design of New Generation Cognitive Assistive Technologies2016In: ICT systems security and privacy protection: 31th IFIP TC 11 International Conference, SEC 2016, Hamburg, Germany, May 30-June 1, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] Jaap-Henk Hoepman & Stefan Katzenbeisser, Springer, 2016, Vol. 471, p. 384-397Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, simple analogue assistive technologies are transformed into complex and sophisticated sensor networks. This raises many new privacy issues that need to be considered. In this paper, we investigate how this new generation of assistive technology incorporates Privacy by Design (PbD) principles. The research is conducted as a case study where we use PbD principles as an analytical lens to investigate the design of the new generation of digitalized assistive technology as well as the users’ privacy preferences that arise in use of this technology in real homes. Based on the findings from the case study, we present guidelines for building in privacy in new generations of assistive technologies and in this way protect the privacy of the people using these technologies.

  • 36.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lagsten, Jenny
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Sustainable Safeguarding Services in Elderly Care: Designing Socio-technical Infrastructure2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Nöu, Anneli Avatare
    SICS Swedish ICT, Kista, Sweden.
    Sjölinder, Marie
    SICS Swedish ICT, Kista, Sweden.
    Scandurra, Isabella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Socio-Technical Challenges in Implementation of Monitoring Technologies in Elderly Care2016In: Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population: Healthy and Active Aging, ITAP 2016, Proceedings, Part II, Springer, 2016, p. 45-56Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although new monitoring technologies (MT) supporting aging in place are continuously developed and introduced on the market, attempts to implement these technologies as an integrated part of elderly care often fail. According to the literature, the reason for that may be the prevailing technical focus applied during development and implementation of monitoring technologies in real settings. The aim of this paper was to investigate the socio-technical challenges that arise during implementation of monitoring technologies in elderly care. We used a qualitative case study and semi-structured interviews to investigate socio-technical (S/T) challenges in implementation of monitoring technologies generally and social alarms especially. Based on our findings we suggest a framework for classification of S/T challenges arising during implementation of monitoring technologies in elderly care and in this way this paper contributes to a better understanding of these challenges.

  • 38.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Scandurra, Isabella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Avatare Nöu, Anneli
    RISE SICS, Kista, Sweden.
    Sjölinder, Marie
    RISE SICS, Kista, Sweden.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    A user-centered ethical assessment of welfare technology for elderly2018In: Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population. Applications in Health, Assistance, and Entertainment / [ed] Jia Zhou, Gavriel Salvendy, Springer, 2018, p. 59-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Welfare technology (WT) is often developed with a technical perspective, and little consideration is taken regarding the involvement of important ethical considerations and different values that come up during the development and implementation of WT. Safety, security and privacy are significant, as well as the usability and overall benefit of the tool, but to date assessments often lack a holistic picture of the WT as seen by the users. This paper suggests a user-centered ethical assessment (UCEA) framework for WT to be able to evaluate ethical consequences as a part of the user-centered aspects. Building on established methodologies from research on ethical considerations, as well as the research domain of human-computer interaction, this assessment framework joins knowledge of ethical consequences with aspects affecting the “digitalization with the individual in the center”, e.g. privacy, safety, well-being, dignity, empowerment and usability. The framework was applied during development of an interface for providing symptom information to Parkinson patients. The results showed that the UCEA framework directs the attention to values emphasized by the patients. Thus, functionality of the system was evaluated in the light of values and expected results of the patients, thereby facilitating follow-up of a user-centered assessment. The framework may be further developed and tested, but in this study it served as a working tool for assessing ethical consequences of WT as a part of user-centered aspects.

  • 39.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Soja, Ewa
    Cracow University of Economic, Cracow, Poland.
    Attitudes towards ICT solutions for independent living among older adults in Sweden and Poland: A preliminary study2017In: / [ed] Kowal J. et al, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Soja, Ewa
    Cracow University of Economics, Poland.
    Soja, Piotr
    Cracow University of Economics, Poland.
    ICT for Active and Healthy Ageing: Comparing Value-based Objectives between Polish and Swedish Young Adults2018In: Proceedings of International Conference on ICT Management for Global Competitiveness and Economic Growth in Emerging Economies, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Susha, Iryna
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    van Loenen, Bastian
    Data sharing mechanisms and privacy challenges in Data Collaboratives: Delphi study of most important issues2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore the concept of ‘data collaboratives’ – cross sector partnerships to leverage new sources of digital data for addressing societal problems. Many of these new sources of digital data, such as “data exhaust” from mobile apps, search engines, personal sensors, are collected by companies. The paper identifies and defines the most important privacy challenges that need to be addressed in the context of data collaboratives. It provide guidance on how data can be successfully shared in data collaboratives while respecting data protection interests

