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  • 1.
    Colins, Olivier
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version in a General Population Sample of Emerging Adults2016In: Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1040-3590, E-ISSN 1939-134X, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 449-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior studies with children and adolescents have shown that Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version (YPI-S) scores are internally consistent and manifest expected relations with external variables of interest. In the present study, the factor structure and the internal consistency of YPI-S scores, and the convergent validity of the interpretation of YPI-S scores were tested in a sample of 2,500 emerging adults from the general population in Sweden (aged 20–24 years; 52.6% women). Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support a 3-factor structure among both men and women that is similar to prior YPI-S studies conducted with children and adolescents. The YPI-S total score and the 3 factor scores were internally consistent. Correlations with external variables, including aggression and delinquency, support the convergent validity of the interpretation of YPI-S scores. Finally, the strength of these zero-order and partial correlations, overall, was not significantly different across gender. In conclusion, this study provides initial evidence that the YPI-S may hold promise as a brief and time-effective self-report tool for assessing psychopathic traits in emerging adults. The present findings also suggest that the YPI-S performs in a consistent manner across gender. Recommendations for future research with the YPI-S are discussed.

  • 2.
    Colins, Olivier
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Curium-Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Hawes, Samuel W.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh PA, USA.
    Bijttebier, Patricia
    Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Pardini, Dustin A.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh PA, USA.
    Psychometric Properties of the Original and Short Form of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits in Detained Female Adolescents2016In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 679-690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the self-report version of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits in 191 detained female adolescents (M = 15.76, SD = 1.02). Evidence supporting the validity of the ICU scores was generally weak, largely due to poor functioning of the Unemotional subscale. Results from confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated support for a recently proposed shortened version of the ICU consisting of two subscales (Callousness and Uncaring). Both subscales showed acceptable to good internal consistency. This short-form version also improved criterion validity, though some issues regarding its convergent validity need further consideration. In conclusion, this study suggests that a short-form version of the ICU that includes a subset of the original items may hold promise as an efficient and valid method for assessing CU traits.

  • 3.
    Colins, Olivier
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Curium-Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Pardini, Dustin A.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center,Pittsburgh PA, USA.
    Psychopathic traits as predictors of future criminality, intimate partner aggression, and substance use in young adult men2015In: Law and human behavior, ISSN 0147-7307, E-ISSN 1573-661X, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 547-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the prospective relation between Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) scores and various negative outcomes in a community sample of young men. Official criminal records and self-reported outcomes, including criminality, physical and relational aggression against intimate partners, and excessive substance use, were obtained on average 5.4 years (records) and 3.5 years (self-reports) after the YPI assessment. Results showed that psychopathic traits measured with the YPI (approximately at age 25) did not significantly contribute to the prediction of future official criminal charges and self-reported crime, physical aggression against intimate partners, and excessive alcohol and marijuana use, after controlling for several covariates. However, results also showed that men with higher scores on the YPI were more likely to commit future acts of relational aggression against their partner, even after controlling for prior relational aggression. This novel finding needs replication, though, and—for now—does not jeopardize the overall conclusion that psychopathic traits as measured with the YPI hardly predict over and above prior criminality and aggression. Altogether, the findings of the present study and their consistency with past research suggest that one should rethink the role of psychopathy measures for risk assessment purposes, at least when these measures do not index prior criminality.

  • 4.
    Colins, Olivier
    et al.
    Ghent University, Department of Special Education, Gent, Belgium.
    Broekaert, Eric
    Ghent University, Department of Special Education, Gent, Belgium.
    Vandevelde, Stijn
    Ghent University, Gent, Belgium.
    Van Hove, Geert
    Ghent University, Department of Special Education, Gent, Belgium.
    Max Weber and Alfred Schutz: the theoretical and methodological background of the case-oriented quantification approach behind winMAX2008In: Social science computer review, ISSN 0894-4393, E-ISSN 1552-8286, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 369-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The case-oriented quantification approach behind the software program winMAX is, according to its founder, Kuckartz, based on the methodological and theoretical work of Max Weber and Alfred Schutz. This claimed connection is not, however, explained in depth in the author's available scientific literature. This article clarifies the methodological and theoretical backgrounds to winMAX, with special focus on the influence of Weber and Schutz. It became clear that-in spite of similarities-Weber and Schutz differ in several respects, which raises objections to the claimed connection and puts practical application to the test. More in-depth information is therefore needed to apply Kuckartz's case-oriented quantification approach in social research with respect to its theoretical background.

