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  • 1.
    Grönlund, Åke
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Susha, Iryna
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    A communication genre perspective on e-petitioning: the case of the Citizens' Initiative2012In: Electronic participation / [ed] Efthimos Tambouris, Ann Macintosh, Öystein Saebö, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 37-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Citizens’ Initiative is designed to make European democracy more direct by allowing citizens to propose (including electronically) legal acts to the Commission. The present paper offers a conceptual model for the analysis of this eParticipation case, and other similar e-petitioning practices, which is not biased by political ambition or technological determinism. The operational framework proposed aims to understand the nature of communication between citizens, governments, and the civil society among other stakeholders in the contemporary media landscape by using the concept of genre systems for this purpose.

  • 2.
    Kolkowska, Ella
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Susha, Iryna
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    van Loenen, Bastian
    Data sharing mechanisms and privacy challenges in Data Collaboratives: Delphi study of most important issues2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore the concept of ‘data collaboratives’ – cross sector partnerships to leverage new sources of digital data for addressing societal problems. Many of these new sources of digital data, such as “data exhaust” from mobile apps, search engines, personal sensors, are collected by companies. The paper identifies and defines the most important privacy challenges that need to be addressed in the context of data collaboratives. It provide guidance on how data can be successfully shared in data collaboratives while respecting data protection interests

  • 3.
    Susha, Iryna
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Section ICT, Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands .
    Establishing and implementing data collaborations for public good: A critical factor analysis to scale up the practice2020In: Information Polity, ISSN 1570-1255, E-ISSN 1875-8754, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 3-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data analytics for public good has become a hot topic thanks to the inviting opportunities to utilize ‘new’ sources of data, such as social media insights, call detail records, satellite imagery etc. These data are sometimes shared by the private sector as part of corporate social responsibility, especially in situations of urgency, such as in case of a natural disaster. Such partnerships can be termed as ‘data collaboratives’. While experimentation grows, little is known about how such collaborations are formed and implemented. In this paper, we investigate the factors which are influential and contribute to a successful data collaborative using the Critical Success Factor (CSF) approach. As a result, we propose (1) a framework of CSFs which provides a holistic view of elements coming into play when a data collaborative is formed and (2) a list of Top 15 factors which highlights the elements which typically have a greater influence over the success of the partnership. We validated our findings in two case studies and discussed three broad factors which were found to be critical for the formation of data collaboratives: value proposition, trust, and public pressure. Our results can be used to help organizations prioritize and distribute resources accordingly when engaging in a data collaborative.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Establishing and implementing data collaborations for public good: A critical factor analysis to scale up the practice
  • 4.
    Susha, Iryna
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Participation in open government2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    List of papers
    1. eParticipation research: systematizing the field
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>eParticipation research: systematizing the field
    2012 (English)In: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 373-382Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    It has been widely acknowledged recently that the research field of eParticipation suffers from lack of comprehensive theoretical contributions, insufficient depth, and inconsistency in definitions of central concepts. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of the field researchers find it difficult to consolidate their theoretical groundwork and further theory building in the eParticipation domain. This paper reports a literature study of conceptual publications on the subject of eParticipation/eDemocracy in the time frame of 2007–2009. Its objectives are to track recent theoretical development in the field, to reveal constraints and limitations to researching the area, and to offer some suggestions for further inquiry. The results show that most theories currently used in conceptual eParticipation research originate from the fields of Political Science and Media and Communication Studies. But together with this, contemporary eParticipation authors contribute to strengthening the field with some “in-house” models and frameworks as well. Central problems with eParticipation research concern immaturity of the field, topical gaps, and biased assumptions. The review shows that the themes of recent publications can be grouped into three major categories: stakeholders, environment, and applications and tools. It also finds some interconnections between these categories; however, in general the coupling technology–stakeholders–(participatory) environments is weak.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier: , 2012
    Keywords
    eParticipation, eDemocracy, eGovernment, research, literature review
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-24327 (URN)10.1016/j.giq.2011.11.005 (DOI)000306150700006 ()2-s2.0-84862528508 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2012-08-09 Created: 2012-08-09 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    2. A communication genre perspective on e-petitioning: the case of the Citizens' Initiative
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A communication genre perspective on e-petitioning: the case of the Citizens' Initiative
    2012 (English)In: Electronic participation / [ed] Efthimos Tambouris, Ann Macintosh, Öystein Saebö, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 37-48Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Citizens’ Initiative is designed to make European democracy more direct by allowing citizens to propose (including electronically) legal acts to the Commission. The present paper offers a conceptual model for the analysis of this eParticipation case, and other similar e-petitioning practices, which is not biased by political ambition or technological determinism. The operational framework proposed aims to understand the nature of communication between citizens, governments, and the civil society among other stakeholders in the contemporary media landscape by using the concept of genre systems for this purpose.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012
    Series
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science ; 7444
    Keywords
    eParticipation, e-petition, European Citizens' Initiative (ECI), genre theory, communication studies
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-24330 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-33250-0_4 (DOI)000363274100004 ()2-s2.0-84866040957 (Scopus ID)978-3-642-33249-4 (ISBN)978-3-642-33250-0 (ISBN)
    Conference
    Fourth IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, ePart 2012, Kristiansand, Norway, September 3-5, 2012
    Available from: 2012-08-09 Created: 2012-08-09 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    3. Context clues for the stall of the Citizens' Initiative: lessons for opening up e-participation development practice
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Context clues for the stall of the Citizens' Initiative: lessons for opening up e-participation development practice
    2014 (English)In: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 454-465Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union recently launched an innovative participatory mechanism allowing its citizens across Europe get together and set the agenda for policy-making in Brussels. The tool - the European Citizens' Initiative - was labelled as "most direct and digital" ever in the history of European democratic experimentation as it made it possible to collect signatures (of which it is required not less than 1 million) in favour of an initiative via the internet (e-collection). Launched on I April 2012 the ECI was met with major enthusiasm in Brussels, but soon stumbled over serious difficulties as the organisers on the ground were unable to set up their online collection systems. The present paper looks into this ICT-related crisis from the point of reference of e-democracy theory based on the findings of a qualitative case-study. As a deliverable, it offers an understanding of factors and stakeholder rationales which shaped the design and implementation of the digital dimension of the ECI (iECI). (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    Keywords
    e-participation, e-democracy, European Citizens' Initiative (ECI), EU policy-making, e-petition, Policy analysis, genre theory
    National Category
    Media and Communications
    Research subject
    Information technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-37872 (URN)10.1016/j.giq.2014.02.005 (DOI)000342037100011 ()2-s2.0-84906272549 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2014-10-22 Created: 2014-10-20 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    4. Organizational measures to stimulate user engagement with open data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organizational measures to stimulate user engagement with open data
    2015 (English)In: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 181-206Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate which organizational measures can facilitate the use of open data. Implementation of open government data initiatives is commonly supply-driven, as it is difficult to predict the possible uses and users of data. Nonetheless, the value of open data materializes only upon its use – either to achieve societal benefits or economic value.

