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  • 1.
    Allbrand, Marianne
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Gene expression of inflammatory markers and growth factors in placenta in relation to maternal obesity and fetal and postnatal growth2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Allbrand, Marianne
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Örebro Univ Hosp, Örebro, Sweden.
    Björkqvist, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Medicine, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Dept Paediat, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Medicine, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Östlund, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Åman, Jan
    Örebro University Hospital. Örebro University. Dept Paediat, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Placental gene expression of inflammatory markers and growth factors: a case control study of obese and normal weight women2015In: Journal of Perinatal Medicine, ISSN 0300-5577, E-ISSN 1619-3997, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 159-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To survey the placental gene expression of inflammatory markers and growth factors in non-smoking obese women with an uncomplicated pregnancy without associated morbidity and delivery at term compared with normal weight women.

    Methods: Placental tissue samples from 32 obese women (body mass index, BMI >= 35.0 kg/m(2)) were compared with samples from 94 normal weight women (BMI 18.5-25.0 kg/m(2)) matched for age (+/- 1 year), gestational age (+/- 3 days), parity and mode of delivery. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to analyse toll receptor-2 and -4, interleukin-6 and -8, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor-1 and -2, hepatocyte growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor receptor and insulin receptor.

    Results: There was no significant difference in gene expression in placental tissue samples from obese and normal weight women.

    Conclusion: We found no difference in the occurrence of inflammatory marker and growth factor mRNA levels in placental tissue samples from a large group of obese women without associated morbidity and with healthy infants compared to a closely matched control group of healthy normal weight women. Compared with the previous studies, this anomalous finding may be explained by the absence of associated morbidity in the obese women in our study.

  • 3.
    Allbrand, Marianne
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Åman, Jan
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Adipocytokines in placenta and cord blood in relation to maternal obesity, and foetal and postnatal growth of the child2015In: Hormone Research in Paediatrics, ISSN 1663-2818, E-ISSN 1663-2826, Vol. 82, no Suppl. 1, p. 47-48Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The nutritional and hormonal state in utero may be a link between maternal obesity and obesity in the offspring. The gene expression in placentae in pregnancies complicated by diabetes is reduced for leptin, but increased for ghrelin. It is not known whether these genes’ expressions in placentae are altered in maternal obesity.

    Objectives and hypotheses: To compare obese and normal-weight women and their children concerning gene expressions of leptin and ghrelin in placentae; leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and C-peptide levels in cord blood, birth size and postnatal growth. Changes in the expression of these adipocytokines may lead to an altered hypothalamic sensitivity to leptin and ghrelin resulting in an increased risk of obesity in the offspring.

    Method: 32 women with pre-pregnancy obesity, but otherwise healthy, were compared to 32 matched, normal-weight controls. Full-term placenta biopsies were analysed with qPCR for leptin mRNA and ghrelin mRNA. Cord blood samples were examined with ELISA for leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and C-peptide concentrations. Birth size and postnatal growth of the children were collected from clinical registers at the Child Health Care Units.

    Results: The leptin and ghrelin gene expressions in placentae did not differ between obese and normal-weight women. The leptin concentration in cord blood was higher in children of obese mothers (P=0.021). It correlated with birth weight Z-score (r=0.467, P<0.001) and C-peptide level in cord blood (r=0.446, P<0.001). Children of obese women were slightly heavier at birth, but postnatal growth did not differ between groups. Children with birth weight  ≤−0.67 Z-score had higher ghrelin levels in cord blood than heavier children (P=0.042). The leptin level in cord blood correlated negatively with weight gain at 6 months (r=−0.332, P=0.009). The ghrelin level in cord blood correlated with weight gain at 3 months in girls (r=0.611, P=0.001), but not in boys. The adiponectin level in cord blood correlated negatively with length gain at 3 years in the obese group (r=−0.571, P=0.033), but not in the normal-weight group.

    Conclusion: Leptin and ghrelin placental gene expressions are not altered in obese women, but foetal adipocytokine production may influence early postnatal growth, possibly by influencing hunger signalling or insulin levels

  • 4.
    Allbrand, Marianne
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Åman, Jan
    Department of Paediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Health Care Research Center, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Paediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Placental ghrelin and leptin expression and cord blood ghrelin, adiponectin, leptin, and C-peptide levels in severe maternal obesity2017In: The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, ISSN 1476-7058, E-ISSN 1476-4954, Vol. 31, no 21, p. 2839-2846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate placental ghrelin and leptin expression as well as cord blood ghrelin and adiponectin levels in maternal obesity and associations between placental ghrelin expression, cord blood ghrelin levels and maternal and infant variables.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Placental ghrelin and leptin expression were analyzed by RT-PCR in 32 severely obese and 32 matched normal-weight women. Cord blood ghrelin, adiponectin, leptin, and C-peptide concentrations were analyzed by ELISA.

    RESULTS: Neither ghrelin nor leptin expression and neither cord blood ghrelin nor adiponectin levels differed between the groups. Placental ghrelin expression was associated with BMI at delivery in the obese women (r = 0.424, p = .016) and in the infants born to normal-weight women with their weight z-scores at six (r = -0.642, p = .010), nine (r = -0.441, p = .015), and 12 months of age (r = -0.402, p = .028).

    CONCLUSIONS: Placental ghrelin and leptin expression as well as cord blood ghrelin and adiponectin levels do not seem to be altered in severe maternal obesity. Placenta-derived ghrelin may influence the infants' postnatal weight gain, but possibly only when the mother has normal weight.

  • 5.
    Allbrand, Marianne
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Åman, Jan
    Department of Pediatrics, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Pediatrics, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Expression of genes involved in inflammation and growth: does sampling site in human full-term placenta matter?2019In: Journal of Perinatal Medicine, ISSN 0300-5577, E-ISSN 1619-3997, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 539-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the placental gene expression of substances in the inflammatory cascade and growth factors at nine different well-defined sampling sites in full-term placentas from 12 normal weight healthy non-smoking women with an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy.

    Methods: All placentas (six girls and six boys) were delivered vaginally. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze toll receptor-2 and -4, interleukin-6 and -8, tumor necrosis factor-α, leptin, ghrelin, insulin-like growth factor-1 and -2, hepatocyte growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor receptor and insulin receptor (IR).

    Results: The leptin gene and the IR gene showed higher expression in lateral regions near the chorionic plate compared to central regions near the basal plate (P = 0.028 and P = 0.041, respectively).

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that the sampling site may influence the gene expression for leptin and IR in placental tissue obtained from full-term normal pregnancies. We speculate that this may be due to differences in placental structure and perfusion and may be important when future studies are designed.

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