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  • 1.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Sundsvall, Sweden; Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Fransson, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Management of violent behavior in the correctional system using qualified risk assessments2004Inngår i: Legal and Criminological Psychology, ISSN 1355-3259, E-ISSN 2044-8333, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 11-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study focused on whether institutional violence in a maximum-security correctional institution could be prevented using comprehensive risk assessments followed by adequate risk management. And, could this be shown by a decrease in risk factors for violence according to the HCR-20 Risk Assessment Scheme in the study group?

    Methods: Offenders with a history of violent criminality were subject to real-life assessments using the HCR-20 Risk Assessment Scheme. The assessments were followed by discussions with members of staff, in which risk management strategies were designed. Thus, the members of staff were fully aware of every inmate's personality characteristics (e.g. psychiatric diagnoses), what risk factors for violence they displayed, and how best to manage those risk factors. With the aim of evaluating the possible effects of our interventions, approximately one third of the study group was reassessed after a mean of 12 months.

    Results: The follow-up showed no significant decrease in important risk factors for violence in the study group. However, the number of violent incidents showed a remarkable decrease during the study period.

    Conclusions: Not being able to reduce important risk factors for violence does not necessarily mean that one cannot decrease the risk for, or the incidence of, violence. This study indicates that proper and adequate risk management, using the best protective factors available, can reduce violence even though important risk factors cannot be decreased. The study also supports the theoretical assumption that changes in risk factors are more possible in some populations (e.g. general psychiatric) than in others (e.g. correctional) depending on the nature of the study group and the risk factors that are at hand (e.g. dynamic vs. static). This seems to be important, to bear in mind when performing evaluation research using risk assessment instruments.

  • 2.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Research Unit, Växjö, Sweden; Växjö University, Sweden.
    Fransson, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Management of violent behaviour in the correctional system using qualified risk assessments: Violence reducing effects possible without significant decrease of important risk factors for violence2003Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Research Unit, Växjö, Sweden; Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Fransson, Göran
    Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Research Unit, Växjö, Sweden.
    Prediction of violence using the HCR-20: a prospective study in two maximum-security correctional institutions2000Inngår i: Journal of forensic psychiatry (Print), ISSN 0958-5184, E-ISSN 1469-9478, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 167-175Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The HCR-20 and the PCL:SV were used in a prospective study of 41 long-term sentenced offenders in two correctional, maximum-security institutions. The aim was to test the validity of these instruments in the prediction of institutional violence. All assessments were made by a comprehensive examination of the offenders' files, completed with clinical interviews ranging from 1 to 3 hours. The mean follow-up time was 8 months. Our results show high predictive validity for the HCR-20's clinical and risk management items, but for almost none of its historical items. The results suggest that violence inside correctional institutions can be predicted with a certain degree of validity by using the HCR-20 and the PCL:SV, even within a selective 'high-risk' group of offenders such as that under study here.

  • 4.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Measuring the Outcome of Structured Spousal Violence Risk Assessment using the B-SAFER: Risk in Relation to Recidivism and Intervention2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Measuring the outcome of structured spousal violence risk assessments using the B-SAFER: risk in relation to recidivism and intervention2012Inngår i: Behavioral sciences & the law (Print), ISSN 0735-3936, E-ISSN 1099-0798, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 420-430Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, 216 risk assessments conducted by law enforcement officers in a suburb of Stockholm using the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER) were followed up and correlated to both recidivism and type of protective actions implemented by the police. The results showed high recidivism rates across all risk categories, except in the highest risk group, where the recidivism rate was significantly lower. This finding suggests a poor, and even negative, predictive power of the police risk assessments: the higher the police-assessed risk, the lower the recidivism rate. However, it was clear that the police did very little, or nothing, in cases not assessed as high risk. All resources appear to have been directed to the high-risk cases, which seems to have had a preventive effect. Our results point to the importance of studying the nature and extent of protective actions taken in response to risk assessment, before drawing conclusions about the predictive validity of risk assessment instruments.