    Design/methodology/approach: First, a list of organizational measures to facilitate open data use from the literature is collated. Then, four case studies to examine the challenges faced in practice when implementing them are carried out. The case sample includes two types of organizations (statistical agency and municipality) in two country settings (Sweden and The Netherlands).

    Findings: Public organizations find it challenging to set up support for open data users having various requirements and skills. Most public organizations have no or limited interaction with data users and are often selective with regards to with whom and how to communicate.

    Research limitations/implications: Given the fragmented and emerging state of research on open data use and engagement, to date no systematic framework existed which would be dedicated to user engagement strategies. The authors systematized the literature and identified the themes pertaining to this issue. Their contribution is a list of measures for public organizations to improve open data use.

    Practical implications: An important deliverable of this research is the list of possible organizational measures, which can be used by public managers to plan their open data engagement strategies. The authors suggest that data publishers adopt a problem-oriented approach for selecting which data to publish and put more efforts into stimulating stakeholder participation.

    Originality/value: The novelty of this study lies in the fact that it addresses a previously overlooked area of open data research, namely, the use of open data and ways to stimulate it.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015
    Keywords
    Collaboration, Participation, Open (government) data, Open data engagement, Open data use, Organizational measures
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-44445 (URN)10.1108/TG-05-2014-0016 (DOI)000213903100004 ()2-s2.0-84929314376 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding agencies:

    Orebro University program "Technology-Mediated Knowledge Processes" 

