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  • 1.
    Acale Sánchez, Maria
    et al.
    University of Cadiz, Faculty of Law, International Public, Criminal and Procedural Law, Jerez de la Frontera, Spain.
    Marković, Ivana
    University of Belgrade, Faculty of Law, Criminal Law, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    Gender Competent Criminal Law2023Ingår i: Gender-Competent Legal Education / [ed] Dragica Vujadinović; Mareike Fröhlich; Thomas Giegerich, Springer, 2023, s. 429-465Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The following chapter deals with the general and special part of criminal law from a gender perspective. It analyses, in particular, the provisions from the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, the Istanbul Convention, from 2011. The Istanbul Convention is the most comprehensive international legal instrument that outlines binding obligations to states to prevent and combat violence against women and girls. Furthermore, the Istanbul Convention contains several institutes and behaviours that have to be criminalised in the respective national jurisdictions, covering and combining dogmatics and criminal policy issues with a foundation substantially based on gender. The chapter also explores gender issues in a more general way, interpreting criminal law and its challenges towards gender equality. The special part raises questions regarding criminal law and its compatibility with the Istanbul Convention and national laws.

  • 2.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för beteende-, social- och rättsvetenskap.
    Idrottens ansvar att förebygga mäns våld mot kvinnor2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Arnell, Linda
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för beteende-, social- och rättsvetenskap.
    Vikander, Martina
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för beteende-, social- och rättsvetenskap.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för beteende-, social- och rättsvetenskap.
    Skyddade boenden – En välfärdstjänst i förändring2024Ingår i: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 100, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Sundsvall, Sweden; Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Fransson, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Management of violent behavior in the correctional system using qualified risk assessments2004Ingår i: Legal and Criminological Psychology, ISSN 1355-3259, E-ISSN 2044-8333, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 11-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study focused on whether institutional violence in a maximum-security correctional institution could be prevented using comprehensive risk assessments followed by adequate risk management. And, could this be shown by a decrease in risk factors for violence according to the HCR-20 Risk Assessment Scheme in the study group?

    Methods: Offenders with a history of violent criminality were subject to real-life assessments using the HCR-20 Risk Assessment Scheme. The assessments were followed by discussions with members of staff, in which risk management strategies were designed. Thus, the members of staff were fully aware of every inmate's personality characteristics (e.g. psychiatric diagnoses), what risk factors for violence they displayed, and how best to manage those risk factors. With the aim of evaluating the possible effects of our interventions, approximately one third of the study group was reassessed after a mean of 12 months.

    Results: The follow-up showed no significant decrease in important risk factors for violence in the study group. However, the number of violent incidents showed a remarkable decrease during the study period.

    Conclusions: Not being able to reduce important risk factors for violence does not necessarily mean that one cannot decrease the risk for, or the incidence of, violence. This study indicates that proper and adequate risk management, using the best protective factors available, can reduce violence even though important risk factors cannot be decreased. The study also supports the theoretical assumption that changes in risk factors are more possible in some populations (e.g. general psychiatric) than in others (e.g. correctional) depending on the nature of the study group and the risk factors that are at hand (e.g. dynamic vs. static). This seems to be important, to bear in mind when performing evaluation research using risk assessment instruments.

  • 5.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Research Unit, Växjö, Sweden; Växjö University, Sweden.
    Fransson, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Management of violent behaviour in the correctional system using qualified risk assessments: Violence reducing effects possible without significant decrease of important risk factors for violence2003Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Research Unit, Växjö, Sweden; Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Fransson, Göran
    Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Research Unit, Växjö, Sweden.
    Prediction of violence using the HCR-20: a prospective study in two maximum-security correctional institutions2000Ingår i: Journal of forensic psychiatry (Print), ISSN 0958-5184, E-ISSN 1469-9478, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 167-175Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The HCR-20 and the PCL:SV were used in a prospective study of 41 long-term sentenced offenders in two correctional, maximum-security institutions. The aim was to test the validity of these instruments in the prediction of institutional violence. All assessments were made by a comprehensive examination of the offenders' files, completed with clinical interviews ranging from 1 to 3 hours. The mean follow-up time was 8 months. Our results show high predictive validity for the HCR-20's clinical and risk management items, but for almost none of its historical items. The results suggest that violence inside correctional institutions can be predicted with a certain degree of validity by using the HCR-20 and the PCL:SV, even within a selective 'high-risk' group of offenders such as that under study here.

