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  • 1. Ahrne, Göran
    et al.
    Boström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pendelrörelser mellan frivillighet och tvång: organisationers kamp om regleringsstrategier2004In: Den organiserade frivilligheten / [ed] Boström Magnus, Forssell Anders, Jacobsson Kerstin, Tamm Hallström Kristina, Lund: Liber , 2004, p. 144-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2. Ahrne, Göran
    et al.
    Boström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forssell, Anders
    Meningen med föreningen: vad är frivilligt med frivilligorganisationer?2004In: Den organiserade frivilligheten / [ed] Boström Magnus, Forssell Anders, Jacobsson Kerstin, Tamm Hallström Kristina, Lund: Liber , 2004, p. 22-51Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Boström, Magnus
    Department of Life Sciences, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    A Missing Pillar? Challenges in theorizing and practicing social sustainability: introductory article in the special issue2012In: Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, ISSN 1548-7733, E-ISSN 1548-7733, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987, the notion of sustainable developmenthas come to guide the pursuit of environmental reform by both public and private organizations and to facilitate communication among actors from different societal spheres. It is customary to characterize sustainable development in a familiar typology comprising three pillars: environmental, economic, and socialThe relationships among these dimensions are generally assumed to be compatible and mutually supportive. However, previous research has found that when policy makers endorse sustainable development, the social dimension garners less attention and is particularly difficult to realize and operationalize. Recent years though have seen notable efforts among standard setters, planners, and practitioners in various sectors to address the often neglected social aspects of sustainability. Likewise, during the past decade, there have been efforts to develop theoretical frameworks to define and study social sustainability and to empirically investigate it in relation to “sustainability projects,” “sustainability practice,” and “sustainability initiatives.” This introductory article presents the topic and explains some of the challenges of incorporating social sustainability into a broad framework of sustainable development. Also considered is the potential of the social sustainability concept for sustainability projects and planning. This analysis is predicated on the work represented in this special issue and on related initiatives that explicitly discuss the social pillar of sustainable development and its relationship to the other dimensions.

  • 4.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Between Monitoring and Trust: Commitment to Extended Upstream Responsibility2015In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 131, no 1, p. 239-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In line with the current trend toward sustainability and CSR, organizations are pressured to assume extended responsibility. However, taking such a responsibility requires serious and challenging efforts as it appears to involve a wider range of issues and increased need for close interaction between actors along commodity chains. Using a qualitative case study approach, the present article focuses on Swedish public and private procurement organizations with attention paid to textiles and chemical risks. It focuses on two crucial aspects of buyers’ relationships with suppliers in their efforts to advance environmental responsibility-taking—monitoring and trust—as well as how they intersect. The aim is to demonstrate, both theoretically and empirically, the limits and possibilities of monitoring and trust for developing extended upstream responsibility. The article demonstrates the problems with, on one hand, simple ritualistic monitoring and, on the other, simple trust, and explores potentially constructive pathways to extended upstream responsibility at the intersection of monitoring and trust. In connection with the findings, the article argues that theories on responsible and sustainable supply chain management must also take the enormous variety of organizations into account: not only large, private, transnational companies, which the literature has until now been preoccupied with.

  • 5.
    Boström, Magnus
    Stockholm Center for Organizational Research (SCORE), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cognitive Practices and Collective Identities within a Heterogeneous Social Movement: The Swedish Environmental Movement2004In: Social Movement Studies, ISSN 1474-2837, E-ISSN 1474-2829, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 73-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies on social movements have highlighted the importance of cultural and ideational factors. Concepts such as collective identity, cognitive praxis, and framing have been used to better understand the emergence, development, and political and cultural impact of social movements. In this article I draw on different schools of thought in order to develop a new use of the concept of cognitive practice. I suggest the relevance of analysing collective identities and cognitive practices at the organizational level (which does not, per se, exclude analysis at other levels). This emphasis also leads to a perspective that suggest a relational and interaction-oriented way in which to understand how movement organizations try to influence other actors through their cognitive practices. This kind of analysis helps to question the implicit notion of unity in the concept of social movement. The analytical focal points are also useful for discussing possibilities and dilemmas for movement organizations with regard to aspects such as how frames become effective and make frame resonance possible; how compromises and delimitations are built into frames; and how cognitive autonomy may be decreased or preserved. The empirical focus in this article is the Swedish environmental movement, and the identities and cognitive practices of some its organizations in the 1990s. I also discuss the relevance of my findings for the study of movement organizations within other fields