  • 6.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Research Unit, Växjö, Sweden; Växjö University, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Polisiär bedömning av risk för upprepat partnervåld: resultat av ett års arbete med strukturerade riskbedömningar enligt SARA i Kalmar, Kronoberg och Blekinge län2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Polisiära bedömningar och åtgärder vid stalking: ett utvecklingsprojekt i Södertörn och Kalmar län2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Structured spousal violence risk assessment: Combining risk factors and victim vulnerability factors2008Inngår i: International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, ISSN 1499-9013, E-ISSN 1932-9903, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 39-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Police officers in two police counties in Sweden were trained in using an extended version of the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER) in consecutive real life cases of reported spousal assault during the period May 2005 – December 2006 (N = 698). Besides the original 10 perpetrator risk factors included in the B-SAFER, an additional 5 victim vulnerability factors were coded. All B-SAFER factors were then analyzed versus the degree of risk the police officers concluded. The aim was to investigate whether victim vulnerability factors to any extent contribute to the police officers’ risk assessments in the context of spousal assault and to study how common such factors are, and also if these factors can be coded in an acceptable way. The results showed a strong correlation between number of B-SAFER factors and the degree of risk that the police officers assessed. Generally, the more B-SAFER factors that were coded as present, the higher the risk for recidivism was coded by the police. Victim vulnerability factors were less common than perpetrator risk factors, but had an equally strong correlation to the overall risk assessed by the police. We conclude that victim vulnerability factors seem to have an important role when assessing spousal violence risk and thus should preferably be included in structured spousal assault risk assessment tools.

  • 9.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Structured spousal violence risk assessment using the B-SAFER: Combining risk factors and victim vulnerability factors2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Strukturerad bedömning av risker vid hot och trakasserier med hedersrelaterad bakgrund: Ett utvecklingsprojekt i Polismyndigheten Stockholms län om polisiär riskbedömning och riskhantering2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Research Unit, Växjö, Sweden; Växjö University, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Utveckling av ett riskinstrument för polisiär bedömning av risk för upprepat partnervåld (SARA:PV): Slutrapport från ett utvecklingsprojekt i Kalmar, Kronoberg och Blekinge län2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Validation of the guide for stalking assessment and management2007Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, ISSN 2353-0707, Vol. 13, s. 20-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Validation of the guide for stalking assessment and management2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Validation of the Stalking Assessment and Management Checklist (SAM) in Law Enforcement: A Prospective Study of 153 Cases of Stalking in Two Swedish Police Counties2009Inngår i: International Journal of Police Science and Management, ISSN 1461-3557, E-ISSN 1478-1603, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 67-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study was to test the validity and the practical usefulness of the Stalking Assessment and Management checklist( SAM) within the police. Police officers in two police counties in Sweden were trained in using the Stalking Assessment and Management checklist (Kropp, Hart, & Lyon, 2007) in real-life cases of reported stalking during the period May 2005 to December 2006 (N = 230). Results showed that the SAM was easy to code for the police, since there were very few cases of missing information coded by the police. Most importantly, the validity of the SAM was found to be very strong in terms of a strong correlation between factors included in the SAM and the degree of risk assessed by the police officers. The more SAM risk factors coded by the police officers concerning the alleged perpetrators, the higher the risk assessed for repeated stalking and violence. The same results were found concerning victim vulnerability factors. Those victims that were assessed to be at higher risk than others generally had more of the SAM victim vulnerability factors. We conclude that the SAM seems to be a valid and useful tool for use by law enforcement professionals in cases of alleged stalking.

  • 15.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Ekman, Linda
    Stockholm County Police, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hasselborg, Anna-Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Assessing risk of patriarchal violence with honour as a motive: six years experienceusing the PATRIARCH checklis2012Inngår i: International Journal of Police Science and Management, ISSN 1461-3557, E-ISSN 1478-1603, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 20-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Few crimes are as complicated to investigate and understand as honour-based crimes. The planning and execution often involves multiple family members, usually without personality disorders or major mental disorders, and can include mothers, sisters, brothers, male cousins, uncles and grandfathers whose actions are by many, themselves included, considered as good or necessary. Investigations often have to be carried out transnational, involving many authorities and sometimes several countries. This paper describes the process of developing an evidence-based checklist which has been used for six years in Sweden as an aid for law enforcement and social authorities in cases with suspected risk for honour-based violence. Data from 56 recent cases are presented and discussed.