  • 7.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Measuring the Outcome of Structured Spousal Violence Risk Assessment using the B-SAFER: Risk in Relation to Recidivism and Intervention2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Measuring the outcome of structured spousal violence risk assessments using the B-SAFER: risk in relation to recidivism and intervention2012Ingår i: Behavioral sciences & the law (Print), ISSN 0735-3936, E-ISSN 1099-0798, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 420-430Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, 216 risk assessments conducted by law enforcement officers in a suburb of Stockholm using the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER) were followed up and correlated to both recidivism and type of protective actions implemented by the police. The results showed high recidivism rates across all risk categories, except in the highest risk group, where the recidivism rate was significantly lower. This finding suggests a poor, and even negative, predictive power of the police risk assessments: the higher the police-assessed risk, the lower the recidivism rate. However, it was clear that the police did very little, or nothing, in cases not assessed as high risk. All resources appear to have been directed to the high-risk cases, which seems to have had a preventive effect. Our results point to the importance of studying the nature and extent of protective actions taken in response to risk assessment, before drawing conclusions about the predictive validity of risk assessment instruments.

  • 9.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Research Unit, Växjö, Sweden; Växjö University, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Polisiär bedömning av risk för upprepat partnervåld: resultat av ett års arbete med strukturerade riskbedömningar enligt SARA i Kalmar, Kronoberg och Blekinge län2002Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Polisiära bedömningar och åtgärder vid stalking: ett utvecklingsprojekt i Södertörn och Kalmar län2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Structured spousal violence risk assessment: Combining risk factors and victim vulnerability factors2008Ingår i: International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, ISSN 1499-9013, E-ISSN 1932-9903, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 39-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Police officers in two police counties in Sweden were trained in using an extended version of the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER) in consecutive real life cases of reported spousal assault during the period May 2005 – December 2006 (N = 698). Besides the original 10 perpetrator risk factors included in the B-SAFER, an additional 5 victim vulnerability factors were coded. All B-SAFER factors were then analyzed versus the degree of risk the police officers concluded. The aim was to investigate whether victim vulnerability factors to any extent contribute to the police officers’ risk assessments in the context of spousal assault and to study how common such factors are, and also if these factors can be coded in an acceptable way. The results showed a strong correlation between number of B-SAFER factors and the degree of risk that the police officers assessed. Generally, the more B-SAFER factors that were coded as present, the higher the risk for recidivism was coded by the police. Victim vulnerability factors were less common than perpetrator risk factors, but had an equally strong correlation to the overall risk assessed by the police. We conclude that victim vulnerability factors seem to have an important role when assessing spousal violence risk and thus should preferably be included in structured spousal assault risk assessment tools.

  • 12.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Structured spousal violence risk assessment using the B-SAFER: Combining risk factors and victim vulnerability factors2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Strukturerad bedömning av risker vid hot och trakasserier med hedersrelaterad bakgrund: Ett utvecklingsprojekt i Polismyndigheten Stockholms län om polisiär riskbedömning och riskhantering2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Research Unit, Växjö, Sweden; Växjö University, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Utveckling av ett riskinstrument för polisiär bedömning av risk för upprepat partnervåld (SARA:PV): Slutrapport från ett utvecklingsprojekt i Kalmar, Kronoberg och Blekinge län2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Validation of the guide for stalking assessment and management2007Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, ISSN 2353-0707, Vol. 13, s. 20-21Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Validation of the guide for stalking assessment and management2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Validation of the Stalking Assessment and Management Checklist (SAM) in Law Enforcement: A Prospective Study of 153 Cases of Stalking in Two Swedish Police Counties2009Ingår i: International Journal of Police Science and Management, ISSN 1461-3557, E-ISSN 1478-1603, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 67-76Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study was to test the validity and the practical usefulness of the Stalking Assessment and Management checklist( SAM) within the police. Police officers in two police counties in Sweden were trained in using the Stalking Assessment and Management checklist (Kropp, Hart, & Lyon, 2007) in real-life cases of reported stalking during the period May 2005 to December 2006 (N = 230). Results showed that the SAM was easy to code for the police, since there were very few cases of missing information coded by the police. Most importantly, the validity of the SAM was found to be very strong in terms of a strong correlation between factors included in the SAM and the degree of risk assessed by the police officers. The more SAM risk factors coded by the police officers concerning the alleged perpetrators, the higher the risk assessed for repeated stalking and violence. The same results were found concerning victim vulnerability factors. Those victims that were assessed to be at higher risk than others generally had more of the SAM victim vulnerability factors. We conclude that the SAM seems to be a valid and useful tool for use by law enforcement professionals in cases of alleged stalking.

