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  • 1.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment-AGR255, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Scander, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Nilsen, Bente
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Folate intake in a Swedish adult population: Food sources and predictive factors2017In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 61, article id 1328960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Folate plays an important role in cell metabolism, but international studies show that intake is currently below recommendations, especially among women. The study objective was to identify folate food sources by food group, gender, and age group, and to identify factors influencing folate intake, based on food consumption data for Swedish adults in the 2010-11 Riksmaten study.

    Methods: The sample included a representative Swedish population aged 18-80 years (n = 1657; 56.3% female). Food and nutrient intakes were estimated from self-reported food records during 4 consecutive days. Food consumption was categorized into 26 food groups. Stepwise regression was used to analyze food groups as folate sources for participants. Factors predicting the highest folate intake (third tertile) were determined by logistic regression analysis.

    Results: Vegetables and pulses represented the most important folate source for all age groups and both genders, especially in women aged 45-64 years (49.7% of total folate intake). The next folate source in importance was dairy products for the youngest group (18-30 years), bread for men, and fruit and berries for women. The likelihood of being in the highest tertile of folate intake (odds ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval 1.354-2.104) was higher for men. Influencing factors for folate intake in the highest tertile were low body mass index and high educational level in the men, and high educational level, vegetarian diet, organic product consumption, nonsmoking, and alcohol consumption within recommendations in the women.

    Conclusion: This study describes the folate intake per food group of Swedish adults according to the 2010-11 Riksmaten survey, identifying vegetables and pulses as the most important source. Data obtained on factors related to folate consumption may be useful for the development of specific nutrition education programs to increase the intake of this vitamin in high-risk groups.

  • 2.
    Nilsen, Bente B.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Growth of schoolchildren: studies on somatic growth and deviant growth patterns such as weight loss and obesity and aspects of intake of breakfast and food items2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to explore somatic growth, and deviant growth patterns as episodes of weight loss and obesity development, including some aspects of meal patterns and food intake.

    Methods: The thesis includes four studies, two cross-sectional studies (Paper I and II), and two longitudinal studies (Paper III and IV).

    The first paper looks at assessment of BMI categories (underweight, overweight and obesity) prevalence and how the results relate to which growth reference that is used. Height and weight measurements of 4,518 Swedish schoolchildren aged 7–9 years were collected in 2008 using a standardised protocol from World Health Organization (WHO). Four growth references were used, from the WHO, the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and two Swedish growth references from Werner and Karlberg et al. (Paper I). Parts of the same data set plus a follow-up data set from 2010 was used to investigate correlations with deviances in BMI in relation to breakfast habits and selected food frequencies.

    For paper three and four, a longitudinal material from two nationally representative samples was used with height and weight data of 6,572 schoolchildren, born 1973 and 1981. Episodes of BMI reduction of 10% or more were identified and correlated to final height (Paper III). The same material was used for paper four to further investigate growth patterns on group level by use of weight for height, Tri-Ponderal Mass Index (TMI), apart from BMI. On individual level, weight at age 7 years and weight at 16 years for girls and 18 years for boys, were categorized in monthly values and expressed in standard deviation (from ≤ -2 to ≥ +3 SD) (Paper IV).

    Results: Depending on which growth reference we used, the prevalence of different degrees of thinness varied greatly. There were also significant gender differences depending on the growth reference we used (Paper I).

    The majority of parents reported that their children (95.4%) had breakfast every day. The odds of being OW/OB was higher among those not having breakfast every day (odds ratio (OR) 1.9, drinking diet soft drinks OR 2.6, 95% and skimmed/semi-skimmed milk OR 1.8), four days a week or more (Paper II).

    There was no statistically significant difference on group level in final height between individuals with and individuals without BMI reduction, independent of age and if the individuals were thin, normal weight, overweight or obese at the start of the BMI reduction episode (Paper III).

    Almost the same longitudinal growth patterns were found for the two cohorts, even if weight and BMI for all almost all ages were higher in 1981 cohort. Patterns for TMI differs from those of W/H and BMI. Three main longitudinal trajectories represent the description of weight development from 7–16 years for girls and 7–18 years for boys. These patterns were mainly the same in the 1981 cohort and the 1973 cohort. (Paper IV).

    List of papers
    1. Using different growth references to measure thinness and overweight among Swedish primary school children showed considerable variations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using different growth references to measure thinness and overweight among Swedish primary school children showed considerable variations
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 105, no 10, p. 1158-1165Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The study compared how four different growth references determined the prevalence of thinness and overweight, based on height and weight measurements from a nationally representative sample of Swedish children from seven to nine years of age.