    Available from: 2015-04-24 Created: 2015-04-24 Last updated: 2018-04-07Bibliographically approved
    5. Driving factors of service innovation using open government data: An exploratory study of entrepreneurs in two countries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driving factors of service innovation using open government data: An exploratory study of entrepreneurs in two countries
    2015 (English)In: Information Polity, ISSN 1570-1255, E-ISSN 1875-8754, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 19-34Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Open government data offers great potential for innovation and growth in various sectors of societal life. The use of open data is expected to power the development of new or enhanced services and products. However, in practice service innovation on the basis of open data is in its infancy; furthermore, there is limited knowledge about the adoption of open data by businesses. This study investigates: What are the driving factors of open data adoption by businesses for service innovation? To get insights into this issue we conduct a survey of businesses in Sweden and the Netherlands who have experimented with open data. Our study is explorative since open data innovation is an emerging research direction. We find that the driving factors motivating businesses to innovate with open data differ widely, however on average innovativeness of the company and its expertise and skills play an important role. We also conclude that facilitating conditions are viewed by businesses as an influential driver, but they are not given enough attention by data providers.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IOS Press, 2015
    Keywords
    Open data, open government data, open data adoption, open innovation, innovation, adoption, driving factors
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-44448 (URN)10.3233/IP-150353 (DOI)2-s2.0-84942777003 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2015-04-24 Created: 2015-04-24 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    Download full text (pdf)
    Introductory chapter
    Download (pdf)
    Cover
  • 5.
    Susha, Iryna
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    The digital citizen as partner in eGovernance: ambitions and institutional realities2013Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This cover paper summarizes the research conducted in the period from June 2011 to January 2013 as part of PhD work. It belongs to the field of eParticipation, often considered to be a sub-domain of the eGovernment field. More generally, eParticipation stands for citizens’ participation in the processes of public service provision at its various stages. It is not limited to activities involving government but also includes bottom-up citizen participation like social networking, blogging, video sharing etc. The focus of this thesis is government-initiated eParticipation activities. The rationale for focusing on government-owned channels of eParticipation is that they, unlike e.g. opinion formation in social networks, normally have a direct link to the formal process of decision-making. This means that the citizens’ input provided via government-managed eParticipation tools would be expected to be formally processed by the government and integrated in some way into the policy-making activities.

    The status of government-initiated eParticipation is not impressive by any standards; regardless of numerous trials and gradual progress, governments still use the new media in their interaction with the public in a quite tentative manner. This occurs against the background of the rapidly changing communication landscape, such as the rise of the social Internet, which governments need to embrace in order to catch up with the public and stay relevant to their citizens. Therefore this research asks the question: how do governments handle the challenge of delivering more and better eParticipation? By "more and better eParticipation" is meant including forms of participation which utilise state-of-the-art communication technology as well as enhancing the role and influence of the citizenry in the decision-making process. "Digital citizen as partner" is the conceptual framing of such enhanced presence and leverage of the wider public in the democratic affairs of the state. In sum, this research looks into the development practice of ambitious eParticipation activities with the view of understanding how – with what degree of success and failure, and why – governments implement this change.

    The research is based on the analysis of a single project using case-study methodology. The selected case is the European Citizens’ Initiative (ECI), which was launched on April 1, 2012. It was bound to become the first trans-European agenda-setting mechanism; 1 million citizens can by signing an initiative propose a new EU law. Of particular interest in this study was the eParticipation element in this project, namely the online collection of statements of support across EU. Hence the research inquired into how this technological component was shaped by the institutional forces, including organisational behaviour, institutional logics, political agendas, regulatory frameworks etc. The research refers to such theories as systems view (dimensions of eDemocracy shaping, dynamic socio-technical eGovernance system); political value perspective (models of eDemocracy, values in participatory policy-making); stakeholder analysis (genre taxonomy to capture perceptions). The research is reported in three research publications, including a literature review of eParticipation (Paper 1), a conceptual study of the case (Paper 2), and an empirical investigation of the start-up phase of the project (Paper 3). The fieldwork included document studies, interviews, and observations carried out in the period of March through August 2012 in EU institutions in Brussels.

    The main findings of the case study can be summarised as follows: in its initial configuration the ECI created major constraints to effective citizen participation online. This was due to the disproportionate requirements for using the procedure, such as for example expensive system setup and liability for data breaches. The root cause, as the analysis of policy-makers’ rationales showed, lay in the way the tool was designed. This in turn could be traced to the institutions’ failure to handle the socio-technical complexity of the eParticipation procedure, i.e. focusing on the technical solution without properly considering the social environment of its use. The research proposes a number of measures which can be conducive to more effective eParticipation design, such as for instance enabling genuine collaboration with external stakeholders and seizing opportunities for learning and adjustment in the organisational setup of public institutions. In general the conclusion is that the strategic and operational sides of developing eParticipation need better alignment; a visionary eDemocracy idea like the ECI would require a more entrepreneurial attitude and processes within government to implement it effectively.

    The contributions of this research are relevant both for the practice and theory of eParticipation development. In the practical dimension this research shows how the design – understood broadly as the regulatory framework governing the use of the tool – which is conditional on internal institutional variables, can affect eParticipation. Therefore understanding the attitudes and actions of the ‘insiders’ – politicians, public officials, technologists – can be crucial for developing ICT-supported democratic procedures. Such focus on the collective mental models of decision-makers regarding eParticipation is not quite common in eParticipation research and practice which makes this thesis particularly relevant. In relation to theory this cover paper also has important implications – it addresses a gap in the eParticipation literature concerning the changing role and behaviour of traditional public institutions under the conditions of new media and the transforming relationship with the increasingly more digital citizenry. The research also puts an eParticipation case against the background of eGovernance by applying a model therefrom (a dynamic socio-technical view of eGovernance) onto the development of the ECI as an eParticipation opportunity. By doing so the cover paper tests the model and further elaborates on the interaction between the social and technical dimensions using the case as an illustration.