  • 42.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Privacy principles in design of smart homes systems in elderly care2015In: Human Aspects of Information Security, Privacy, and Trust: Third International Conference, HAS 2015, Held as Part of HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015. Proceedings / [ed] Tryfonas, Theo, Askoxylakis, Ioannis, Springer, 2015, Vol. 9190, p. 526-537Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Privacy is considered as a main concern in developing and implementing smart home systems for elderly care (SHSEC). Privacy-by-Design (PbD) can help to ensure privacy in such systems and can support the designers in taking the protection of the privacy into account during the development of such systems. In this paper, we investigate the suitability of the PbD principles (PbDPs) suggested by Cavoukian et al. [1] in the context of SHSEC. This research is conducted as a qualitative case study, where we highlight limitations of existing PbDPs in this context. Based on our findings, we suggest seven additional PbDPs which complement the existing PbDPs and adjust them in the context of SHSEC.

  • 43.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Avatare Nöu, Anneli
    SICS Swedish ICT, Kista, Sweden.
    Sjölinder, Marie
    SICS Swedish ICT, Kista, Sweden.
    Scandurra, Isabella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    To capture the diverse needs of welfare technology stakeholders: Evaluation of a Value Matrix2017In: Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population. Applications, Services and Contexts: Third International Conference, ITAP 2017, Held as Part of HCI International 2017, Vancouver, BC, Canada, July 9-14, 2017, Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Zhou, Jia & Salvendy, Gavriel, Springer, 2017, p. 404-419Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Welfare technology (WT) is often developed with a technical perspective, which does not involve important ethical considerations and different values that come up during the development and implementation of WT within elderly care. This paper presents a study where we have applied an ethical value matrix to support systematic ethical assessments of WT intended for personal health monitoring. The matrix consists of values in a checklist and a number of stakeholders and it is possible to analyze which values are emphasized by which stakeholders. The aim was to assess the matrix and find out how the matrix supports identification of values and interests that drive the various stakeholders in the development and implementation of WT. We have realized that several values specified by different actors as especially important were not included in the matrix and that the values in the matrix did not visualize or enable identification of value conflicts.

  • 44.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Soja, Ewa
    Department of Demography, Cracow University of Economics, Kraków, Poland.
    Soja, Piotr
    Department of Computer Science, Cracow University of Economics, Kraków, Poland.
    Implementation of ICT for Active and Healthy Ageing: Comparing Value-Based Objectives Between Polish and Swedish Seniors2018In: Information Systems: Research, Development, Applications, Education: 11th SIGSAND/PLAIS EuroSymposium 2018, Gdansk, Poland, September 20, 2018, Proceedings / [ed] Stanisław Wrycza, Jacek Maślankowski, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 161-173Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active and healthy ageing strategies are proposed in many European countries to address the challenges generated by ageing of the populations. Information and communication technology (ICT) plays an important role in the implementation of these strategies. By applying Value-focused thinking approach, this qualitative study investigates what objectives are important for successful implementation of ICT for active and healthy ageing according to older people in Sweden and Poland. The study shows that there are both differences and similarities between the objectives identified in these two countries that may have significant implications for development (analysis and design) and implementation of ICT solutions for active and healthy ageing.

  • 45.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Ernestam, Ingela
    Alfred Nobel Science Park, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lessons learned on factors to consider in testbedding: Smarta Äldre2016In: Abstractproceedings from Medicinteknikdagarna 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Assessment of Expectations and Needs of a Sensor Network to Promote Elderly’s Sense of Safety and Security2014In: CENTRIC 2014, The Seventh International Conference on Advances in Human-oriented and Personalized Mechanisms, Technologies, and Services, Nice, October 12-16, 2014 / [ed] Lasse Berntzen, Vestfold University College - Tønsberg, Norway; Stephan Böhm, RheinMain University of Applied Sciences - Wiesbaden, Germany, International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2014, p. 22-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many new technologies claiming to support independent living and prolonged possibilities of aging in place have been developed. To support independent living and increase the sense of safety and security both for the elderly themselves and for their relatives, the technologies have to be easily adaptable to match the divergent user’s personal expectations and needs. The study reported in this paper was conducted as seven case studies where a sensor network was deployed in homes of people with a self-perceived memory decline. We describe problems related to adaptive personalization of such technology in real settings and discuss what consequences these problems may have for the elderly people's and their relatives willingness to use the technology. Our results indicate that a lack of sufficient possibilities to adaptive personalization of the system makes it difficult to address individual user's expectations and needs. This, in turn, leads to a decreased trustworthiness of the technology and a risk of unwillingness to use the technology.