    Methods: The height and weight measurements of 4,518 Swedish schoolchildren aged seven to nine years were carried out in 2008 using a standardised protocol. The prevalence of different degrees of thinness and overweight were calculated using international growth references from the World Health Organization, the International Obesity Task Force and two Swedish growth references from Werner and Karlberg.

    Results: Depending on which growth reference we used, the prevalence of different degrees of thinness varied from 7.5%-16.9% for the boys and 6.9%-13.7% for the girls, while for the prevalence of overweight, including obesity and severe obesity, varied from 16.5%-25.7% for the boys and 18.2-25.2% for the girls. There were also significant gender differences depending on the growth reference we used.

    Conclusion: Using four different growth references, two international and two Swedish, produced wide variations in the prevalence of thinness and overweight, together with significant gender differences. In the absence of a global definition, we need both national and international growth references.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2016
    Keywords
    Body mass index cut-off levels, childhood, crowth surveillance, obesity, underweight
    National Category
    Nutrition and Dietetics Pediatrics
    Research subject
    Culinary Arts and Meal Science; Nutrition; Pediatrics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50027 (URN)10.1111/apa.13400 (DOI)000383619400022 ()26991338 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84987846807 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2006-1624, 2006-1506Swedish Research Council, 7509, 2006-7777
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Örebro University, Sweden

    Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway

    The Swedish University Hospital (ALF)

    Karolinska Institut

    Region Västra Götaland

    Available from: 2016-04-28 Created: 2016-04-28 Last updated: 2018-02-21Bibliographically approved
    2. Reported habitual intake of breakfast and selected foods in relation to overweight status among seven-to nine-year-old Swedish children
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reported habitual intake of breakfast and selected foods in relation to overweight status among seven-to nine-year-old Swedish children
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 886-894Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the reported frequency of breakfast intake and selected food and beverages in the investigated group of Swedish children in comparison with recommended intakes. Furthermore, the study analyses these food habits and some demographic and lifestyle factors in relation to overweight and obesity.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study builds on data collected in 2008 and 2010. Measured anthropometric data and parent questionnaire data were collected. A total of 2620 Swedish children (52.1% boys) aged seven to nine years were included.

    Results: The majority of parents reported that their children (95.4%) had breakfast every day. The majority of children had fresh fruit (84.7%) and vegetables (83.9%) most days a week. Only 1.6% of the children were reported to have fast food and 6.0% to have sugar containing soft drinks, four days a week or more. The prevalence of overweight including obesity (OW/OB) was 17.8% for boys, 18.6% for girls. The odds of being OW/OB was higher among those not having breakfast every day (odds ratio (OR) 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-2.96), drinking diet soft drink (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.52-4.42) and skimmed/semi-skimmed milk (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.37-2.36) four days a week or more. Parents being overweight and having low education levels were also related to a higher risk of their children being overweight.

    Conclusions: The parental reports of children's food habits pointed at favourable eating patterns for most investigated children. Breakfast skipping, diet soft drinks and low-fat milk consumption were more frequent among OW/OB children. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the causal relationships.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2017
    Keywords
    Child growth, breakfast, food habits, WHO Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63801 (URN)10.1177/1403494817724951 (DOI)000418185200021 ()29160159 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85038350923 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfareThe Karolinska Institutet's Research Foundation
    Available from: 2018-01-03 Created: 2018-01-03 Last updated: 2018-10-09Bibliographically approved
    3. Do substantial BMI reduction episodes among Swedish schoolchildren have any impact on their final height?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do substantial BMI reduction episodes among Swedish schoolchildren have any impact on their final height?
    2018 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, no 7, p. 1223-1229Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This study investigated whether substantial body mass index (BMI) reductions in Swedish schoolchildren aged 7-19 years, caused by disease, healthy or unhealthy behaviour, had any impact on their final height.

    METHODS: We used height and weight data on 6,572 subjects from two nationally representative longitudinal samples of Swedish children born in 1973 and 1981. These provided information on their final height and any BMI reduction episodes.

    RESULTS: Of the 6,572 subjects (50.9% boys), among individuals with information on final height, 1,118 had a BMI reduction of 5% and less than 10%, and 346 had at least one substantial BMI reduction of 10% of more. On a group level, there was no statistically significant difference in the final height of individuals with BMI reductions of 10% or more and those without. The findings were independent of age and the subject's BMI at the start of the reduction episode. However, there were a number of cases where a substantial BMI reduction probably had an impact on the subject's final height.