  • 6.
    Susha, Iryna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Section Information and Communication Technology, Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Gil-Garcia, J. Ramon
    University at Albany, State University of New York, New York, USA; Universidad de las Americas Puebla, San Andrés Cholula, Puebla, Puebla, Mexico.
    A Collaborative Governance Approach to Partnerships Addressing Public Problems with Private Data2019In: Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2019, p. 2892-2901Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent explosion of data, which is generated, collected, and exchanged, opens up new opportunities and poses new challenges.

    Actors in different sectors have recently began to explore how they can work together and leverage these data to help address ‘wicked’ problems.

    A novel form of cross sector partnership emerges, labelled “data collaborative”, which is normally focused on accessing private sector data and using it to address complex public problems.

    While there is emerging knowledge about how data can be shared in such partnerships, less is known about the collaboration dynamics of these partnerships.

    In this paper, we examine this problem from the perspective of collaborative governance and propose a framework for understanding collaboration around data sharing for public good.

  • 7.
    Susha, Iryna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Context clues for the stall of the Citizens' Initiative: lessons for opening up e-participation development practice2014In: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 454-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union recently launched an innovative participatory mechanism allowing its citizens across Europe get together and set the agenda for policy-making in Brussels. The tool - the European Citizens' Initiative - was labelled as "most direct and digital" ever in the history of European democratic experimentation as it made it possible to collect signatures (of which it is required not less than 1 million) in favour of an initiative via the internet (e-collection). Launched on I April 2012 the ECI was met with major enthusiasm in Brussels, but soon stumbled over serious difficulties as the organisers on the ground were unable to set up their online collection systems. The present paper looks into this ICT-related crisis from the point of reference of e-democracy theory based on the findings of a qualitative case-study. As a deliverable, it offers an understanding of factors and stakeholder rationales which shaped the design and implementation of the digital dimension of the ECI (iECI). (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Susha, Iryna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    eParticipation research: systematizing the field2012In: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 373-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been widely acknowledged recently that the research field of eParticipation suffers from lack of comprehensive theoretical contributions, insufficient depth, and inconsistency in definitions of central concepts. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of the field researchers find it difficult to consolidate their theoretical groundwork and further theory building in the eParticipation domain. This paper reports a literature study of conceptual publications on the subject of eParticipation/eDemocracy in the time frame of 2007–2009. Its objectives are to track recent theoretical development in the field, to reveal constraints and limitations to researching the area, and to offer some suggestions for further inquiry. The results show that most theories currently used in conceptual eParticipation research originate from the fields of Political Science and Media and Communication Studies. But together with this, contemporary eParticipation authors contribute to strengthening the field with some “in-house” models and frameworks as well. Central problems with eParticipation research concern immaturity of the field, topical gaps, and biased assumptions. The review shows that the themes of recent publications can be grouped into three major categories: stakeholders, environment, and applications and tools. It also finds some interconnections between these categories; however, in general the coupling technology–stakeholders–(participatory) environments is weak.

  • 9.
    Susha, Iryna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Janssen, Marijn
    Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands.
    Driving factors of service innovation using open government data: An exploratory study of entrepreneurs in two countries2015In: Information Polity, ISSN 1570-1255, E-ISSN 1875-8754, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 19-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open government data offers great potential for innovation and growth in various sectors of societal life. The use of open data is expected to power the development of new or enhanced services and products. However, in practice service innovation on the basis of open data is in its infancy; furthermore, there is limited knowledge about the adoption of open data by businesses. This study investigates: What are the driving factors of open data adoption by businesses for service innovation? To get insights into this issue we conduct a survey of businesses in Sweden and the Netherlands who have experimented with open data. Our study is explorative since open data innovation is an emerging research direction. We find that the driving factors motivating businesses to innovate with open data differ widely, however on average innovativeness of the company and its expertise and skills play an important role. We also conclude that facilitating conditions are viewed by businesses as an influential driver, but they are not given enough attention by data providers.

  • 10.
    Susha, Iryna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Janssen, Marijn
    Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Organizational measures to stimulate user engagement with open data2015In: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 181-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate which organizational measures can facilitate the use of open data. Implementation of open government data initiatives is commonly supply-driven, as it is difficult to predict the possible uses and users of data. Nonetheless, the value of open data materializes only upon its use – either to achieve societal benefits or economic value.

    Design/methodology/approach: First, a list of organizational measures to facilitate open data use from the literature is collated. Then, four case studies to examine the challenges faced in practice when implementing them are carried out. The case sample includes two types of organizations (statistical agency and municipality) in two country settings (Sweden and The Netherlands).

    Findings: Public organizations find it challenging to set up support for open data users having various requirements and skills. Most public organizations have no or limited interaction with data users and are often selective with regards to with whom and how to communicate.