  • 5.
    Colins, Olivier F
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The DSM-5 with limited prosocial emotions specifier for conduct disorder among detained girls2015In: Law and human behavior, ISSN 0147-7307, E-ISSN 1573-661X, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 198-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new DSM-5 specifier 'with Limited Prosocial Emotions' (LPE) is expected to provide greater information about impairment of children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD). This study examined the clinical utility of the LPE specifier symptom threshold among female adolescents being detained in Belgium (n = 191 girls; ages 12-17). Standardized questionnaires and a structured diagnostic interview were used to assess the LPE specifier, CD, and variables of interest. Approximately 62% (n = 118) of the girls met criteria for CD. Depending on the instrument that was used to assess the LPE specifier criteria, 26% to 37% of the girls with CD met criteria for the LPE specifier symptom threshold (CD + LPE). Overall, CD + LPE girls were not significantly different from CD-only girls regarding psychiatric morbidity (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, substance use disorder, major depression, and anxiety disorders). However, CD + LPE girls were more aggressive, rule-breaking, delinquent, and had higher levels of psychopathic traits than CD-only girls. This study supports the view that the LPE specifier identifies a group of seriously antisocial individuals, but could not replicate previous findings that the LPE specifier symptom threshold identifies CD individuals who exhibit more psychiatric morbidity than CD individuals who are without the specifier symptom threshold. These findings altogether suggest that the clinical usefulness of the DSM-5 specifier for the diagnosis of CD is restricted, at least in detained girls.

  • 6.
    Colins, Olivier F
    et al.
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Curium-Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Boonmann, Cyril
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Veenstra, Jorien
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    van Domburgh, Lieke
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Research and Development LSG-Rentray, Zutphen, Netherlands .
    Buffing, Frank
    De Waag, Centre for Forensic Psychiatry, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Doreleijers, Theo A H
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Faculty of Law, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands .
    Vermeiren, Robert R J M
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Curium-Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Mental health problems and recidivism among detained male adolescents from various ethnic origins2013In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 481-490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines differences in self-reported mental health problems between detained youths from Dutch, Moroccan, and Surinamese origin and the usefulness of mental health problems to predict violent and property recidivism in these juveniles. A sample of 296 detained boys aged between 12 and 18 years were assessed by means of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Official information regarding criminal history and recidivism was collected 3-6 years later. In general, Dutch youths and Surinamese youths reported more conduct problems than Moroccan youths, while Dutch youths also reported more hyperactivity than Surinamese youths. Mental health problems were not predictive of violent recidivism in any of the ethnic groups, while being related with property recidivism in Dutch and Surinamese youths. The current study showed that Moroccan youths present themselves on the SDQ as a less seriously disturbed group of youths than their Dutch and Surinamese counterparts. Our results also clearly showed that SDQ self-report scores are not predictive of future violent crimes in any of the three ethnic groups. Implications of the findings and limitations of the current study are discussed.

  • 7.
    Colins, Olivier F
    et al.
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center (Curium-LUMC), Leiden, Netherlands; Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth (Academische Werkplaats Forensische Zorg voor Jeugd), Zutphen, Netherlands .
    Grisso, Thomas
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical School, North Worcester MA, United States .
    Mulder, Eva
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center (Curium-LUMC), Leiden, Netherlands; Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth (Academische Werkplaats Forensische Zorg voor Jeugd), Zutphen, Netherlands .
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center (Curium-LUMC), Leiden, Netherlands; Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth (Academische Werkplaats Forensische Zorg voor Jeugd), Zutphen, Netherlands; Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vrije University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    The relation of standardized mental health screening and categorical assessment in detained male adolescents2015In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 339-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Having an effective triage tool is an important step toward a careful use of the restricted time and qualified personnel to perform comprehensive psychiatric assessment in juvenile justice settings. The aims of this study were to examine the construct validity of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Inventory-second version (MAYSI-2), and its likelihood to identify youths who might have a psychiatric disorder. Data from up to 781 male adolescents (mean age = 16.73 years) were gathered as part of the standardized mental health screening and assessment in two all-male Youth Detention Centers in the Netherlands. Categorical assessments were based on two structured diagnostic interviews. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the area under the curve were calculated to evaluate the likelihood of the MAYSI-2 to identify youths with a psychiatric disorder. Youths with a disorder scored significantly higher on the corresponding MAYSI-2 subscale than youths without a disorder. In the total sample, 70 % of the youths with a disorder met the Caution cut-off criteria on at least one MAYSI-2 scale, while youths without a psychiatric disorder were very unlikely to meet cut-off criteria for multiple MAYSI-2 scales. Overall, the sensitivity was slightly better when analyses were repeated in groups of youths from various ethnic origins. The findings supported the construct validity of the Dutch MAYSI-2 and suggested that the MAYSI-2 is a valid mental health screening tool that may serve relatively well as a triage tool. Its effectiveness, however, may differ between ethnic groups.