  • 6.
    Boström, Magnus
    Stockholms University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eco-labelling of Seafood.: Toward a credible tool for consumer-based environmental improvement?2005In: Political Consumerism: Its Motivations, Power, and Conditions in the Nordic Countries and Elsewhere.:  Proceedings from the 2nd International Seminar on Political Consumerism, Oslo August 26-29, 2004 / [ed] Boström Magnus, Follesdal Andreas, Klintman Mikael, Micheletti Michele, Sörensen Mads P., Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers , 2005, p. 365-393Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Boström, Magnus
    Miljövetenskap, Södertörns högskola, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Ellen Ruppel Shell (2009) Cheap, The High Cost of Discount Culture, New York: The Penguin Press2010In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 174-176Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Boström, Magnus
    Stockholms Universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    En mångfald av parter: nya regler i skogen2004In: Regelexplosionen / [ed] Göran Ahrne och Nils Brunsson, Stockholm: Ekonomiska forskningsinstitutet vid Handelshögskolan , 2004, p. 155-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Boström, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    En social rörelses mångfald och interna relationer: Den svenska miljörörelsen2001In: Arkiv för studier i arbetarrörelsens historia, ISSN 0345-0333, no 82-83, p. 21-46Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Boström, Magnus
    stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Environmental Organizations in New Forms of Political Participation: Ecological Modernization and the Making of Voluntary Rules2003In: Environmental Values, ISSN 0963-2719, E-ISSN 1752-7015, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 175-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental organisations have been active since the early 1960s in putting environmental issues on the political agenda and in strengthening the environmental consciousness of the public. The struggle has been successful in the sense that there is now a strong demand for practical solutions among all kinds of actors. It is, however, difficult for states and political actors to manage environmental problems by traditional forms and instruments, due to the complex character of the problems. Therefore, environmental organisations take their own initiatives to participate in policy-making by developing new forms, within new arenas, with the help of new instruments (voluntary rules or standards). Special attention is paid to the possibilities of identifying and developing constructive roles in relation to other actors and institutions as well as the capacity to organise standardisation projects and to mobilise and make use of power resources such as symbolic capital and knowledge. In order to interpret characteristics and implications (possibilities and limitations) of standardisation strategies, I draw on the ecological modernisation perspective. Empirically, I refer to the role of Swedish environmental organisations in standardisation projects such as eco-labelling

  • 11.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Environmental SMOs and resource mobilization in the post-communist vs the Northwest European context2017In: Qualitative research in organization and management, ISSN 1746-5648, E-ISSN 1746-5656, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 225-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper focuses on differences in resource mobilization opportunities among environmental social movement organizations (ESMOs), with empirical focus on ESMOs from five European Union countries - two Northwest European countries (Sweden, Germany) and three post-communist countries (Poland, Croatia, and Slovenia). Whereas mass-membership mobilization is a reality in the Northwest European context, ESMOs from post-communist countries fundamentally rely on international support and project-based funding. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate and discuss what implications this difference has for domestic capacity building among ESMOs.

    Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws theoretically and empirically on literature on social movements, including environmental movements. It uses a qualitative methodology with figures, field observations, and interview data from ESMO representatives. The empirical material is based on field studies of ESMOs from the five focused countries.

    Findings: The findings demonstrate strong pessimism regarding the possibilities for mass-membership mobilization in the post-communist context, and indicate a set of challenges related to the strong reliance on project funding and international sources. Issues such as short-termism, lack of independence, critical distance, and learning potential are discussed. The findings also indicate avenues for creativity and how various buffers can help to cope with challenges, and that ESMOs from the Northwest European context also face pressures relating to resource mobilization that can negatively affect their critical edge.

    Originality/value: By the chosen focus and comparative approach, the paper contributes to our understanding if and how ESMOs can work as powerful and critical political actors in various contexts. The paper thus contributes theoretically and empirically to literature on social movements, and specifically environmental movements.

  • 12.
    Boström, Magnus
    Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Establishing credibility: Practising standard-setting ideals in a Swedish seafood-labelling case2006In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 135-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Market-based non-state governance arrangements, many examples of which are seen in the environmental field, require the active approval of a broad group of stakeholders. This paper makes the theoretical argument that credibility is a key issue in the establishment of such arrangements, and examines empirically the effort to develop a trustworthy eco-labelling scheme for seafood in Sweden. Many policy actors view eco-labelling as a particularly credible instrument that consumers and businesspeople can use to demonstrate environmentally friendly behaviour. But establishing credibility is complicated, especially if the issues are controversial and if there is mistrust among the groups. This paper analyses the challenges involved in practising six standard-setting ideals, the fulfilment of which is seen to establish credibility: inclusiveness, independence, auditability, scientific validity, global applicability and the balancing of feasibility versus environmental stringency. The ideals are subjects of framing, debating, power struggles and negotiation; and are dependent upon context, situational and historical factors. The assumed positive relationship between ideals and credibility is complicated because of the challenges involved in practising the ideals. This article draws upon the literature on non-state authority, governance and standardization.