  • 18.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Ekman, Linda
    Stockholm County Police, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hasselborg, Anna-Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Assessing risk of patriarchal violence with honour as a motive: six years experience using the PATRIARCH checklist2012Ingår i: International Journal of Police Science and Management, ISSN 1461-3557, E-ISSN 1478-1603, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 20-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Few crimes are as complicated to investigate and understand as honour-based crimes. The planning and execution often involves multiple family members, usually without personality disorders or major mental disorders, and can include mothers, sisters, brothers, male cousins, uncles and grandfathers whose actions are by many, themselves included, considered as good or necessary. Investigations often have to be carried out transnational, involving many authorities and sometimes several countries. This paper describes the process of developing an evidence-based checklist which has been used for six years in Sweden as an aid for law enforcement and social authorities in cases with suspected risk for honour-based violence. Data from 56 recent cases are presented and discussed.

  • 19.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Hasselborg, Anna-Karin
    "SARA-MODELLEN" Strukturerade vs. ostrukturerade riskbedömningar vid polisanmält partnervåld: Implementering och utvärdering av införandet av strukturerade riskbedömningar för partnervåldsrelaterad brottslighet som en arbetsmetod hos polismyndigheterna i Västernorrland och Jämtland2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Section for Criminology, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Forensic Psychiatric Center, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Department of Health Sciences, Section for Criminology, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Forensic Psychiatric Center, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Storey, Jennifer E
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC, Canada.
    Gibas, Andrea L
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC, Canada.
    Kropp, P Randall
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC, Canada.
    Hart, Stephen D
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC, Canada; British Columbia Forensic Psychiatric Services Commission, Vancouver BC, Canada; Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Assessment and management of risk for intimate partner violence by police officers using the Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide2012Ingår i: Law and human behavior, ISSN 0147-7307, E-ISSN 1573-661X, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 60-67Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a crime that is present in all countries, seriously impacts victims, and demands a great deal of time and resources from the criminal justice system. The current study examined the use of the Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide, 2nd ed. (SARA; Kropp, Hart, Webster, & Eaves, 1995), a structured professional judgment risk assessment and management tool for IPV, by police officers in Sweden over a follow-up of 18 months. SARA risk assessments had significant predictive validity with respect to risk management recommendations made by police, as well as with recidivism as indexed by subsequent contacts with police. Risk management mediated the association between risk assessment and recidivism: High levels of intervention were associated with decreased recidivism in high risk cases, but with increased recidivism in low risk cases. The findings support the potential utility of police-based risk assessment and management of IPV, and in particular the belief that appropriately structured risk assessment and management decisions can prevent violence.