  • 8.
    Colins, Olivier F
    et al.
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Curium-LUMC/Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands; .
    Noom, Marc
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Curium-LUMC/Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands .
    Vanderplasschen, Wouter
    Department of Special Education, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium .
    Youth psychopathic traits inventory-short version: a further test of the internal consistency and criterion validity2012In: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, ISSN 0882-2689, E-ISSN 1573-3505, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 476-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version (YPI-S; van Baardewijk et al., 2010) is a self-report measure to assess psychopathic-like traits in adolescents. The aim of the present study is to investigate the factor structure, the internal consistency, and the criterion validity of the YPI-S in 768 Belgian community adolescents (45.4 % males). In general, our study supported the YPI three factor structure while relevant indices showed that the instrument is internally consistent. In addition, relations between the YPI-S total score and dimension scores on the one hand and external criterion measures (e.g. conduct problems and self-reported offending) on the other hand were generally in line with predictions. The present study replicated and substantially extended previous findings of the YPI-S in a sample of community youth. Future studies are needed to test whether findings from community samples can be replicated in clinical-referred and justice-involved boys and adolescents.

  • 9.
    Colins, Olivier F
    et al.
    Curium/Leiden University Medical Center, Oegstgeest/Leiden, Netherlands .
    Vermeiren, Robert R J
    Curium/Leiden University Medical Center, Oegstgeest/Leiden, Netherlands .
    The usefulness of DSM-IV and DSM-5 conduct disorder subtyping in detained adolescents2013In: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 201, no 9, p. 736-743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to test whether the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), and DSM-5 conduct disorder (CD) subtyping approaches identify adolescents with concurrent psychiatric morbidity and an increased risk to reoffend. A diagnostic interview was used to assess childhood-onset CD (CoCD), adolescent-onset CD (AoCD), and concurrent psychiatric morbidity in 223 detained male adolescents. The callous-unemotional (CU) specifier was established through a self-report questionnaire. Two to four years later, information on official criminal recidivism was collected. The CoCD and AoCD youths were different in concurrent psychiatric morbidity but not in their risk to reoffend. The youths with CD and CU (CD+CU) and the CD-only youths did not differ with regard to concurrent psychiatric morbidity. In addition, the CD+CU youths were at risk to reoffend but merely when compared with their counterparts without CD/CU. Although CD subtyping approaches may identify youths with concurrent psychiatric morbidity, the usefulness to predict recidivism in already delinquent youths is limited.

  • 10.
    Colins, Olivier F
    et al.
    Curium-LUMC/Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands .
    Vermeiren, Robert R
    Curium-LUMC/Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands; VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Noom, Marc
    Curium-LUMC/Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands .
    Broekaert, Eric
    Department of Special Education, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Psychotic-like symptoms as a risk factor of violent recidivism in detained male adolescents2013In: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 201, no 6, p. 478-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to prospectively examine whether psychotic-like symptoms (PLSs) are positively associated with violent recidivism and whether this relation is stronger when PLSs co-occur with substance use disorders (SUDs). Participants were 224 detained male adolescents from all youth detention centers in Flanders. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children was used to assess PLSs and the number of SUDs. Two to 4 years later, information on official recidivism was obtained. Although hallucinations were unrelated to violent recidivism, paranoid delusions (PDs) and threat/control override delusions (TCODs) were negatively related to violent recidivism. The relation between PLSs and violent recidivism did not become stronger in the presence of SUDs. Detained youths with PLSs do not have a higher risk for violent recidivism than detained youths without PLSs. In contrast, by identifying detained youths with PDs or TCODs, clinicians are likely to identify youths with a low risk for future violent crimes.