  • 16.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Hasselborg, Anna-Karin
    "SARA-MODELLEN" Strukturerade vs. ostrukturerade riskbedömningar vid polisanmält partnervåld: Implementering och utvärdering av införandet av strukturerade riskbedömningar för partnervåldsrelaterad brottslighet som en arbetsmetod hos polismyndigheterna i Västernorrland och Jämtland2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Section for Criminology, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Forensic Psychiatric Center, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Department of Health Sciences, Section for Criminology, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Forensic Psychiatric Center, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Storey, Jennifer E
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC, Canada.
    Gibas, Andrea L
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC, Canada.
    Kropp, P Randall
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC, Canada.
    Hart, Stephen D
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC, Canada; British Columbia Forensic Psychiatric Services Commission, Vancouver BC, Canada; Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Assessment and management of risk for intimate partner violence by police officers using the Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide2012Inngår i: Law and human behavior, ISSN 0147-7307, E-ISSN 1573-661X, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 60-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a crime that is present in all countries, seriously impacts victims, and demands a great deal of time and resources from the criminal justice system. The current study examined the use of the Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide, 2nd ed. (SARA; Kropp, Hart, Webster, & Eaves, 1995), a structured professional judgment risk assessment and management tool for IPV, by police officers in Sweden over a follow-up of 18 months. SARA risk assessments had significant predictive validity with respect to risk management recommendations made by police, as well as with recidivism as indexed by subsequent contacts with police. Risk management mediated the association between risk assessment and recidivism: High levels of intervention were associated with decreased recidivism in high risk cases, but with increased recidivism in low risk cases. The findings support the potential utility of police-based risk assessment and management of IPV, and in particular the belief that appropriately structured risk assessment and management decisions can prevent violence.

  • 18. Campbell, J.
    et al.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Sundsvall, Sweden; Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Simon Fraser University, Canada; Mid-Sweden University, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Multidimensional Scaling of the Psychopathy Checklist Screening Version in Swedish and North American Samples2004Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Das, Dilip
    et al.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI, USA.
    Meini, Bruno
    International Police Executive Symposium.
    Bruns, Diana
    University of Texas Permian Basin, Odessa TX, USA.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    Academics and practitioners working together to prevent human trafficking around the world2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 20. Douglas, Kevin S.
    et al.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Sundsvall, Sweden .
    Dynamic Risk: Evaluation of the Nature and Predictive Validity of Change on the Clinical and Risk Management Scales of the HCR-20 violence Risk Assessment Scheme2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 21.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    et al.
    Simon Fraser University, Canada; Mid-Sweden University, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sweden.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sweden.
    Fransson, Göran
    Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sweden.
    Levander, Sten
    University of Lund, Sweden.
    Reliability and validity evaluation of the psychopathy checklist: Screening version (PCL : SV) in Swedish correctional and forensic psychiatric samples2005Inngår i: Assessment (Odessa, Fla.), ISSN 1073-1911, E-ISSN 1552-3489, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 145-161Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the structural reliability, construct-related validity, and cultural validity generalization of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV) in a sample of more than 560 male and female Swedish forensic psychiatric treatment patients, forensic evaluation patients, and criminal offenders. Structural reliability was excellent for most indices. PCL:SV scores were higher for males than females for total and Part 1 scores (interpersonal/affective features) but not for Part 2 (behavioral features). With some exceptions, PCL:SV scores were meaningfully related to aggression to others, a measure of risk for violence, substance use problems, personality disorder (positive), and psychosis (negative). Correlations between PCL:SV and aggression were larger for females than males, although the difference was smaller when personality disorder was held constant. The structural reliability and pattern of validity coefficients were comparable in these Swedish samples to other non-North American samples. Implications for the cross-cultural manifestation and correlates of psychopathy are discussed.