  • 13.
    Boström, Magnus
    Stockholm Center for Organizational Research (SCORE), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fina fisken2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report analyses the efforts to develop and introduce an eco-labellingscheme for seafood in Sweden. WWF took the initiative in 1996 by proposing the Marine Stewardship Council’s model. But authorities and other key actors in the fishing industry rejected MSC for different reasons. Yet, the initiative led to informal discussions between groups, and after some years a well-known Swedish NGO (KRAV) agreed to manage an eco-labelling project. Debates and negotiations among stake-holders continued within this project and in March2004 KRAV’s board decided to approve the standard and begun to eco-label seafood.

    This report describes the development of the debates and the standardization process from WWF’s first initiative to KRAV’s final approval. The report is descriptive with an aim to contribute to the theorizing and understanding of eco-labelling as a new and interesting policy-arrangement in environmental governance and green political consumerism. Despite its explorative character, three theoretical themes are used as a basis and structure for the presentation and analysis.

    The first theme is about background factors that both facilitated and hampered the process. It is shown that a criticised transnational and state regulatory background was an important motive for initiating eco-labelling in non-statearenas, but also that a problematic regulatory context can encumber an eco-labelling process. Yet, recent discursive changes in transnational, European, and national regulation have provided an increasing openness towards, for instance, market based environmental policy-instruments. The labelling process was facilitated by a specific Swedish political culture of relative openness, reformist orientation, pragmatism and co-operation among large interest groups. However, a complicating factor preceding the process was the deep controversies and mutual distrust among stakeholders. The Swedish organizational landscape with strong organizations in all societal spheres (state, market, civil society) generally facilitates eco-labelling. However, a complicating factor preceding this case was the asymmetric power structure among important stakeholders favouring large fisheries.

    The second theme in the report emphasises the importance of the organizing process, i.e. of finding and developing organizational forms that all stakeholders accept. It is shown that the hybrid-organization KRAV was chosen because of several benefits. Although KRAV lacks MSC’s global connections and has specialised in organic food, it is unique in the sense that it is acknowledged by all stakeholders and well known among consumers. It also provides established and efficient routines for standardization activities. The report also shows that the standardization process it self helped to bring antagonist groups closer toeach other.

    A third theme in the report is around the main debates in the standardization process and on how topics were framed. The report shows that it was tricky to deal with all demands expressed from the different stakeholders. It is argued thatit is of central importance for participants involved to develop common framings of problems and solutions regarding eco-labelling matters. The report describes and analyses some of the most central debates; around, for example trade issues,how to make the standard feasible, auditing and mechanisms for inspection, connection to global standards, standards for assessing healthy fish stocks, toxic substances in fish, and fishing techniques. It is shown that discussions have generally been formed by an eco-pragmatic framing with one market pragmatist pole and one environmental stringency pole.

  • 14.
    Boström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frivilligorganisation och frivillig reglering: miljöorganisationer i standardiseringsprocesser2002In: Nordiske organisasjonsstudier, ISSN 1501-8237, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 4-25Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Boström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    How state-dependent is a non-state-driven rule-making project?: the case of forest certification in Sweden2003In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 165-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, environmental organizations (EOs) have, in co-operation with forest companies and social interest groups, introduced a voluntary certification scheme in accordance with the Forest Stewardship Council's (FSC) principles for sustainable forestry. Sweden was one of the first countries in which a nationally based FSC standard was introduced successfully. It is interesting to examine why a non-state-driven rule-making project has been comparatively successful in Sweden, where the state is often regarded as strong, pragmatic and open for big interest organizations and, therefore, could be expected to be the natural arena for forest regulation initiatives. This article asks: (1) why the certification project was initiated and driven from outside of the state; and (2) to what extent the Swedish state had an impact none the less. The case presented here reveals that the initiatives of EOs were partly motivated by their view that state regulatory processes and frameworks have failed to take care of environmental problems. However, the case also shows indications of state dependency/embeddedness and the article analyses the following factors: (1) regulatory framework; (2) political culture; (3) policy discourse and policy networks; and (4) state legitimacy. These findings suggest that non-state-driven rule-making can receive strength through a positive relationship with the state