  • 21. Campbell, J.
    et al.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Sundsvall, Sweden; Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Simon Fraser University, Canada; Mid-Sweden University, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Multidimensional Scaling of the Psychopathy Checklist Screening Version in Swedish and North American Samples2004Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Cruz, Beatrice
    et al.
    University of Cadiz, Faculty of Law, International Public, Criminal and Procedural Law, Jerez de la Frontera, Spain.
    Lukić, Natalia
    University of Belgrade, Faculty of Law, Criminal Law, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    Gender Perspective of Victimization, Crime and Penal Policy2023Ingår i: Gender-Competent Legal Education / [ed] Dragica Vujadinović; Mareike Fröhlich; Thomas Giegerich, Springer, 2023, s. 467-502Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines three criminological perspectives through a gender lens. The first part is dedicated to crime and gender. This chapter presents official data of reported and convicted persons in European countries, discussing crime trends and the different involvement of sexes in certain criminal offences. Further, this chapter points to possible differences in the ethology of crime from a gender perspective at three levels: individual; family, and social. The second section deals with gender and criminal victimization, with special attention dedicated to issues of domestic violence and sexual crimes. The third section of this chapter analyses the penal policy of the courts. Data is presented on sentencing practices in European countries, with an emphasis on certain criminal offences. Besides data on imprisonment, attention is paid to other penal sanctions. This section of the text further explains possible factors related to the different sentencing of women and men. They are divided into two categories: the first is those mainly related to socio-economic characteristics and crime committed; the second is those that reflect courts as gender institutions. Finally, this chapter gives explanations of different treatments of trans offenders in the criminal justice system.

  • 23.
    Das, Dilip
    et al.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI, USA.
    Meini, Bruno
    International Police Executive Symposium.
    Bruns, Diana
    University of Texas Permian Basin, Odessa TX, USA.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    Academics and practitioners working together to prevent human trafficking around the world2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 24. Douglas, Kevin S.
    et al.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Forensic Psychiatric Centre, Sundsvall, Sweden .
    Dynamic Risk: Evaluation of the Nature and Predictive Validity of Change on the Clinical and Risk Management Scales of the HCR-20 violence Risk Assessment Scheme2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 25.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    et al.
    Simon Fraser University, Canada; Mid-Sweden University, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sweden.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sweden.
    Fransson, Göran
    Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sweden.
    Levander, Sten
    University of Lund, Sweden.
    Reliability and validity evaluation of the psychopathy checklist: Screening version (PCL : SV) in Swedish correctional and forensic psychiatric samples2005Ingår i: Assessment (Odessa, Fla.), ISSN 1073-1911, E-ISSN 1552-3489, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 145-161Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the structural reliability, construct-related validity, and cultural validity generalization of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV) in a sample of more than 560 male and female Swedish forensic psychiatric treatment patients, forensic evaluation patients, and criminal offenders. Structural reliability was excellent for most indices. PCL:SV scores were higher for males than females for total and Part 1 scores (interpersonal/affective features) but not for Part 2 (behavioral features). With some exceptions, PCL:SV scores were meaningfully related to aggression to others, a measure of risk for violence, substance use problems, personality disorder (positive), and psychosis (negative). Correlations between PCL:SV and aggression were larger for females than males, although the difference was smaller when personality disorder was held constant. The structural reliability and pattern of validity coefficients were comparable in these Swedish samples to other non-North American samples. Implications for the cross-cultural manifestation and correlates of psychopathy are discussed.

  • 26.
    Edhammer, Helene
    et al.
    School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Petersson, Joakim
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    Vulnerability Factors of Intimate Partner Violence Among Victims of Partner Only and Generally Violent Perpetrators2022Ingår i: Journal of family Violence, ISSN 0885-7482, E-ISSN 1573-2851Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine how victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) differ in terms of vulnerability factors and risk of being re-victimized, by comparing victims of the two most consistently identified IPV male perpetrator subtypes: the Partner Only (PO) violent and the Generally Violent (GV).

    Methods: The current study analyzed IPV reported to the Swedish police and consisted of a sample of 1479 cases of male-to-female perpetrated IPV. The material mainly consisted of IPV risk assessments conducted by the police.

    Results: The results showed that vulnerability factors were significantly more common among victims of GV perpetrators, including inconsistent attitudes or behaviors, extreme fear of the perpetrator, inadequate support or resources, an unsafe living situation, and health problems. Moreover, victims of GV perpetrators were generally assessed by the police with a significantly higher risk of being re-victimized by IPV. Finally, in relation to the victim vulnerability factors most strongly associated with an elevated assessed risk for IPV re-victimization, the presence of extreme fear of the perpetrator and having an unsafe living situation were significantly related to such outcomes for both groups of victims.