  • 22.
    Fröberg, Sofi
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    Police Students' Perceptions of Intimate Partner Violence in Same-Sex Relationships2018Inngår i: Partner Abuse, ISSN 1946-6560, E-ISSN 1946-6579, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 181-201Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge of same-sex intimate partner violence (IPV) is limited. This study aims to investigate the perception of seriousness of same-sex IPV. A vignette study was undertaken among 248 police students (69% males and 31% females) in Sweden. The vignettes portrayed an intimate partner relationship between two people and were available in four versions with the sex of the offender and victim being alternated. Perceptions of IPV were measured using the Opinions of Domestic Violence Scale (Ahmed et al., 2013). The results showed that regardless of gender, IPV was considered serious; however, same-sex IPV was perceived as less serious than victimization of a heterosexual female but more serious than victimization of a heterosexual male. Police interventions were found to be less needed for same-sex victims than for heterosexual female victims.

  • 23. Haquinius, U.
    et al.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    De Oquinena, C.
    Ekman, Linda
    Polisens arbete med riskanalys, stöd och skyddsåtgärder till brottsdrabbade som utsatts för hedersbrott: En studie av sambandet mellan bedömd risk, vidtagna åtgärder och återupprepad utsatthet hos 96 brottsdrabbade individer i Stockholms län2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 24. Hasselborg, A-K
    et al.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Spousal assault and honor related violence2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 25.
    Hellfeldt, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Grupparbete2018Inngår i: Kriminologi: en studiehandbok / [ed] Caroline Mellberg, Marie Väfors Frits & Eva Tiby, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, 2, s. 153-162Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 26. Kanka, Maria
    et al.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Stalkning: En rapport om Polisens hantering i fall av stalking2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 27. Kristiansen, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    Rättspsykiatri2014Inngår i: Omvårdnad vid psykisk ohälsa: på grundläggande nivå / [ed] Ingela Skärsäter, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, 2, s. 323-348Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 28.
    Kristiansen, Lisbeth
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science (CFBS) vid Swinburne University of Technology i Melbourne, Australien.
    Rättspsykiatri2019Inngår i: Omvårdnad vid psykisk ohälsa: på grundläggande nivå / [ed] I. Skärsäter och L. Wiklund Gustin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, 3, s. 253-279Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29. Lewin, C.
    et al.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Victims Not Cooperating in Police Investigations: The Case of Spousal Assault. How can They Be Persuaded To Cooperate?2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 30. Lewin, C.
    et al.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Skiljer sig offer som inte medverkar i polisutredningen avseende partnervåld från dem som medverkar?: En statistisk analys av ärenden anmälda till Polismyndigheten i Kalmar län under en ettårs period2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 31. Mc Ewan, T.E.
    et al.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    MacKenzie, R.D.
    James, D.V.
    SAS (Stalking Assessment Screen): A screening tool for assessing possible stalkers2010Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 32. Mc Ewan, T.E.
    et al.
    Strand, Susanne
    Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    MacKenzie, R.D.
    James, D.V.
    SASH (Screening Assessment for Stalking and Harassment): A screeningtool for assessing stalking and harassment2015Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 33. Mc Ewan, T.E.
    et al.
    Strand, Susanne
    Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    MacKenzie, R.D.
    James, D.V.
    SASH (Screening Assessment for Stalking and Harassment): Ett screeningsverktyg för att bedöma stalkning2015Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 34. McEwan, T.E.
    et al.
    Bateson, S.
    Pettersson, J.
    Selenius, Heidi
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    Enhancing Police Responses to Family Violence: A law enforcement and public health partnership2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 35.
    McEwan, Troy E.
    et al.
    Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology and Forensicare, Melbourne, Australia.
    Bateson, Stuart
    Victoria Police, Melbourne Vic, Australia.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology and Forensicare, Melbourne, Australia.
    Improving police risk assessment and management of family violence through a collaboration between law enforcement, forensic mental health and academia2017Inngår i: Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, ISSN 2056-3841, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 119-131Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Police play an essential role in reducing harms associated with family violence by identifying people at increased risk of physical or mental health-related harm and linking them with support services. Yet police are often poorly trained and resourced to conduct the kind of assessments necessary to identify family violence cases presenting with increased risk. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

    Design/methodology/approach: This paper describes a multi-project collaboration between law enforcement, forensic mental health, and academia that has over three years worked to improve risk assessment and management of family violence by police in Victoria, Australia.