  • 16.
    Boström, Magnus
    School of Life Sciences, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hybridorganisationer2009In: Från klass till organisation: en resa genom det sociala landskapet / [ed] Roman, Christine & Udéhn, Lars, Malmö: Liber, 2009, p. 170-189Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Boström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Miljörörelsens mångfald2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Boström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Om relationen mellan stat och civilsamhälle: miljöorganisationers interaktion med statliga och politiska organisationer2000Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Boström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Regulatory credibility and authority through inclusiveness: standardization organizations in cases of eco-labelling2006In: Organization, ISSN 1350-5084, E-ISSN 1461-7323, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 345-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the challenging task of permanently organizing projects that include a broad range of actors: enterprises, social movement organizations and state actors. It focuses on a special type of standardization activity, namely eco-labelling, and is based on case studies of two Swedish projects/organizations: labelling of organic food and sustainable forestry. In this paper, I theorize about the concept of inclusiveness, which is seen as being instrumental for the creation of regulatory credibility and authority and argue that different types of members/participants have different types of power resources, which the standardization organization (SO) seeks to mobilize and control. The combination of these individual power resources brings action capacity and symbolic resources to the SO, including an image of independence. Moreover, the SO provides an organizational setting that, inter alias, helps interdependent actors to maintain a hold on each other, and forces them to engage in a dialogue and repeated interaction over time. This interaction can, in turn, result in common expectations and understandings that are essential for the operations of non-state governance. However, the case studies also indicate difficulties in organizing such complex networks. It can, above all, be difficult to prevent a power shift in favour of organizations with large power resources.

  • 20.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Rejecting and embracing brands in political consumerism2019In: The Oxford Handbook of Political Consumerism / [ed] Magnus Boström, Michele Micheletti, Peter Oosterveer, New York: Oxford University Press, 2019, p. 205-226Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Review of: David Hess. Good Green Jobs in a Global Economy: Making and Keeping New Industries in the United States2014In: American Journal of Sociology, ISSN 0002-9602, E-ISSN 1537-5390, Vol. 119, no 6, p. 1809-1811Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Boström, Magnus
    Stockholm Center for Organizational Research (SCORE), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Skogen märks: hur svensk skogscertifiering kom till och dess konsekvenser2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, environmental organizations have – in cooperation with forest enterprises andsocial interests in the forest sector – introduced and implemented a voluntary certificationscheme for a sustainable forestry. This work has been done in accordance with principlesthat the international organization Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) has formulated.Working both at international and national levels, FSC consists of actors that repre-sentsocial, environmental, and business interests. State actors are not allowed to be members inthe organization, and standardization processes shall take place independently of states.Sweden was the first country in which a nationally based FSC-standard was successfullyintroduced, and almost half of the Swedish forest area is certified according to this quitesubstantial standard. In this report I examine why FSC-certification has succeeded inSweden while a competitive program in many other countries has marginalized it. Parts ofthe Swedish environmental movement carried the issue about forest certification.Environmental organizations managed to convince all large forest enterprises to participatein the process, in spite of that some of them did not perceive the relevance of forestcertification initially. It is shown that several factors together influenced the process in apositive direction: i.e. the connection to global political and economic processes, thetraditional political and administrative culture of the Swedish state (forest administration)and its mode of regulation in the forest sector, the role of natural science in the Swedishcontext, the forest industries gradual adoption of programs and measures for environmentalconsideration, and not the least how a spirit of consensus gradually developed whenpreviously polarized actors in the forest sector began to communicate and decided tonegotiate about a standard. In the report I also describe and discuss some consequences ofthe implementation of the FSC-standard, i.e. how a competitive alternative was introducedby the association for private forest owners (within the framework of the Pan EuropeanForest Certification Scheme), and how the introduction of private regulation in turninfluences forest politics and forest administration.

  • 23.
    Boström, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Sustainable development by the multi-stakeholder model?2014In: International Handbook on Social Policy and the Environment / [ed] Tony Fitzpatrick, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, p. 349-375Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Boström, Magnus
    Environmental Science, Södertörn University College, Huddinge, Sweden.
    The challenges in achieving the “social” dimension of sustainable development: the case of the Forest Stewardship Council2010Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Boström, Magnus
    School of Life Sciences, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    The historical and contemporary roles of nature protection organisations in Sweden2007In: Protecting nature: organizations and networks in Europe and the USA / [ed] C.S.A (Kris) van Koppen & William T. Markham, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2007, p. 213-238Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Boström, Magnus
    Environmental Science, Södertörn University College, Huddinge, Sweden.
    The problematic social dimension of sustainable development: the case of the Forest Stewardship Council2012In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, ISSN 1350-4509, E-ISSN 1745-2627, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 3-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is broad support worldwide for the concept of sustainable development and the integration of its three pillars: economicdevelopment, environmental protection and social development. Nevertheless, previous research shows substantial difficul-ties associated with fully incorporating and operationalising social sustainability features in various sectors. The presentarticle aims to explore further the reasons why incorporation of social sustainability aspects appears to pose a challenge.The article has a twofold explorative aim. First, the aim is to identify opportunities/benefits or difficulties/detriments thatemerge when actors try to incorporate social aspects into sustainability projects. Second, the article probes for explanationsfor the observed challenges. This is done by referring to a case study examining how the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)has attempted to incorporate social sustainability goals, principles and criteria. Using qualitative interviews, FSC-relateddocuments, participant observation, as well as previous research, the article examines the successes and challenges asso-ciated with including social sustainability features in the standards and certification process. Observed achievements anddifficulties are highlighted in relation to four general aspects: (1) improvement of substantive social sustainability goals; (2)local organisation, empowerment and employment; (3) communication; and (4) small-scale and community-based forestry.The article suggests and analyses eight reasons for these challenges, which relate to discursive, structural or organisationalaspects. The findings presented here may also be useful in attempts to understand other similar integrative transnationaland/or local sustainability projects