  • 47.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Tshering, Gaki
    Informatics, Business School, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Fogelberg, Martin
    Informatics, Business School, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Jusufi, Ilir
    Department of Computer Science and Media Technology, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Klein, Gunnar O.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    An interface for IoT: feeding back health-related data to Parkinson's disease patients2018In: Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, E-ISSN 2224-2708, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a user-centered design (UCD) process of an interface for Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients for helping them to better manage their symptoms. The interface is designed to visualize symptom and medication information, collected by an Internet of Things (IoT)-based system, which will consist of a smartphone, electronic dosing device, wrist sensor and a bed sensor. In our work, the focus is on measuring data related to some of the main health-related quality of life aspects such as motor function, sleep, medication compliance, meal intake timing in relation to medication intake, and physical exercise. A mock-up demonstrator for the interface was developed using UCD methodology in collaboration with PD patients. The research work was performed as an iterative design and evaluation process based on interviews and observations with 11 PD patients. Additional usability evaluations were conducted with three information visualization experts. Contributions include a list of requirements for the interface, results evaluating the performance of the patients when using the demonstrator during task-based evaluation sessions as well as opinions of the experts. The list of requirements included ability of the patients to track an ideal day, so they could repeat certain activities in the future as well as determine how the scores are related to each other. The patients found the visualizations as clear and easy to understand and could successfully perform the tasks. The evaluation with experts showed that the visualizations are in line with the current standards and guidelines for the intended group of users. In conclusion, the results from this work indicate that the proposed system can be considered as a tool for assisting patients in better management of the disease by giving them insights on their own aggregated symptom and medication information. However, the actual effects of providing such feedback to patients on their health-related quality of life should be investigated in a clinical trial.

  • 48.
    Mutimukwe, Chantal
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. School of ICT, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Information privacy practices in eGovernment in an African Least Developing Country, Rwanda2019In: Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, ISSN 1681-4835, E-ISSN 1681-4835, Vol. 85, no 2, article id e12074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Privacy of information is a critical issue for e-government development as lack of it negatively influences users’ trust and adoption of e-government. To earn user trust government organizations need to provide reliable privacy assurance by implementing adequate information privacy protection (IPP) practices. African Least Developing Countries (LDCs) today develop e-government but focus is on quick technical development and the status of IPP issues is not clear. Little research has yet studied the status of IPP practices in e-government in African LDCs. To fill this gap, we assess the status of existing IPP practices in e-government in Rwanda, using international privacy principles as an assessment baseline. We adopt a case-study approach including three cases. Data were collected by interviews and a survey. The findings call into question the efficacy of existing IPP practices and their effect in ensuring e-government service users’ privacy protection in Rwanda. The study extends existing literature by providing insights related to privacy protection from an African LDC context. For practitioners in Rwanda and other LDCs, this study contributes to the protection of information privacy in e-government by providing recommendations to mitigate identified gaps.

  • 49.
    Mutimukwe, Chantal
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Trusting and Adopting E-Government Services in Developing Countries?: Privacy Concerns and Practices in Rwanda2017In: LNCS 10428 proceedings / [ed] M. Janssen et al., Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2017, Vol. 10428, p. 324-335Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Sjölinder, Marie
    et al.
    RISE SICS, Kista, Sweden.
    Nöu, Anneli Avatare
    RISE SICS, Kista, Sweden.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Johansson, Lars Åke
    Alkit Communications AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Ridderstolpe, Anna
    Alkit Communications AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Scandurra, Isabella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Perspectives on design of sensor based exergames targeted towards older adults2018In: Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population. Applications in Health, Assistance, and Entertainment: 4th International Conference, ITAP 2018, Held as Part of HCI International 2018, Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 15–20, 2018, Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Jia Zhou, Gavriel Salvendy, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 395-414Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serious games are an established field of study, where exergames provide a combination of conducting exercises and playing games. The aim of this work was to identify important features to include in, and design recommendations for exergames using sensor technology. The outcome of this work was two-folded. Firstly, a literature review of design guidelines with respect to older adults as users of exergames resulted in a categorized summary of design guidelines for specific target groups, e.g. people undergoing physical rehabilitation after stroke or injury or users suffering from a chronic disease. Secondly, these guidelines are discussed from various perspectives, based on insights from several years of work in the area. A general design guidelines covered by most of the literature is that exergames should provide a wide range of difficulty levels and be possible to adjust to individual needs. Insights from own work in the area highlight the importance of task and context relevant tools and devices. The result will serve as a starting point for a framework consisting of both general and domain specific design guidelines when designing sensor-based exergames for older adults.

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