    Findings: Evaluation of existing risk assessment instruments used by the state-wide police force showed they were ineffective in predicting future police reports of family violence (AUC = 0.54-0.56). However, the addition of forensic psychology expertise to specialist family violence teams increased the number of risk management strategies implemented by police, and suggested that the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk assessment instrument may be appropriate for use by Australian police (AUC = 0.63).

    Practical implications: The practical implications of this study are as follows: police risk assessment procedures should be subject to independent evaluation to determine whether they are performing as intended; multidisciplinary collaboration within police units can improve police practice; drawing on expertise from agencies external to police offers a way to improve evidence-based policing, and structured professional judgement risk assessment can be used in policing contexts with appropriate training and support.

    Originality/value: The paper describes an innovative collaboration between police, mental health, and academia that is leading to improved police practices in responding to family violence. It includes data from the first evaluation of an Australian risk assessment instrument for family violence, and describes methods of improving police systems for responding to family violence.

  • 36.
    McEwan, Troy E.
    et al.
    Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Monash University and the Victorian Institute of Forensic Mental Health, Melbourne, Australia.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    The role of psychopathology in stalking by adult strangers and acquaintances2013Inngår i: Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry (Print), ISSN 0004-8674, E-ISSN 1440-1614, Vol. 47, nr 6, s. 546-555Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Individuals who stalk strangers and acquaintances are under-studied, although there is some evidence suggesting a greater prevalence of psychopathology than is present in those who stalk former partners. This study investigated the nature and prevalence of psychopathology in a sample of stranger and acquaintance stalkers and whether psychopathology was associated with increased duration or serial stalking in this group. It was hypothesised that mental illness, and specifically psychosis, would be more prevalent among strangers and acquaintances than among ex-intimate stalkers.

    METHOD: Two hundred and eleven stalkers (10% female; mean age = 35, SD = 10.8; 71 ex-intimates) were recruited between 2002 and 2007 from a specialist service in Melbourne, Australia. Each underwent psychiatric and psychological assessment and disorders were diagnosed according to DMS-IV-TR criteria. Non-parametric independent sample tests were used to examine associations between relationship type and psychopathology, and to identify individual and stalking-related characteristics associated with increased duration and serial stalking.

    RESULTS: Axis I disorders were significantly more prevalent among strangers and acquaintances than ex-intimates (71% vs 48%, OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.4 to 4.7), as were psychotic disorders (29% vs 9%, OR = 4.4, 95% CI = 1.8 to 10.9). Psychosis was significantly associated with increased duration of stalking behaviour (U = 3043, p < 0.001). Those with a personality disorder were twice as likely to have stalked multiple times (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2 to 5.0).

    CONCLUSIONS: Those who stalk strangers and acquaintances are often mentally ill and psychopathology is associated with more persistent and recurrent stalking behaviour. Although limited by the use of clinical interview rather than structured assessment, these findings strongly support the argument for routine mental health assessment of stranger and acquaintance stalkers who become involved with the criminal justice system.

  • 37.
    McEwan, Troy E.
    et al.
    Centre for Forensic Behavioral Sciences, Monash University, Victorian Institue of Forensic Mental Health, Melbourne Vic, Australia.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Violence among female stalkers2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    McEwan, Troy
    et al.
    Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    Strand, Susanne
    Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    Improving assessment in stalking cases: the SAS-R and the SRP2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 39.
    Olsson, Helen
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Audulv, Åsa
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Kristiansen, Lisbeth
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Reducing or Increasing Violence in Forensic Care: A Qualitative Study of Inpatient Experiences2015Inngår i: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, ISSN 0883-9417, E-ISSN 1532-8228, Vol. 29, nr 6, s. 393-400Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-structured interviews with 13 forensic psychiatric inpatients that had decreased their assessed risk of violence were analyzed using interpretive description. The main contribution from this study is a detailed description of patients' own strategies to avoid violence. Participants described having an ongoing inner dialog inwhich they encouraged themselves, thereby increasing their self-esteemand trying to accept their current situation. An unsafe and overcrowded ward with uninterested and nonchalant staff increased the risk of aggressive behavior. In the process of decreasing violence, the patients and the forensic psychiatric nursing staff interacted to create and maintain a safe environment.