    Research limitations/implications: Given the fragmented and emerging state of research on open data use and engagement, to date no systematic framework existed which would be dedicated to user engagement strategies. The authors systematized the literature and identified the themes pertaining to this issue. Their contribution is a list of measures for public organizations to improve open data use.

    Practical implications: An important deliverable of this research is the list of possible organizational measures, which can be used by public managers to plan their open data engagement strategies. The authors suggest that data publishers adopt a problem-oriented approach for selecting which data to publish and put more efforts into stimulating stakeholder participation.

    Originality/value: The novelty of this study lies in the fact that it addresses a previously overlooked area of open data research, namely, the use of open data and ways to stimulate it.

  • 11.
    Susha, Iryna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Section Information and Communication Technology, Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Van Tulder, Rob
    RSM Erasmus University Rotterdam, Department of Business-Society Management, Partnerships Resource Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Data driven social partnerships: Exploring an emergent trend in search of research challenges and questions2019In: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 112-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The volume of data collected by multiple devices, such as mobile phones, sensors, satellites, is growing at an exponential rate. Accessing and aggregating different sources of data, including data outside the public domain, has the potential to provide insights for many societal challenges. This catalyzes new forms of partnerships between public, private, and nongovernmental actors aimed at leveraging different sources of data for positive societal impact and the public good. In practice there are different terms in use to label these partnerships but research has been lagging behind in systematically examining this trend. In this paper, we deconstruct the conceptualization and examine the characteristics of this emerging phenomenon by systematically reviewing academic and practitioner literature. To do so, we use the grounded theory literature review method. We identify several concepts which are used to describe this phenomenon and propose an integrative definition of “data driven social partnerships” based on them. We also identify a list of challenges which data driven social partnerships face and explore the most urgent and most cited ones, thereby proposing a research agenda. Finally, we discuss the main contributions of this emerging research field, in relation to the challenges, and systematize the knowledge base about this phenomenon for the research community.

  • 12.
    Susha, Iryna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Janssen, Marijn
    Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Tambouris, Efthimios
    University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Open and Big Data Partnerships for Public Good: Interactive Live Polling of Influential Factors2016In: Electronic Government and Electronic Participation, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2016, p. 405-406Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is much potential for open and big data to be used for addressing societal challenges of today. This drives a new kind of partnership called "data collaborative" emphasizing the value of data for public good. Data collaboratives stand for cross-sector partnerships, whereby organizations in the private or public sector disclose their data, as an act of good will, in order to contribute to a societal cause (such as e.g. healthcare, humanitarian, or other policy issues). In this workshop we focus on this emerging topic which so far has deserved little attention in research. In our previous research an initial framework of influential factors for data collaboratives was introduced. The workshop objective is to validate and refine this initial framework by inviting participants to take part in an interactive live polling exercise and assess a number of propositions about influential factors.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Open and Big Data Partnerships for Public Good: Interactive Live Polling of Influential Factors
  • 13.
    Susha, Iryna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Janssen, Marijn
    Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Verhulst, Stefaan
    The Governance Lab, New York University, New York, USA.
    Data collaboratives as “bazaars”?: A review of coordination problems and mechanisms to match demand for data with supply2017In: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 157-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In “data collaboratives”, private and public organizations coordinate their activities to leverage data to address a societal challenge. This paper aims to focus on analyzing challenges and coordination mechanisms of data collaboratives.

    Design/methodology/approach: This study uses coordination theory to identify and discuss thecoordination problems and coordination mechanisms associated with data collaboratives. The authors also use a taxonomy of data collaborative forms from a previous empirical study to discuss how different forms of data collaboratives may require different coordination mechanisms.

    Findings: The study analyzed data collaboratives from the perspective of organizational and task levels. At the organizational level, the authors argue that data collaboratives present an example of the bazaar form of coordination. At the task level, the authors identified five coordination problems and discussed potential coordination mechanisms to address them, such as coordination by negotiation, by third party, by standardization, to name a few.

    Research limitations/implications: This study is one of the first few to systematically analyze the phenomenon of “data collaboratives”.

    Practical implications: This study can help practitioners better understand the coordination challenges they may face when initiating a data collaborative and to develop successful data collaboratives by using coordination mechanisms to mitigate these challenges.

    Originality/value: Data collaboratives are a novel form of data-driven initiatives which have seen rapid experimentation lately. This study draws attention to this concept in the academic literature and highlights some of the complexities of organizing data collaboratives in practice.