    Conclusion: In sum, the results of this study contribute to the scant body of knowledge on IPV victim subtypes and their vulnerability profiles. In addition to facilitating the risk assessment of repeated IPV, such knowledge could also indicate what type of support different victim subtypes require in order to prevent IPV.

  • 27.
    Fröberg, Sofi
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    Police Students' Perceptions of Intimate Partner Violence in Same-Sex Relationships2018Ingår i: Partner Abuse, ISSN 1946-6560, E-ISSN 1946-6579, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 181-201Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge of same-sex intimate partner violence (IPV) is limited. This study aims to investigate the perception of seriousness of same-sex IPV. A vignette study was undertaken among 248 police students (69% males and 31% females) in Sweden. The vignettes portrayed an intimate partner relationship between two people and were available in four versions with the sex of the offender and victim being alternated. Perceptions of IPV were measured using the Opinions of Domestic Violence Scale (Ahmed et al., 2013). The results showed that regardless of gender, IPV was considered serious; however, same-sex IPV was perceived as less serious than victimization of a heterosexual female but more serious than victimization of a heterosexual male. Police interventions were found to be less needed for same-sex victims than for heterosexual female victims.

  • 28. Haquinius, U.
    et al.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    De Oquinena, C.
    Ekman, Linda
    Polisens arbete med riskanalys, stöd och skyddsåtgärder till brottsdrabbade som utsatts för hedersbrott: En studie av sambandet mellan bedömd risk, vidtagna åtgärder och återupprepad utsatthet hos 96 brottsdrabbade individer i Stockholms län2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 29. Hasselborg, A-K
    et al.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Spousal assault and honor related violence2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 30.
    Hellfeldt, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för beteende-, social- och rättsvetenskap.
    Olsson, Karl
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för beteende-, social- och rättsvetenskap.
    Frogner, Louise
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för beteende-, social- och rättsvetenskap.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för beteende-, social- och rättsvetenskap.
    Processutvärdering av GVI Örebro: en strategi för att minska och förebygga utvecklingen av grovt och dödligt våld kopplat till kriminella grupper2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Processutvärdering av GVI Örebro: en strategi för att minska och förebygga utvecklingen av grovt och dödligt våld kopplat till kriminella grupper
  • 31.
    Hellfeldt, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Grupparbete2018Ingår i: Kriminologi: en studiehandbok / [ed] Caroline Mellberg, Marie Väfors Frits & Eva Tiby, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, 2, s. 153-162Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 32. Kanka, Maria
    et al.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Stalkning: En rapport om Polisens hantering i fall av stalking2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 33. Kristiansen, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    Rättspsykiatri2014Ingår i: Omvårdnad vid psykisk ohälsa: på grundläggande nivå / [ed] Ingela Skärsäter, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, 2, s. 323-348Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 34.
    Kristiansen, Lisbeth
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science (CFBS) vid Swinburne University of Technology i Melbourne, Australien.
    Rättspsykiatri2019Ingår i: Omvårdnad vid psykisk ohälsa: på grundläggande nivå / [ed] I. Skärsäter och L. Wiklund Gustin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, 3, s. 253-279Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 35.
    Kristiansen, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Rättspsykiatri2010Ingår i: Omvårdnad vid psykisk ohälsa: på grundläggande nivå / [ed] Ingela Skärsäter, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2010, 1, s. 279-303Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 36.
    Larsson, Anna-Karin L.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för beteende-, social- och rättsvetenskap.
    Olsson, Helén
    School of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne J. M.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för beteende-, social- och rättsvetenskap. School of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Challenges and opportunities in collaborative approaches to responding to intimate partner violence: insights from social workers and police in Sweden2024Ingår i: Journal of Social Work Practice, ISSN 0265-0533, E-ISSN 1465-3885, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 143-157Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study explores the opportunities and challenges of collaboration experienced by social workers and police officers when dealing with cases of intimate partner violence (IPV) and stalking. The study aims to examine their collaborative approaches in risk assessment and risk management by identifying the structures , supports, and foundations crucial for effective collaboration. Our data, collected from twelve interviews and one focus group interview with social workers and police officers, reveals that collaboration was facilitated by assigning specific roles to involved parties, proximity, structure and professionalism. These key factors emerged as crucial and contributing to the effectiveness of the collaborative efforts. Practitioners should consider integrating these key elements into their practices to enhance and improve collaboration when addressing cases of IPV and stalking. The study underscores the need for a well-defined framework and support structures to optimise the collaborative response to such complex and sensitive issues.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Challenges and opportunities in collaborative approaches to responding to intimate partner violence: insights from social workers and police in Sweden
  • 37.
    Larsson, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för beteende-, social- och rättsvetenskap.
    Petersson, Joakim
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för beteende-, social- och rättsvetenskap.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för beteende-, social- och rättsvetenskap.
    Att bedöma och hantera risk för våld i nära relation i gles- och landsbygd: Nyttiggörande av forskningsresultat från RISKSAM-projektet i dialog med socialtjänst och polis2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med projektet har varit att förmedla forskningsresultat om riskhantering och samverkan avseende våld i nära relation, stalkning och hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck till yrkesverksamma inom polis och socialtjänst, samt att undersöka utmaningar och behov rörande frågor om riskbedömning, riskhantering och samverkan kring våld i nära relationer i gles- och landsbygdskommuner.