  • 27.
    Boström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Voluntary rule-making in the environmental field: new alliances between the state, enterprises and environmental organizations2001Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Andersson, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Berg, Monika
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Karin M
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Gustavsson, Eva
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hysing, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Löfmarck, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Ojala, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Olsson, Jan
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Singleton, Benedict E
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Svenberg, Sebastian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Uggla, Ylva
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Öhman, Johan
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Conditions for Transformative Learning for Sustainable Development: A Theoretical Review and Approach2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 4479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continued unsustainability and surpassed planetary boundaries require not only scientific and technological advances, but deep and enduring social and cultural changes. The purpose of this article is to contribute a theoretical approach to understand conditions and constraints for societal change towards sustainable development. In order to break with unsustainable norms, habits, practices, and structures, there is a need for learning for transformation, not only adaption. Based on a critical literature review within the field of learning for sustainable development, our approach is a development of the concept of transformative learning, by integrating three additional dimensions—Institutional Structures, Social Practices, and Conflict Perspectives. This approach acknowledges conflicts on macro, meso, and micro levels, as well as structural and cultural constraints. It contends that transformative learning is processual, interactional, long-term, and cumbersome. It takes place within existing institutions and social practices, while also transcending them. The article adopts an interdisciplinary social science perspective that acknowledges the importance of transformative learning in order for communities, organizations, and individuals to be able to deal with global sustainability problems, acknowledging the societal and personal conflicts involved in such transformation.

  • 29.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Life Sciences, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden;.
    Börjeson, Natasja
    Department of Life Sciences, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden;.
    Gilek, Michael
    Department of Life Sciences, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden;.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Media and Communication Studies, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Department of Life Sciences, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden;.
    Responsible procurement and complex product chains: the case of chemical risks in textiles2012In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 95-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to gain insights about the opportunities andchallenges that private and public organisations face regarding the developmentof responsible procurement in a complex and uncertain issue. The paper focuseson chemicals in textiles, and uses a qualitative methodology with semi-structuredinterviews. Key elements of a pro-active, responsible procurement strategy aredefined, including criteria such as using a preventive, systematic, responsive,integrative and reflective approach. The analysis includes the following topics: (1)priorities and knowledge; (2) communicative strategies; (3) policy instruments; (4)monitoring and trust in relation to suppliers. The results show a fairly modestlevel of organisational responsibility, although it is possible to observe an initialpositive development.

  • 30.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Börjeson, Natasja
    Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Towards responsible procurement in relation to chemical risks in textiles?: Findings from an interview study2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we ask whether and how different organizations work with sustainable procurement and how this work relates to the complexity of the product chain. We have chosen to focus on chemical risks in relation to textiles – an issue that increasingly is becoming part of the public discourse and a target for journalists. In the case of textiles, the product chain from raw material to consumption often involves a great number of production steps, sub-contractors and users, often on a global scale. Sustainable management of the supply chain would improve health, quality of life, and labour conditions, for instance in the areas and factories in developing countries where production and processing often take place. However, such management faces great difficulties and challenges in terms of capabilities, knowledge, communication, and policy instruments. These difficulties are related to high uncertainties and other problems that in turn are related to the high complexity of global product chains. The objective of the present report is to gain insights into the opportunities and challenges that private and public organizations face regarding the development of responsible procurement in relation to a complex and uncertain issue. The report focuses on chemicals in textiles and uses a qualitative methodology with semi-structured interviews. Key elements of a pro-active, responsible procurement strategy are defined in the report and include criteria such as using a preventive, systematic, responsive, integrative, and reflective approach. The analysis includes the following topics: (i) priorities and knowledge, (ii) communicative strategies, (iii) policy instruments, (iv) monitoring and trust in relation to suppliers. The results show a fairly modest level of organizational responsibility, although it is possible to observe an initial positive development among the cases investigated. The report ends by suggesting a number of topics that require further investigation.