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  • 14.
    Susha, Iryna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Janssen, Marijn
    Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Verhulst, Stefaan
    The Governance Lab, New York University, NewYork, USA.
    Pardo, Theresa
    Center for Technology, Government University, Albany NY, USA.
    Data Collaboratives: How to Create Value from Data for Public Problem Solving?2017In: Proceedings of ACM dg.o conference / [ed] Charles C. Hinnant, Adegboyega Ojo, ACM Digital Library, 2017, p. 604-606Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This panel is dedicated to the theme of ‘data collaboratives’, a novel form of public private partnership to leverage data for addressing societal challenges. The panel brings together prolific researchers and practitioners to share lessons and discuss how value is created from data collaboratives for the solving of public problems. The panel will highlight prominent examples of data collaboratives at international, national, and regional/city-levels and discuss the value creation mechanisms underlying them, as well as more broadly best practices and challenges associated with data collaboratives. The panel offers an opportunity for conference attendees to engage with this emerging new theme through interactive discussions and presentations of cutting-edge research and practice. 

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    Data Collaboratives: How to Create Value from Data for Public Problem Solving?
  • 15.
    Susha, Iryna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Kista, Sweden.
    Juell-Skielse, Gustaf
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Kista, Sweden.
    Open Data Research in the Nordic Region: Towards a Scandinavian Approach?2016In: Electronic Government: 15th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2016, Guimarães, Portugal, September 5-8, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] Scholl, H.J. et al., Springer, 2016, Vol. 9820, p. 61-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2009 open data has been growing into a specialized research area, including in the Nordic countries. Historically Information Systems research from this region has managed to develop a distinct identity on the international research arena. Hence, the expectation is that also in the context of open data there exists room for unique contributions of Nordic researchers. However, no systematic overview exists yet of the open data research conducted in these countries or of the emerging research community. This paper, therefore, aims to fill this gap by conducting a comprehensive literature review. Our study focuses on the following aspects: (1) which perspectives and topics are examined and (2) which empirical settings and methods are applied in Nordic open data research. Finding answers to these questions will enable us to propose a future research agenda and thereby stimulate debate in the Nordic open data research community.

  • 16.
    Susha, Iryna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Pardo, Theresa
    CTG, University at Albany, SUNY, USA.
    Janssen, Marijn
    Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Adler, Natalia
    UNICEF, USA.
    Verhulst, Stefaan
    The Governance Lab, New York University, USA.
    Harbour, Todd
    New York State, USA.
    A Research Roadmap to Advance Data Collaboratives Practice as a Novel Research Direction2018In: International Journal of Electronic Government Research, ISSN 1548-3886, E-ISSN 1548-3894, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of initiatives have emerged around the world to help facilitate data sharing and collaborations to leverage different sources of data to address societal problems. They are called “data collaboratives”. Data collaboratives are seen as a novel way to match real life problems with relevant expertise and data from across the sectors. Despite its significance and growing experimentation by practitioners, there has been limited research in this field. In this article, the authors report on the outcomes of a panel discussing critical issues facing data collaboratives and develop a research and development agenda. The panel included participants from the government, academics, and practitioners and was held in June 2017 during the 18th International Conference on Digital Government Research at City University of New York (Staten Island, New York, USA). The article begins by discussing the concept of data collaboratives. Then the authors formulate research questions and topics for the research roadmap based on the panel discussions. The research roadmap poses questions across nine different topics: conceptualizing data collaboratives, value of data, matching data to problems, impact analysis, incentives, capabilities, governance, data management, and interoperability. Finally, the authors discuss how digital government research can contribute to answering some of the identified research questions.

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    A Research Roadmap to Advance Data Collaboratives Practice as a Novel Research Direction
  • 17.
    Susha, Iryna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Rukanova, Boriana
    Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Gil-Garcia, J. Ramon
    University at Albany, State University of New York, USA & Universidad de las Americas Puebla, Mexico.
    Tan, Yao-Hua
    Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Gasco, Mila
    University at Albany, State University of New York, USA & Universidad de las Americas Puebla, Mexico.
    Identifying mechanisms for achieving voluntary data sharing in cross-sector partnerships for public good2019In: Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research, ACM Digital Library, 2019, p. 227-236Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been advocated that sharing business data can generate public value. Still this information sharing often needs to be done on voluntary basis and that often poses major challenges. The main research question addressed in this paper is: How is voluntary information sharing to create publicvalue achieved and what are the drivers and mechanisms to achieve that? While voluntary information sharing to achieve public value is recognized in the eGovernment literature, this literature is limited to understand how such information sharing can be achieved. To address the research question, we borrow a framework of platforms for cross sector social partnerships from organization studies and use it as a conceptual lens to structure the analysis of three case studies where voluntary information sharingwas achieved in different domains. Building on the framework and our case analysis, we distinguish three types of information sharing collaborations, namely Resource-dependence platform, Social Issue platform, and Societal Sector platform which allow to distinguish the motivations why parties enter into voluntary information sharing collaborations. Our analysis suggests that while the higher goal of the voluntary information sharing may be the same (i.e. to create public value), parties are driven by different motivations of why they enter into the information sharing collaborations. Furthermore, in each of these different types of collaborations the mechanisms of how the information sharing was achieved, as well as the role the government can play, differ.