  • 11.
    Colins, Olivier F.
    et al.
    Department of Special Education, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Leiden University Medical Center/Curium, Oegstgeest, Netherlands .
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Leiden University Medical Center/Curium, Oegstgeest, Netherlands .
    Schuyten, Gilberte
    Department of Data Analysis, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium .
    Broekaert, Eric
    Department of Special Education, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium .
    Psychiatric disorders in property, violent, and versatile offending detained male adolescents2009In: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, ISSN 0002-9432, E-ISSN 1939-0025, Vol. 79, no 1, p. 31-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the past year prevalence rate of psychiatric disorders in detained male adolescents and the relation between psychiatric disorders and type of offending. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) was administered in a sample (N = 245) of male detained adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Based on lifetime official criminal history, participants were classified into property, violent, and versatile subgroups. High rates of psychiatric disorders were found in all groups. In addition, property offenders reported significantly higher rates of depression, disruptive behavior disorders, substance use disorders and comorbidity than violent and versatile offenders. Overall, versatile offenders did not differ from violent offenders, with the exception of more marijuana use disorder found in violent offenders. This study once more emphasizes that detained boys have substantial mental health needs, a finding that is generalizable across countries. In addition, the current study suggests that classifying detained juveniles by offense subgroups may carry clinical relevance. The long-term impact of these differences, and the possible effects of intervention, should be subject of further research.

  • 12.
    Colins, Olivier F.
    et al.
    Department of Special Education, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University, Belgium; Department of Special Education, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium .
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Department of Child Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center/Curium, Leiden, Netherlands; Department of Forensic Youth Psychiatry, Free University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Schuyten, Gilberte
    Department of Data Analysis, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University, Belgium .
    Broekaert, Eric
    Department of Special Education, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University, Belgium .
    Soyez, Veerle
    Department of Special Education, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University, Belgium .
    Informant agreement in the assessment of disruptive behavior disorders in detained minors in Belgium: a diagnosis-level and symptom-level examination2008In: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, ISSN 0160-6689, E-ISSN 1555-2101, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 141-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Because diagnostic assessment of children emphasizes information from multiple informants, the reliability of findings in detained and incarcerated samples may be hampered. The objective of the current study was to examine parent-child agreement with regard to disruptive behavior disorders (with or without impairment) and disorder-related symptoms in detained male youths.

    METHOD: Between January 2005 and February 2007, a representative sample of 150 detainees, 12 to 17 years old, from the 3 Youth Detention Centers for boys in Flanders, Belgium, and 1 parent of each were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV (DISC-IV). Interviewees were selected consecutively on the basis of Belgian origin for practical, financial, and time-related reasons. Of the 150 participants, 9 were excluded and the parents of 26 could not be included for various reasons, and thus full data were obtained for 115 parents.

    RESULTS: Overall poor parent-child agreement at the disorder and symptom level was found, which is consistent with previous studies. Parents reported significantly more unique information on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (p < .001) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (p < .001), while youths reported significantly more unique conduct disorder (CD)-related information (p = .01).

    CONCLUSION: The large proportion of parents uniquely reporting ADHD and ODD supports previous concerns about the reliability of self-reported ADHD and ODD and suggests an essential contribution by parents to the accurate assessment of these disorders in adolescent detainees. With regard to CD, it may be appropriate to rely on youth self-report.

  • 13.
    Colins, Olivier F.
    et al.
    Curium-LUMC, Oegstgeest, Netherlands .
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Department of Child Psychiatry, Curium-Leiden University Medical Center, Oegstgeest, Netherlands; Department of Forensic Youth Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Vahl, Pauline
    Curium-LUMC, Oegstgeest, Netherlands .
    Markus, Monica
    Curium-LUMC, Oegstgeest, Netherlands .
    Broekaert, Eric
    Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Department of Special Education, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium .
    Doreleijers, Theo
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Psychiatric disorder in detained male adolescents as risk factor for serious recidivism2011In: Canadian journal of psychiatry, ISSN 0706-7437, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 44-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: A growing body of research consistently shows that detained minors bear substantial mental health needs. However, the relation between mental disorder and criminal recidivism has largely remained unexplored. Our study examines whether psychiatric disorders increase the likelihood of recidivism after controlling for time at risk, criminal history, and the presence of other disorders.