  • 31.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Casula Vifell, Åsa
    Södertörn University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Klintman, Mikael
    Department of Sociology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Soneryd, Linda
    Department of Sociology and Work Science, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Tamm Hallström, Kristina
    Score, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thedvall, Renita
    Score, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social sustainability requires social sustainability procedural prerequisites for reaching substantive goals2015In: Nature and Culture, ISSN 1558-6073, E-ISSN 1558-5468, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 131-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synergies and trade-offs between the various dimensions of sustainable development are attracting a rising scholarly attention. Departing from the scholarly debate, this article focuses on internal relationships within social sustainability. Our key claim is that it is diffi cult to strengthen substantive social sustainability goals unless there are key elements of social sustainability contained in the very procedures intended to work toward sustainability. Our analysis, informed by an organizing perspective, is based on a set of case studies on multi-stakeholder transnational sustainability projects (sustainability standards). This article explores six challenges related to the achievement of such procedures that can facilitate substantive social sustainability. Three of these concern the formulation of standards and policies, and three the implementation of standards and policies. To achieve substantive social sustainability procedures must be set in motion with abilities to take hold of people's concerns, frames, resources, as well as existing relevant institutions and infrastructures.

  • 32.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Davidson, Debra J.University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Canada.
    Environment and Society: Concepts and Challenges2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Davidson, Debra J.
    University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Canada.
    Introduction: Conceptualizing environment-society relations2018In: Environment and Society: Concepts and Challenges / [ed] Magnus Boström and Debra J. Davidson, Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, p. 1-24Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Davidson, Debra J.
    University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Canada.
    Lockie, Stewart
    James Cook University, Douglas QLD, Australia.
    Conclusions: A proposal for a brave new world of conceptual reflexivity?2018In: Environment and Society: Concepts and Challenges / [ed] Magnus Boström and Debra J. Davidson, Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, p. 351-373Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35. Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Forssell, Anders
    Jacobsson, Kerstin
    Tamm Hallström, Kristina
    Den dubbelbottnade frivilligheten2004In: Den organiserade frivilligheten / [ed] Boström Magnus, Forssell Anders, Jacobsson Kerstin, Tamm Hallström Kristina, Lund: Liber , 2004, p. 190-209Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forssell, Anders
    Jacobsson, Kerstin
    Sociology, Södertörn University College, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Tamm Hallström, Kristina
    Organiserad frivillighet2004In: Den organiserade frivilligheten / [ed] Magnus Boström, Anders Forssell, Kerstin Jacobsson, Kristina Tamm Hallström, Lund: Liber , 2004, p. 7-21Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Føllesdal, Andreas
    Klintman, Mikael
    Micheletti, Michele
    Sørensen, Mads P.
    Political Consumerism: its motivations, power, and conditions in the Nordic countries and elsewhere : Proceedings from the 2nd International Seminar on Political Consumerism, Oslo August 26-29, 20042005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of political consumerism draws on the observation that consumer choice and the rising politics of products is an increasingly important form of political participation, especially with regard to such issues as human rights, animal rights, global solidarity and environmental responsibility. The 2nd International Seminar on Political Consumerism was arranged to enhance our knowledge about political consumerism. This report includes revised versions of the papers that were presented and discussed at the seminar. Scholars from various disciplines presented papers that discussed and analyzed such topics as the characteristics of (especially Nordic) political consumers and their motivations to express their political concerns through market channels, how consumer power and individual choice can be linked to public influence, political and market conditions for the success, effectiveness, or failure of political consumerism as a regulatory tool, and the framing, mobilization, and organizational processes behind political consumerism

  • 38.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Føllesdal, Andreas
    Klintman, Mikael
    Micheletti, Michele
    Sørensen, Mads P.
    Studying political consumerism2005In: Political Consumerism: its motivations, power, and conditions in the Nordic countries and elsewhere : Proceedings from the 2nd International Seminar on Political Consumerism, Oslo August 26-29, 2004 / [ed] Magnus Boström, Andreas Føllesdal, Mikael Klintman, Michele Micheletti and Mads P. Sørensen, Copenhagen: Nordisk Ministerråd , 2005, p. 9-24Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Life Sciences, Södertörn University College, Sweden .
    Garsten, Christina
    Department of Social Anthropology, United Kingdom .
    Organizing for accountability2008In: Organizing transnational accountability / [ed] Boström, Magnus & Garsten, Christina, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2008, p. 1-26Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Life Sciences, Södertörn University College, Sweden .
    Garsten, ChristinaDepartment of Social Anthropology, United Kingdom .
    Organizing transnational accountability2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Life Sciences, Södertörn University College, Sweden .
    Garsten, Christina
    Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research, Stockholm University, Sweden .
    The treadmill of accountability2008In: Organizing transnational accountability / [ed] Boström, Magnus & Garsten, Christina, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing , 2008, p. 231-249Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Gilek, Michael
    School of Natural Sciences, Technology, and Environmental Studies, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hedenström, Eva
    School of Natural Sciences, Technology, and Environmental Studies, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    School of Culture and Education, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    How to achieve sustainable procurement for ‘peripheral’ products with significant environmental impact?2015In: Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, ISSN 1548-7733, E-ISSN 1548-7733, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 21-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from previous theoretical and empirical studies on sustainable supply-chain management, we investigate organizational commitment (drivers and motivations) and capabilities (resources, structures, and policy instruments) in sustainable procurement of “noncore” products. By focusing on chemicals in textiles, the article explores the activities of differently sized organizations and discusses the potentials and limitations of sustainable procurement measures. The study is based on a qualitative and comparative approach, with empirical findings from 26 case studies of Swedish public and private procurement organizations. These organizations operate in the sectors of hotels/ conference venues, transport, cinema, interior design, and hospitals/daycare. While this work demonstrates major challenges for buyers to take into account peripheral items in sustainable procurement, it also identifies constructive measures for moving forward. A general sustainability/environmental focus can, as an effect, spill over to areas perceived as peripheral.