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    Identifying mechanisms for achieving voluntary data sharing in cross-sector partnerships for public good
  • 18.
    Susha, Iryna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Zuiderwijk, Anneke
    Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Charalabidis, Yannis
    University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Greece.
    Parycek, Peter
    Danube University, Krems, Austria.
    Janssen, Marijn
    Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Critical Factors for Open Data Publication and Use: A Comparison of City-level, Regional, and Transnational Cases2015In: eJournal of eDemocracy & Open Government, ISSN 2075-9517, E-ISSN 2075-9517, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 94-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of research concerning the factors influencing the success or failure of open data initiatives. Based on the results of two workshops, we provide a list of 47 success factors for open data publication and 18 success factors for open data use.  We further use three case studies (ENGAGE, Open NY, and Open Vienna) to examine how the criticality of factors varies depending on the geographical level and other characteristics of the open data initiative. The cases, representing open data initiatives at city, regional and transnational levels, point at different categories of critical success factors. Our key conclusions are that 1) the criticality of the factors depends considerably on the context of the open data initiative; 2) a number of success factors appear to be more universally applicable than others; 3) the factors that are critical to all three cases are derived from many different success factor categories, which suggests that open data initiatives should adopt an interdisciplinary approach, and 4) further work is needed to detail the success factors for open data publication and use in other contexts.

  • 19.
    Susha, Iryna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Zuiderwijk, Anneke
    Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Janssen, Marijn
    Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Benchmarks for evaluating the progress of open data adoption: usage, limitations, and lessons learnt2015In: Social science computer review, ISSN 0894-4393, E-ISSN 1552-8286, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 613-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public organizations release their data for use by the public to open the government. Various benchmarks for evaluating the progress of open data adoption have emerged recently. In order to help bring about a better understanding of the common and differentiating elements in open data benchmarks and to identify the methodologies and metrics affecting their variation, this article compares open data benchmarks and describes lessons learned from their analysis. An interpretive meta-analysis approach was used and five benchmarks were compared with regard to metadata (key concepts, themes, and metaphors), meta-methods (methodologies underlying the benchmarks) and metatheories (theoretical assumptions at the foundation of the benchmarks). It was found that each benchmark has its strengths and weaknesses and is applicable in specific situations. Since the open data benchmarks have a different scope and focus and use different methodologies, they produce different results in terms of country ranks. There is an obvious gap in both the literature and benchmarks regarding the evolution of end-user practices and individual adoption of open data. Furthermore, lessons are drawn for the development of more comprehensive open data benchmarks and open government evaluation in general. 

     

     

  • 20.
    Susha, Iryna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Zuiderwijk, Anneke
    Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Janssen, Marijn
    Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Parycek, Peter
    Danube University Krems, Krems, Austria.
    Charalabidis, Yannis
    University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Greece.
    Workshop on context-specific critical success factors for open data publication and use2015In: Proceedings of the International Conference for E-Democracy and Open Government 2015 / [ed] Peter Parycek, Noella Edelmann, Krems, Austria: Donau-Universität , 2015, p. 395-397Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governmental organizations around the globe step up their efforts to implement open data initiatives as part of their open government commitments. Thereis, however, little systematic evidence, in research and practice, as to what constitutes a “successful” open data initiative. In this workshop, we follow up on our previous work on Critical Success Factors (CSF) for open data. In particular, we aim to establish which of the CSFs that we previously identified apply in which contexts -thus allowing for a more fine-grained and targeted advice to open data practitioners. The workshop participants will be provided with the results from our previous research on factors that influence the success of open data initiatives and can benefit from the structured group discussions on factors that are critical to open data initiatives in a particular context

  • 21.
    Susha, Iryna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Delft Univ Technol, Delft, Netherlands.
    Zuiderwijk, Anneke
    Delft Univ Technol, Delft, Netherlands.
    Janssen, Marijn
    Delft Univ Technol, Delft, Netherlands.
    Parycek, Peter
    Danube Univ Krems, Krems, Austria.
    Loukis, Euripidis
    Univ Aegean, Mytilene, Greece.
    Workshop on critical success factors for open data: from policy to participation and innovation2014In: Electronic Government and Electronic Participation, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2014, p. 305-306Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open data offer tremendous potential for participation and innovation. Yet open data providers and users are puzzled about what to do and what are key issues they should concentrate on. In this workshop, we provide insight in and discuss critical success factors for open data participation and innovation from various perspectives. The workshop contains various interactive elements, including a discussion about a research agenda for open data innovation and a brainstorming session about critical success factors for open data provision and use.