    Projektet knyter an till forskningsprogrammet RISKSAM som syftar till att implementera och utvärdera en hållbar och evidensbaserad arbetsmodell, RISKSAM, för arbetet med riskhantering och samverkan vad gäller våld i nära relation. RISKSAM är en förkortning för RISKhantering och SAMverkan. En huvudsaklig ambition med nyttiggörandeprojektet har varit att medverka till att sprida information om RISKSAM och i dialog med de yrkesverksamma utveckla modellen ännu mer specifikt till de utmaningar som gles- och landsbygd står inför.

    Under våren 2023 har vi således besökt praktiker inom socialtjänst och polis i gles- och landsbygd. Forskare och doktorander inom RISKSAM-programmet besökte regionerna Dalarna, Värmland, Västra Götaland, Västerbotten, Örebro och Östergötland, där ett eller flera kommunbesök genomfördes i varje region. Varje besök har bestått av presentationer om RISKSAM och preliminära resultat ur detta projekt, samt fokusgruppsintervjuer om gles- och landsbygdens specifika utmaningar och de yrkesverksammas behov och stöd.

    Våra resultat visade att det finns både utmaningar och möjligheter med arbetet med riskbedömning, riskhantering och samverkan kring ärenden med våld i nära relationer i gles- och landsbygdskommuner. I riskbedömningsarbetet fann vi att det fanns utmaningar i att identifiera våld men också att det kan finnas bristande organisatorisk kompetens att riskbedöma. Enskilda medarbetare har kompetens men omsättningen av personal och svårigheter att rekrytera, försvårar upprätthållandet av kompetens inom organisationen. Arbetet med riskbedömning kan även försvåras på grund av olika faktorer och brist på erfarenhet då dessa ärenden är sällan-ärenden.

    I rapportens andra del redovisas utmaningar och möjligheter med riskhantering. Vi belyser verksamheternas bristande förutsättningar och de få insatser som finns att erbjuda på hemmaplan, att verktygslådan att arbeta med är liten, och att det finns en svårighet att hantera möjligheten till anonymitet på mindre orter. Vi lyfter både utmaningar och möjligheter med glesbefolkade samhällen, som fördelen med närhet till varandra och en känsla av att ta hand om varandra, men också nackdelarna med att det är svårt att vara anonym, ta emot insatser och att återvända till hemorten efter våldet och en vistelse i ett skyddat boende.

    I del tre i rapporten beskriver vi de utmaningar och möjligheter som yrkesverksamma upplever i relation till samverkan – både intern och extern – i ärenden med våld i nära relation. Detta innefattade, bland annat, hur den geografiska närheten (till exempel att sitta i samma byggnad) mellan yrkesverksamma underlättar samverkan. Samtidigt är samverkansformerna sårbara utifrån att de baseras på person snarare än funktion och den externa samverkan som sker är nästan uteslutande ostrukturerad. Det finns dock en vilja till ökad samverkan och existerande plattformar för detta, dock upplever flera yrkesverksamma att det saknas rätt verktyg för att åstadkomma detta.