    CONCLUSION: Our study found no evidence that a substantial BMI reduction had any impact on final height on a group level, but further analyses of specific case studies are necessary to determine whether substantial BMI reduction might have an impact on final height.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2018
    Keywords
    Body Mass Index reduction, final height, longitudinal study, schoolchildren, weight loss
    National Category
    Pediatrics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64913 (URN)10.1111/apa.14258 (DOI)000435258200018 ()29405369 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85042559671 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-02-08 Created: 2018-02-08 Last updated: 2018-07-24Bibliographically approved
    4. The longitudinal development of body weight among individuals from age 7 to 18 years in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The longitudinal development of body weight among individuals from age 7 to 18 years in Sweden
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Research subject
    Culinary Arts and Meal Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65118 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-02-21 Created: 2018-02-21 Last updated: 2018-02-21Bibliographically approved
  • 3.
    Nilsen, Bente B
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.
    Werner, Bo
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    The longitudinal development of body weight among individuals from age 7 to 18 years in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Nilsen, Bente B.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo and Akershus University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Tellström, Richard
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Scander, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Werner, Bo
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts and Meal Sciences, Örebro University, Grythyttan, Sweden.
    Reported habitual intake of breakfast and selected foods in relation to overweight status among seven-to nine-year-old Swedish children2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 886-894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the reported frequency of breakfast intake and selected food and beverages in the investigated group of Swedish children in comparison with recommended intakes. Furthermore, the study analyses these food habits and some demographic and lifestyle factors in relation to overweight and obesity.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study builds on data collected in 2008 and 2010. Measured anthropometric data and parent questionnaire data were collected. A total of 2620 Swedish children (52.1% boys) aged seven to nine years were included.

    Results: The majority of parents reported that their children (95.4%) had breakfast every day. The majority of children had fresh fruit (84.7%) and vegetables (83.9%) most days a week. Only 1.6% of the children were reported to have fast food and 6.0% to have sugar containing soft drinks, four days a week or more. The prevalence of overweight including obesity (OW/OB) was 17.8% for boys, 18.6% for girls. The odds of being OW/OB was higher among those not having breakfast every day (odds ratio (OR) 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-2.96), drinking diet soft drink (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.52-4.42) and skimmed/semi-skimmed milk (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.37-2.36) four days a week or more. Parents being overweight and having low education levels were also related to a higher risk of their children being overweight.

    Conclusions: The parental reports of children's food habits pointed at favourable eating patterns for most investigated children. Breakfast skipping, diet soft drinks and low-fat milk consumption were more frequent among OW/OB children. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the causal relationships.

  • 5.
    Nilsen, Bente B.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Science, Oslo, Norway.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Sophiahemmet University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Agneta
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Moraeus, Lotta
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Werner, Bo
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts and Meal Science, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Using different growth references to measure thinness and overweight among Swedish primary school children showed considerable variations2016In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 105, no 10, p. 1158-1165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The study compared how four different growth references determined the prevalence of thinness and overweight, based on height and weight measurements from a nationally representative sample of Swedish children from seven to nine years of age.

    Methods: The height and weight measurements of 4,518 Swedish schoolchildren aged seven to nine years were carried out in 2008 using a standardised protocol. The prevalence of different degrees of thinness and overweight were calculated using international growth references from the World Health Organization, the International Obesity Task Force and two Swedish growth references from Werner and Karlberg.

    Results: Depending on which growth reference we used, the prevalence of different degrees of thinness varied from 7.5%-16.9% for the boys and 6.9%-13.7% for the girls, while for the prevalence of overweight, including obesity and severe obesity, varied from 16.5%-25.7% for the boys and 18.2-25.2% for the girls. There were also significant gender differences depending on the growth reference we used.

    Conclusion: Using four different growth references, two international and two Swedish, produced wide variations in the prevalence of thinness and overweight, together with significant gender differences. In the absence of a global definition, we need both national and international growth references.

  • 6.
    Nilsen, Bente B.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Department of food, nutrition and dietetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Werner, Bo
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    Do substantial BMI reduction episodes among Swedish schoolchildren have any impact on their final height?2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, no 7, p. 1223-1229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This study investigated whether substantial body mass index (BMI) reductions in Swedish schoolchildren aged 7-19 years, caused by disease, healthy or unhealthy behaviour, had any impact on their final height.

    METHODS: We used height and weight data on 6,572 subjects from two nationally representative longitudinal samples of Swedish children born in 1973 and 1981. These provided information on their final height and any BMI reduction episodes.