  • 40.
    Olsson, Helen
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Forensic patients who lowered their risk for violence: Who are they?2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 41.
    Olsson, Helen
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Asplund, Kennet
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Kristiansen, Lisbeth
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Turning points and treatment readiness in forensics patients: A study based on staff experience2014Inngår i: Nordisk sygeplejeforskning, ISSN 1892-2678, E-ISSN 1892-2686, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 175-188Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many individuals sentenced to forensic psychiatric care fail in the rehabilitation process, resulting in long-term inpatient hospital care. The concepts of turning points and treatment readiness in forensic settings should therefore be afforded more attention. Much can be learned from the features that characterize trajectories of recovery and processes related to turning points. The aim of this study was to explore forensic nursing staff’s experiences of forensic psychiatric patients’ turning towards recovery. A qualitative content analysis was used to analyse interviews with 13 forensic psychiatric nursing staff. Analysis of the data revealed two main themes with implications for clinical practice: promoting a turning point and recognizing a turning point. In the first of these, the emphasis was on actions and conditions that must exist to promote a turning. In the second, the main experiences related to recognizing a turning point were stories about visible and perceptible changes in the patient. The experiences that stood out most distinctly were those of being able to wait out the patient, and having patience when there was a lack of progression. The composition of staff and patients contributed to whether or not the environment was perceived as salutary.

  • 42.
    Olsson, Helen
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Kristiansen, Lisbeth
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Reaching a turning point - how patients in forensic care describe trajectories of recovery2014Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 505-514Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the duration of treatment is increasing for patients admitted to forensic psychiatric care. To reduce the length of stay, it is important for the forensic rehabilitation and recovery process to be effective and safe. Not much is known about how the process of recovery and transition begins and how it is described by the forensic patients. The purpose of this study was to explore how forensic patients with a history of high risk for violence experienced the turn towards recovery. A qualitative content analysis was used to analyse interviews with 10 patients who had decreased their assessed risk for violence on the risk assessment instrument HCR-20 and who were successfully managed a lower level of security. Three themes were identified: (i) the high-risk phase: facing intense negative emotions and feelings (ii) the turning point phase: reflecting on and approaching oneself and life in a new way (iii) the recovery phase: recognising, accepting and maturing. In the high-risk phase, chaotic and overwhelming feelings were experienced. The turning point phase was experienced as a sensitive stage, and it was marked by being forced to find a new, constructive way of being. The recovery phase was characterised by recognising personal circumstances in life, including accepting the need for structure, a feeling of maturity and a sense of responsibility for their own life. In order to ensure a successful recovery, the forensic nursing staff needs to recognise and support processes related to treatment motivation and turning points. Recommendations for best nursing practice are given accordingly.

  • 43.
    Olsson, Helen
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Kristiansen, Lisbeth
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Sjöling, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Asplund, Kenneth
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Decreased risk for violence in patients admitted to forensic care, measured with the HCR-202013Inngår i: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, ISSN 0883-9417, E-ISSN 1532-8228, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 191-197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to explore if patients admitted to forensic psychiatric care decreased their assessed risk for violence over time, to identify patients who decreased their assessed risk for violence exceptionally well (30% or more) on the clinical (C) and risk management (R) scales in the (HCR-20), and to compare them in terms of demographic data.

    METHODS: The HCR-20 risk assessment instrument was used to assess the risk for violence in 267 patients admitted to a Swedish forensic psychiatric clinic between 1997 and 2010. Their assessments at admission were compared with a second, and most recent, risk assessment.

    RESULTS: The risk for violence decreased over time. Demographic criteria had no impact on differences on decreased risk. Only two factors, namely gender and psychopathy showed a difference. Risk factors associated with stress and lack of personal support were the items that turned out to be the most difficult to reduce.

    CONCLUSION: The results show that risk prevention in forensic care does work and it is important to continue to work with risk management. The study highlights the importance of a careful analysis of the patient's risk for violence in order to work with the patient's specific risk factors to reduce the risk.