    Rapporten avslutas med en sammanfattande diskussion om utmaningar och möjligheter i arbetet med våld i nära relation i gles- och landsbygd. Här lämnas även konkreta förslag på hur praktiker i gles- och landsbygd kan stärkas i sitt arbete i relation till riskbedömning, riskhantering och samverkan.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Att bedöma och hantera risk för våld i nära relation i gles- och landsbygd
  • 38. Lewin, C.
    et al.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Victims Not Cooperating in Police Investigations: The Case of Spousal Assault. How can They Be Persuaded To Cooperate?2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 39. Lewin, C.
    et al.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Skiljer sig offer som inte medverkar i polisutredningen avseende partnervåld från dem som medverkar?: En statistisk analys av ärenden anmälda till Polismyndigheten i Kalmar län under en ettårs period2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40. Mc Ewan, T.E.
    et al.
    Strand, Susanne
    Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    MacKenzie, R.D.
    James, D.V.
    SAS (Stalking Assessment Screen): A screening tool for assessing possible stalkers2010Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 41. Mc Ewan, T.E.
    et al.
    Strand, Susanne
    Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    MacKenzie, R.D.
    James, D.V.
    SASH (Screening Assessment for Stalking and Harassment): A screening tool for assessing stalking and harassment2015Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42. Mc Ewan, T.E.
    et al.
    Strand, Susanne
    Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    MacKenzie, R.D.
    James, D.V.
    SASH (Screening Assessment for Stalking and Harassment): Ett screeningsverktyg för att bedöma stalkning2015Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 43. McEwan, T.E.
    et al.
    Bateson, S.
    Pettersson, J.
    Selenius, Heidi
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    Enhancing Police Responses to Family Violence: A law enforcement and public health partnership2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 44.
    McEwan, Troy E.
    et al.
    Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology and Forensicare, Melbourne, Australia.
    Bateson, Stuart
    Victoria Police, Melbourne Vic, Australia.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology and Forensicare, Melbourne, Australia.
    Improving police risk assessment and management of family violence through a collaboration between law enforcement, forensic mental health and academia2017Ingår i: Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, ISSN 2056-3841, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 119-131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Police play an essential role in reducing harms associated with family violence by identifying people at increased risk of physical or mental health-related harm and linking them with support services. Yet police are often poorly trained and resourced to conduct the kind of assessments necessary to identify family violence cases presenting with increased risk. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

    Design/methodology/approach: This paper describes a multi-project collaboration between law enforcement, forensic mental health, and academia that has over three years worked to improve risk assessment and management of family violence by police in Victoria, Australia.

    Findings: Evaluation of existing risk assessment instruments used by the state-wide police force showed they were ineffective in predicting future police reports of family violence (AUC = 0.54-0.56). However, the addition of forensic psychology expertise to specialist family violence teams increased the number of risk management strategies implemented by police, and suggested that the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk assessment instrument may be appropriate for use by Australian police (AUC = 0.63).

    Practical implications: The practical implications of this study are as follows: police risk assessment procedures should be subject to independent evaluation to determine whether they are performing as intended; multidisciplinary collaboration within police units can improve police practice; drawing on expertise from agencies external to police offers a way to improve evidence-based policing, and structured professional judgement risk assessment can be used in policing contexts with appropriate training and support.

    Originality/value: The paper describes an innovative collaboration between police, mental health, and academia that is leading to improved police practices in responding to family violence. It includes data from the first evaluation of an Australian risk assessment instrument for family violence, and describes methods of improving police systems for responding to family violence.

  • 45.
    McEwan, Troy E.
    et al.
    Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Monash University and the Victorian Institute of Forensic Mental Health, Melbourne, Australia.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    The role of psychopathology in stalking by adult strangers and acquaintances2013Ingår i: Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry (Print), ISSN 0004-8674, E-ISSN 1440-1614, Vol. 47, nr 6, s. 546-555Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Individuals who stalk strangers and acquaintances are under-studied, although there is some evidence suggesting a greater prevalence of psychopathology than is present in those who stalk former partners. This study investigated the nature and prevalence of psychopathology in a sample of stranger and acquaintance stalkers and whether psychopathology was associated with increased duration or serial stalking in this group. It was hypothesised that mental illness, and specifically psychosis, would be more prevalent among strangers and acquaintances than among ex-intimate stalkers.