  • 22.
    van den Homberg, Marc
    et al.
    510 An Initiative of The Netherlands Red Cross, The Hague, The Netherlands.
    Susha, Iryna
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Section Information and Communication Technology, Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Characterizing Data Ecosystems to Support Official Statistics with Open Mapping Data for Reporting on Sustainable Development Goals2018In: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 7, no 12, article id 456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reporting on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is complex given the wide variety of governmental and NGO actors involved in development projects as well as the increased number of targets and indicators. However, data on the wide variety of indicators must be collected regularly, in a robust manner, comparable across but also within countries and at different administrative and disaggregated levels for adequate decision making to take place. Traditional census and household survey data is not enough. The increase in Small and Big Data streams have the potential to complement official statistics. The purpose of this research is to develop and evaluate a framework to characterize a data ecosystem in a developing country in its totality and to show how this can be used to identify data, outside the official statistics realm, that enriches the reporting on SDG indicators. Our method consisted of a literature study and an interpretative case study (two workshops with 60 and 35 participants and including two questionnaires, over 20 consultations and desk research). We focused on SDG 6.1.1. (Proportion of population using safely managed drinking water services) in rural Malawi. We propose a framework with five dimensions (actors, data supply, data infrastructure, data demand and data ecosystem governance). Results showed that many governmental and NGO actors are involved in water supply projects with different funding sources and little overall governance. There is a large variety of geospatial data sharing platforms and online accessible information management systems with however a low adoption due to limited internet connectivity and low data literacy. Lots of data is still not open. All this results in an immature data ecosystem. The characterization of the data ecosystem using the framework proves useful as it unveils gaps in data at geographical level and in terms of dimensionality (attributes per water point) as well as collaboration gaps. The data supply dimension of the framework allows identification of those datasets that have the right quality and lowest cost of data extraction to enrich official statistics. Overall, our analysis of the Malawian case study illustrated the complexities involved in achieving self-regulation through interaction, feedback and networked relationships. Additional complexities, typical for developing countries, include fragmentation, divide between governmental and non-governmental data activities, complex funding relationships and a data poor context.

  • 23.
    Zuiderwijk, Anneke
    et al.
    Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Janssen, Marijn
    Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Susha, Iryna
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Improving the speed and ease of open data use through metadata, interaction mechanisms, and quality indicators2016In: Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, ISSN 1091-9392, E-ISSN 1532-7744, Vol. 26, no 1-2, p. 116-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The usage of Open Government Data (OGD) has not kept pace with the expectations as existing OGD infrastructures mainly serve as data repositories. Many OGD infrastructures do not stimulate or support OGD use processes, and there is a lack of research regarding which functionalities can stimulate such processes. The objective of this study is to use a design science approach to evaluate whether metadata, interaction mechanisms and data quality indicators can improve OGD use. OGD use comprises five main activities, namely searching for and finding OGD, OGD analysis, visualizing OGD, interacting about OGD, and OGD quality analysis. We expect that three OGD key infrastructure elements—metadata, interaction mechanisms, and data quality indicators—allow for improving these five OGD use activities. A prototype of an advanced OGD infrastructure was created which implements the three OGD infrastructure elements. Three quasi-experiments with a pre-test post-test control group design were conducted. The quasi-experiments showed that the prototype facilitated the usability of the novel OGD use functionalities. Our quasi-experiments supported our propositions that metadata, interaction mechanisms, and data quality indicators contribute to making OGD use easier and faster, and enhance the user experience. The infrastructure elements improved OGD use by better enabling searching, analysing, visualizing, discussing, giving feedback on and assessing the quality of open data. Hence, we plea for integrating metadata, interaction mechanisms, and data quality indicators in open data infrastructures to advance open data usage.

  • 24.
    Zuiderwijk, Anneke
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Susha, Iryna
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Charalabidis, Yannis
    University of Aegean, Mytilene, Greece.
    Parycek, Peter
    Danube University Krems, Krems, Austria.
    Janssen, Marijn
    Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Open data disclosure and use: critical factors from a case study2015In: CeDEM 2015: Proceedings of the International Conference for E-Democracy and Open Government 2015 / [ed] P. Parycek & N. Edelmann, Krems: Edition Donau-Universität Krems , 2015, p. 197-208Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the factors which influence the success or failure of open data initiatives. Based on the results of a workshop, we provide a list of success factors for open data publication and use (64 in total) and discuss their criticality in a particular setting using a case study (the ENGAGE project). The most critical success factors for open data publication and use, in the context of this case study, related to legislation, regulation and licenses. However,the criticality of factors depends considerably on the context of the open data initiative. Our key conclusions are that further work is needed to detail the success factors for open data publication and use in particular contexts, and that a number of success factors, such as those related to sustainability of publication process and user feedback, appear to be more universally applicable than others.

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    Open data disclosure and use: critical factors from a case study
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