  • 44. Peterson, Joakim
    et al.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    Creating a typology of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators: Using the Spousal Assault Risk Assessment guide2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 45.
    Petersson, Joakim
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University, Australia.
    Characteristics and Recidivism in Relation to Arrest: Differentiating Between Partner Violent Perpetrator Subtypes2020Inngår i: Nordic Journal of Criminology, ISSN 2578-983XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 46.
    Petersson, Joakim
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne Victoria, Australia.
    Family-only perpetrators of intimate partner violence: A systematic review2020Inngår i: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, ISSN 1524-8380, E-ISSN 1552-8324, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 367-381Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the first systematic review of family-only intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators (as originally proposed by Holtzworth-Munroe & Stuart). The aims of the present review were to summarize and describe the prevalence of the family-only perpetrator subtype, as well as to investigate what characteristics were associated with perpetrators within this subtype. Electronic literature searches in several databases (e.g., PsychINFO, Web of Science, and PubMed) were carried out. Of the 3,434 studies identified, 30 studies met the inclusion criteria as well as the methodological quality criteria. Thematic analyses were conducted, where several themes and subthemes were identified. The proportion of family-only perpetrators, averaged across sample types, was 47.5%. Drawing on the thematic analyses of the reviewed studies, family-only perpetrators presented as a less violent subtype, displaying several pro-social personality traits, as well as a lower degree of psychopathology. The findings were inline with Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart’s predictions. The findings also demonstrated the utility of a 2-fold typology, consisting of a family-only and a generally violent (GV) subtype, as well as the need to reconsider the one-size-fits-all approach to IPV treatment. We also included a discussion of the terminology of the subtypes and propose an adoption of the terms “partner onlyviolent” and “generally violent” subtypes.

  • 47.
    Petersson, Joakim
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Policing family violence in rural areas2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation will describe the primary results of a prospective research project spanning over eight years (2009-2016), introducing a structured approach to policing family violence. This research project was funded by the Swedish Crime Victim Support and Compensation Authority. The aim of the research project was to implement and evaluate the use of structured professional judgments tool of assessing violence for risk. More specifically, risk assessment checklists for intimate partner violence, stalking, and honor related violence was introduced as a working method within the two Swedish police districts of Jämtland and Västernorrland. The first phase of the project constituted of the implementation of the risk assessment checklists. This involved training the police in how to use the checklists. The second phase of the project constituted of data collection and evaluation. Thus, risk assessments performed between 2011 and 2014 for all police-reported cases of intimate partner violence, stalking, and honor related violence in the two police districts were collected. Furthermore, risk management strategies recommended by the police, in order to prevent future violence, were evaluated. Additionally, qualitative interviews with police and district attorneys were conducted. The results demonstrated that the use of structured violence risk assessment checklists works well within the Swedish police to reduce the risk for violence by suggesting proper risk management. However, the results demonstrated that there was no existing routine for documenting the risk management strategies, making follow up evaluation of their efficacy difficult. Finally, an overall presentation of the research papers produced, based on the results of this project, will be given.

  • 48.
    Petersson, Joakim
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Recidivism in intimate partner violence among antisocial and family-only perpetrators2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research of recidivism among intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrator subtypes has demonstrated inconclusive results. The present study sought to outline the recidivism patterns between two subtypes; antisocial and family-only perpetrators. The aim of this study was to compare these subtypes regarding IPV recidivism rates and type of recidivism crime. We also explored and compared time to IPV recidivism between the subtypes. In this prospective study data was obtained from the Swedish police. The material constituted of 628 male IPV perpetrators subjected to a structured violence risk assessment between 2011 and 2014 in two Swedish police districts. The perpetrators were categorized as antisocial (n = 327) or family-only (n = 301) based on general criminality. Recidivism was measured as any new police report of an IPV related crime. Results demonstrated that antisocial perpetrators recidivated to a larger extent than family-only perpetrators (27.2% vs. 12.9%). Antisocial perpetrators were more prone to recidivate in both physical and non-physical violence. Furthermore, antisocial perpetrators had a longer critical time period for recidivism and recidivated faster in non-physically violent IPV compared to family-only perpetrators. These findings highlight the need to consider different risk management strategies depending on the type of IPV perpetrator in order to prevent future violence.