    METHOD: Two hundred and eleven stalkers (10% female; mean age = 35, SD = 10.8; 71 ex-intimates) were recruited between 2002 and 2007 from a specialist service in Melbourne, Australia. Each underwent psychiatric and psychological assessment and disorders were diagnosed according to DMS-IV-TR criteria. Non-parametric independent sample tests were used to examine associations between relationship type and psychopathology, and to identify individual and stalking-related characteristics associated with increased duration and serial stalking.

    RESULTS: Axis I disorders were significantly more prevalent among strangers and acquaintances than ex-intimates (71% vs 48%, OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.4 to 4.7), as were psychotic disorders (29% vs 9%, OR = 4.4, 95% CI = 1.8 to 10.9). Psychosis was significantly associated with increased duration of stalking behaviour (U = 3043, p < 0.001). Those with a personality disorder were twice as likely to have stalked multiple times (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2 to 5.0).

    CONCLUSIONS: Those who stalk strangers and acquaintances are often mentally ill and psychopathology is associated with more persistent and recurrent stalking behaviour. Although limited by the use of clinical interview rather than structured assessment, these findings strongly support the argument for routine mental health assessment of stranger and acquaintance stalkers who become involved with the criminal justice system.

  • 46.
    McEwan, Troy E.
    et al.
    Centre for Forensic Behavioral Sciences, Monash University, Victorian Institue of Forensic Mental Health, Melbourne Vic, Australia.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Violence among female stalkers2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 47.
    McEwan, Troy
    et al.
    Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    Strand, Susanne
    Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
    Improving assessment in stalking cases: the SAS-R and the SRP2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 48.
    Olsson, Helen
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Audulv, Åsa
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Kristiansen, Lisbeth
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Reducing or Increasing Violence in Forensic Care: A Qualitative Study of Inpatient Experiences2015Ingår i: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, ISSN 0883-9417, E-ISSN 1532-8228, Vol. 29, nr 6, s. 393-400Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-structured interviews with 13 forensic psychiatric inpatients that had decreased their assessed risk of violence were analyzed using interpretive description. The main contribution from this study is a detailed description of patients' own strategies to avoid violence. Participants described having an ongoing inner dialog inwhich they encouraged themselves, thereby increasing their self-esteemand trying to accept their current situation. An unsafe and overcrowded ward with uninterested and nonchalant staff increased the risk of aggressive behavior. In the process of decreasing violence, the patients and the forensic psychiatric nursing staff interacted to create and maintain a safe environment.

  • 49.
    Olsson, Helen
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Forensic patients who lowered their risk for violence: Who are they?2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 50.
    Olsson, Helen
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Asplund, Kennet
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Kristiansen, Lisbeth
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Turning points and treatment readiness in forensics patients: A study based on staff experience2014Ingår i: Nordisk sygeplejeforskning, ISSN 1892-2678, E-ISSN 1892-2686, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 175-188Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many individuals sentenced to forensic psychiatric care fail in the rehabilitation process, resulting in long-term inpatient hospital care. The concepts of turning points and treatment readiness in forensic settings should therefore be afforded more attention. Much can be learned from the features that characterize trajectories of recovery and processes related to turning points. The aim of this study was to explore forensic nursing staff’s experiences of forensic psychiatric patients’ turning towards recovery. A qualitative content analysis was used to analyse interviews with 13 forensic psychiatric nursing staff. Analysis of the data revealed two main themes with implications for clinical practice: promoting a turning point and recognizing a turning point. In the first of these, the emphasis was on actions and conditions that must exist to promote a turning. In the second, the main experiences related to recognizing a turning point were stories about visible and perceptible changes in the patient. The experiences that stood out most distinctly were those of being able to wait out the patient, and having patience when there was a lack of progression. The composition of staff and patients contributed to whether or not the environment was perceived as salutary.

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