    RESULTS: Of the 6,572 subjects (50.9% boys), among individuals with information on final height, 1,118 had a BMI reduction of 5% and less than 10%, and 346 had at least one substantial BMI reduction of 10% of more. On a group level, there was no statistically significant difference in the final height of individuals with BMI reductions of 10% or more and those without. The findings were independent of age and the subject's BMI at the start of the reduction episode. However, there were a number of cases where a substantial BMI reduction probably had an impact on the subject's final height.

    CONCLUSION: Our study found no evidence that a substantial BMI reduction had any impact on final height on a group level, but further analyses of specific case studies are necessary to determine whether substantial BMI reduction might have an impact on final height.

  • 7.
    Scander, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; Department of Food Studies, Nutrition and Dietetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nilsen, Bente B.
    School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts and Meal Science, Örebro University, Grythyttan, Sweden; Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo Metropolian University, Oslo, Norway.
    Tellström, Richard
    School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts and Meal Science, Örebro University, Grythyttan, Sweden; Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts and Meal Science, Örebro University, Grythyttan, Sweden; Department of Food Studies, Nutrition and Dietetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Beverage consumption patterns and energy contribution from beverages per meal type: results from a national dietary survey in Sweden2018In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 21, no 18, p. 3318-3327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Many studies of food intake have been performed and published in Sweden, but to our knowledge no studies have extensively explored the beverage consumption of the Swedish adult population. The present study aimed to describe the beverage consumption and the contribution of beverage energy (including alcohol energy) to total energy intake according to gender, region of living, meal type and day for a Swedish adult population.

    Design: National dietary survey Riksmaten (2010–2011), collected by the Swedish National Food Agency.

    Setting: Sweden.

    Subjects: A total of 1682 participants (57 % women) reported dietary intake data during four consecutive days, specified by portion size, meal, time point, day of the week and venue. Meals were categorized as breakfast, lunch, dinner and ‘other’.

    Result: The beverage reported to be consumed the most was water (ml/d), followed by coffee. Men had a higher consumption of juice, soft drinks, beer, spirits and low-alcohol beer, while the consumption of tea and water was higher for women. For both genders, milk contributed the most to beverage energy intake. Energy percentage from beverages was higher at lunch and dinner during weekends for both genders. Participants from the biggest cities in Sweden had a higher consumption of wine for both genders and tea for men than participants from other regions.

    Conclusions: A considerable part of total energy intake was contributed by beverages, especially for men. Beverages can contribute to a more enjoyable diet, but at the same time provide energy, sugar and alcohol in amounts that do not promote optimal health.

  • 8.
    Scander, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Nilsen, Bente B.
    School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts and Meal Science, Örebro University, Grythyttan, Sweden.
    Tellström, Richard
    Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts and Meal Science, Örebro University, Grythyttan, Sweden; Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Food and beverage dinner combinations, patterns among Swedish adults2018In: International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, ISSN 1878-450X, E-ISSN 1878-4518, Vol. 14, p. 20-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Since the taste preferences of food and beverage combinations are considered subjective properties and have been studied in several different ways, mainly within the field of sensory science, this study contributes to the field of food and beverage combination studies by using self-reported eating habits.

    Objective: This article explores the relationships between food and beverage combinations, recorded by a Swedish adult population.

    Method: Analyses were made using data from the national dietary survey, Riksmaten (2010–2011), performed by the Swedish National Food Agency. A total of 1753 Swedish adults (53% women) aged 18–80 contributed dietary intake data during four consecutive days. All dinner choices were categorized into beverage categories and food categories. Combinations between beverage and food categories were analyzed by using cross tabulation. Correlation coefficients for non-parametric variables were used to determine the association power. Predictive factors for more important beverage and food combinations were explored by logistic regression analysis.

    Results: Water was the most frequent choice in combination with all food categories. The results also showed that alcoholic beverages are present in two of the three strongest food and beverage correlations, the spirits drinks and white wine. The most important predictive factors were where the dinner took place for non-alcoholic combinations (OR: 4.33; 95% CI: 2.28–8.21) and age and employment for alcoholic combinations (OR > 2; p < 0.05).

    Conclusion: Our results show correlations in reported consumption of food and beverage, which explain the occurrences of specific patterns of combinations of food and beverage. More studies on choice of beverage are needed to describe the patterns of intake, in order to understand the mechanisms behind beverage choice, in different settings, cultural situations and lifestyle backgrounds. Combinations in everyday life are described here and these are not always so sophisticated, rather building on availability than on optimal taste combinations. Our findings can offer an understanding of some common every-day choices to culinary professionals, useful for their guidance of food and beverage pairing, to enhance restaurant experiences.

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