  • 49.
    Petersson, Joakim
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Recidivism in Intimate Partner Violence Among Antisocial and Family-Only Perpetrators2017Inngår i: Criminal justice and behavior, ISSN 0093-8548, E-ISSN 1552-3594, Vol. 44, nr 11, s. 1477-1495Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare antisocial and family-only intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in terms of IPV recidivism rates, type of recidivism crime, and time to recidivism. A total sample of 628 perpetrators was categorized as antisocial (n = 327) or family-only (n = 301) based on general criminality. Results demonstrated that antisocial perpetrators recidivated to a larger extent than family-only perpetrators (27.2% vs. 12.9%). Antisocial perpetrators were more prone to recidivate in both physical and nonphysical violence. Of the perpetrators who recidivated, the majority did so within the first year after their index crime. However, antisocial perpetrators recidivated more than family-only perpetrators after the first year. key findings consisted of the subtypes’ differing propensity to reoffend and their different critical time periods for recidivism. These findings suggest the need for different risk management strategies depending on perpetrator subtype to prevent future violence.

  • 50.
    Petersson, Joakim
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    Selenius, Heidi
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Hur ökad kunskap om partnervåldsförövare kan förhindra våldsutsatthet2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande presentation ämnar redogöra för mitt avhandlingsprojekt. Detta baseras på ett av Brottsoffermyndigheten finansierat projekt om användandet av strukturerade riskbedömningar inom polisen för att förhindra våld. Forskning har visat att användandet av strukturerade checklistor för bedömning av risk är en välfungerande metod att använda inom såväl polis, kriminalvård och rättspsykiatri för bedömning och hantering av risk för våld. Projektet ”Strukturerade vs ostrukturerade riskbedömningar för våld”, som avslutas sommaren 2016, initierades 2009 av kriminologisektionen vid Mittuniversitetet i Sundsvall. En strukturerad arbetsmetod, bestående av strukturerade checklistor för partnervåld, stalkning och hedersrelaterat våld, implementerades i Jämtlands samt Västernorrlands polismyndighet. En sådan checklista var Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide: Short Version (SARA: SV). Denna checklista syftar till att förhindra partnervåld genom att erbjuda ett strukturerat och systematiskt tillvägagångssätt att bedöma risk för upprepat sådant våld.

    Den första delstudien i avhandlingen baseras på sådana SARA: SV- bedömningar och fokuserar på karaktäristika hos olika subtyper av misstänkta partnervåldsförövare. Dessa förövare fördelades i två grupper baserat på typ av våld. Tidigare forskning på området har påvisat att partnervåldsförövare utgör en heterogen grupp, varvid klassificeringen av sådana förövare har uppmärksammats som ett viktigt forskningsområde. En av de mest distinkt särskiljande drag som karaktäriserar olika subtyper av partnervåldsförövare är våldets generalitet. De förövare som ej begränsar sitt våldsutövande enbart till sin partner (så kallade ”antisociala förövare”) har uppvisat flertalet unika karaktäristika jämfört med de förövare som enbart är våldsamma mot sin partner (så kallade ”family-only-förövare”). Bland annat har de antisociala förövarna i större utsträckning missbruksproblem, psykiska problem och använder allvarligare våld jämfört med family-only-förövare (se exempelvis Thijssen & de Ruiter, 2011; Walsh et al., 2010).

    En av de främsta anledningarna till att identifiera sådana subtyper är möjligheten att i större utsträckning förhindra partnervåld. Genom att ta hänsyn till de individuella skillnader som finns hos olika subtyper av partnervåldsförövare kan mest lämpliga riskhanteringstrategi för respektive subtyp användas. Ett sådant förfarande syftar i slutändan till att minimera risken för upprepad viktimisering för den drabbade. Mot bakgrund av detta presenteras upplägget och genomförandet av den första delstudien i avhandlingen. Studien kommer mer specifikt att undersöka eventuella skillnader i bakgrundsfaktorer och riskfaktorer för upprepat partnervåld, mellan antisociala- och family-only- förövare. Datainsamlingen har genomförts och preliminära analyser kommer att presenteras. Slutligen kommer även upplägget och planeringen för den andra delstudien i avhandlingsprojektet kort att presenteras. Denna studie kommer att bygga vidare på dessa subtyper av partnervåldsförövare och undersöka återfall i brottslighet.

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