  • 43.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Gilek, Michael
    Södertörn University College, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörn University College, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Södertörn University College, Huddinge, Sweden.
    IKEA and the Responsible Governance of Supply Chains: IKEA’s work on chemicals in textiles2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report focuses on IKEA’s management and communication surrounding sustainability in general and chemical risks specifically. IKEA’s work is analysed in relation to theoretical concepts around responsibility, supply chain, and governance . The report focuses on IKEA’s visions and organizational structures, its policy instruments to deal with chemical risks, supplier-relations and communication and learning. The study is based on previous scholarly literature, analyses of relevant documents, a field visit at a few of IKEA’s suppliers in southern India, as well as interviews with staff working at IKEA in Sweden. The report focuses on IKEA’s systems and processes for dealing with chemical risks, and not on the implementation of such measures in quantitative terms.

  • 44.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Grönholm, Sam
    Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Hassler, Björn
    School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    The Ecosystem Approach to Management in Baltic Sea Governance : towards increased reflexivity? 2016In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea / [ed] M. Gilek, M. Karlsson, S. Linke, K. Smolarz, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2016, p. 149-172Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyses the governance structures linked to the marine environment of the Baltic Sea. The purpose is to assess whether current developments of the governance structures have a potential to take into account requirements of an Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM). We use the concept of reflexive governance to understand key components and weaknesses in contemporary governance modes, as well as to elaborate on possible pathways towards a governance mode more aligned with EAM. The reflexive governance framework highlights three elements: (1) acknowledgement of uncertainty and ambiguity; (2) a holistic approach in terms of scales, sectors and actors; and (3) acknowledgement of path dependency and incremental policy-making. Our analysis is based on a comparative case study approach, including analysis of the governance in five environmental risk areas: chemical pollution, overfishing, eutrophication, invasive alien species and pollution from shipping. The chapter highlights an existing governance mode that is ill-equipped to deal with the complexity of environmental problems in a holistic manner, with systematic attention to uncertainty, plurality of values, ambiguity and limited knowledge, while also pointing at important recent cognitive and institutional developments that can favour pathways towards refl exive governance and consequently EAM.

  • 45.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    School of Culture and Education, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Lockie, Stewart
    The Cairns Institute, James Cook University, Douglas QLD, Australia.
    Mol, Arthur
    Environmental Policy Group Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Oosterveer, Peter
    Environmental Policy Group Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Sustainable and responsible supply chain governance: challenges and opportunities2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 107, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the Special Volume on sustainable and responsible supply chain governance. As globalized supply chains cross multiple regulatory borders, the firms involved in these chains come under increasing pressure from consumers, NGOs and governments to accept responsibility for social and environmental matters beyond their immediate organizational boundaries. Governance arrangements for global supply chains are therefore increasingly faced with sustainability requirements of production and consumption. Our primary objectives for this introductory paper are to explore the governance challenges that globalized supply chains and networks face in becoming sustainable and responsible, and thence to identify opportunities for promoting sustainable and responsible governance. In doing so, we draw on 16 articles published in this Special Volume of the Journal of Cleaner Production as well as upon the broader sustainable supply chain governance literature. We argue that the border-crossing nature of global supply chains comes with six major challenges (or gaps) in sustainability governance and that firms and others attempt to address these using a range of tools including eco-labels, codes of conduct, auditing procedures, product information systems, procurement guidelines, and eco-branding. However, these tools are not sufficient, by themselves, to bridge the geographical, informational, communication, compliance, power and legitimacy gaps that challenge sustainable global chains. What else is required? The articles in this Special Volume suggest that coalition and institution building on a broader scale is essential through, for example, the development of inclusive multi-stakeholder coalitions; flexibility to adapt global governance arrangements to local social and ecological contexts of production and consumption; supplementing effective monitoring and enforcement mechanisms with education and other programs to build compliance capacity; and integration of reflexive learning to improve governance arrangements over time.

  • 46.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Responsible Procurement, Complex Product Chains and the Integration of Vertical and Horizontal Governance2013In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 381-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The management of environmental and health risks associated with products from global product chains is a pressing task for contemporary society, a task that involves public and private actors and poses great governance challenges. This article explores how governance arrangements relate to these challenges by focusing on how public and private procuring organizations interpret, use, develop and combine mandatory and voluntary policy instruments. This is theorized in terms of responsible governance of transnational supply chains (RGSC) as well as regarding the combination of vertical and horizontal governance (VG and HG). The article focuses on chemical risks in the textile sector, and is based on findings from case studies of Swedish public and private procuring organizations, with additional interviews with actors engaged in developing various policy instruments. The article shows how mandatory and voluntary policy instruments can - in various ways and combinations - assist in chemical risk management, but also highlights the existence of considerable limitations and gaps, which users need to develop a reflective awareness about. The article reveals different conditions for public and private procurers, and the conclusion includes suggestions on how to bridge the gap between private and public actors. Finally, we conclude by emphasizing that combinations of HG and VG arrangements promote constructive and feasible pathways towards RGSC, but which needs reflective and constructive efforts among actors with insight, willingness and capabilities to create governance linkages. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

  • 47.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Klintman, Mikael
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Can we rely on ‘climate friendly’ consumption?2019In: Journal of Consumer Culture, ISSN 1469-5405, E-ISSN 1741-2900, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 359-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In policy and research on sustainable consumption in general, and climate-oriented consumption specifically, key questions centre around whether people are motivated and prompted to support such consumption. A common claim in the scholarly debate is that policy makers, in face of fundamental governance challenges, refrain from taking responsibility and instead invest unrealistic hopes in that consumers will solve pressing environmental problems through consumer choice. Although green consumption is challenging, specifically climate-friendly consumption is even more so, due to the particularly encompassing, complex and abstract sets of problems and since climate impact concerns the totality of one’s consumption. Nevertheless, consumers are called to participate in the task to save the planet. This article draws on existing literature on climate-oriented consumption with the aim of contributing to a proper understanding of the relation between consumer action and climate mitigation. It provides a synthesis and presents key constraining mechanisms sorted under five themes: the value-action gap, individualisation of responsibility, knowledge gap, ethical fetishism and the rebound effect. This article concludes with a discussion of perspectives that endorse a socially embedded view of the citizen-consumer. The discussion indicates pathways for how to counteract the constraining mechanisms and open up room for climate-friendly citizen-consumers.

  • 48.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Klintman, Mikael
    Lund university, Lund, Sweden.
    Dilemmas for standardizers of sustainable consumption2014In: Routledge international handbook of social and environmental change / [ed] Stewart Lockie, David Sonnenfeld and Dana Fisher, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2014, 1, p. 81-92Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Klintman, Mikael
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Eco-standards, product labelling and green consumerism2008Book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Klintman, Mikael
    Framing, debating and standardising "natural food" in two different political contexts: Sweden and the U.S.2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Food labelling has been introduced in several countries as a tool for consumer swho want to make reflexive and responsible choices. This is connected to increased worries and concerns about environmental, ethical, and health-related problems caused by production and consumption. Organic food is interpreted by many as a good solution to such problems. An international organic movement has been quite successful in promoting the organic industry and trade, as well as in establishing criteria for what should count as “organic.” However, there is considerable variation across countries as to how organic food principles and labelling standards are debated and decided.

    This report examines and compares debates and standardisation of organic food and agriculture in Sweden and the U.S. Standardisation of organic food and agriculture is carried out in both countries, but in different ways. In Sweden a private organisation (KRAV) - consisting of NGOs, associations for conventional and organic farmers, and the food industry - has been rather successful in promoting organic food labelling as an eco-label. KRAV has developed a complementary position vis-à-vis the state and the regulatory framework in the EU. In the U.S., the Federal Government controls standardisation. The Government frames the label as a “marketing label,” and rejects the idea that organic food production would have relative advantages to the environment, health or food quality. This type of framing is separated from the ones created by organic constituencies, leading to deeper controversies than in Sweden.

    In this paper we compare the organic standardisation processes against thedifferent political and regulatory backgrounds in these countries. Organisationalprocesses behind food labelling are examined; e.g. who are participating in which forms? The paper pays particular attention to how actors frame organic food and agriculture. We use framing theory for investigating how actors develop ideas about what they are doing and how they are forming coalitions. This body of literature is also used for illuminating the compromises that lie behind standardisation of organic food.

    In the concluding section we discuss some reasons why it has been easier in Sweden to carry on standardisation. Still, it is also important to pay attention to some possible negative consequences of the more consensus-oriented debate climate in Sweden

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