    METHOD: Participants (n = 232) were detained male adolescents from all 3 youth detention centres in Flanders, Belgium, who were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV. Two to 4 years later, information on serious recidivism was retrieved from the official judicial registration system. Serious recidivism was defined as having at least one arrest charge for violent, severe property crime, or substance-related offences.

    RESULTS: Serious recidivism was high, with 81% (n = 191) of the participants being rearrested. Psychiatric disorders predicted neither serious recidivism in general nor violent and severe property recidivism. However, other drug use disorder (OR 2.41; 95% CI 1.22 to 4.75) and general comorbidity (OR 2.64; 95% CI 1.40 to 4.99) were significantly predictive of substance-related recidivism.

    CONCLUSION: Common psychiatric disorders in detained male adolescents do not significantly increase the likelihood of subsequent arrests, with the exception that substance use disorders appear to increase the risk of later substance-related recidivism. Effective treatment of these disorders may prevent detained juveniles to experience the detrimental outcomes associated with substance-related crimes as adults (for example, mental illness).

  • 14.
    Colins, Olivier F.
    et al.
    Department of Special Education, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University. Ghent, Belgium; Leiden University Medical Center/Curium. Oegstgeest, The Netherlands.
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Leiden University Medical Center/Curium. Oegstgeest, The Netherlands; VU University Medical Center, Duivendrecht, The Netherlands.
    Vreugdenhil, Coby
    MoleMann Mental Health Clinics. Almere, The Netherlands.
    Schuyten, Gilberte
    Department of Data Analysis, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University. Ghent, Belgium.
    Broekaert, Eric
    Department of Special Education, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University. Ghent, Belgium.
    Krabbendam, Anne
    Leiden University Medical Center/Curium. Oegstgeest, The Netherlands; VU University Medical Center, Duivendrecht, The Netherlands.
    Are psychotic experiences among detained juvenile offenders explained by trauma and substance use?2009In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 100, no 1-2, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: High rates of psychotic experiences among detained adolescents have been reported. However, the significance of psychotic experiences in detained juveniles is still poorly understood. The current study, therefore, (1) examines whether psychotic experiences could be explained by substance use and/or traumatic experiences, and (2) investigates this objective without taking into account the frequently occurring paranoia-related symptoms that may not be psychosis-related in detained minors.

    METHOD: Data were derived from 231 detained adolescents. By means of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, psychotic experiences, life-threatening events and substance use were assessed while the Child Traumatic Questionnaire was used for a history of abuse and neglect.

    RESULTS: In univariate logistic regression analyses, having psychotic experiences was positively associated with substance-related (e.g. past year intense marihuana use) and trauma-related (e.g. emotional abuse) variables. However, without taken paranoia-related experiences into account, different associations between psychotic experiences and substance-related and/or trauma-related variables were found. After building best fitting models, logistic regression analyses demonstrated a preponderance of trauma-related over substance-related variables in predicting the number of psychotic experiences (i.e. 0, 1-2, >2).

    CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that psychotic experiences in detained adolescents may be explained by trauma and substance use. In addition, paranoia-related experiences seemed to be particularly associated with emotional abuse.

  • 15.
    Colins, Olivier
    et al.
    Department of Special Education, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Leids University Medical Center and Curium, Oegstgeest, Netherlands .
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leids University Medical Center and Curium-LUMC, Oegstgeest, Netherlands; Forensic Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Vreugdenhil, Coby
    MoleMann Mental Health Clinics, Almere, Netherlands .
    van den Brink, Wim
    Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam Institute for Addiction Research, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Doreleijers, Theo
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Broekaert, Erik
    Department of Special Education, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium .
    Psychiatric disorders in detained male adolescents: a systematic literature review2010In: Canadian journal of psychiatry, ISSN 0706-7437, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 255-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To provide a best estimate of the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among detained male adolescents, with particular emphasis on impairment, multi-informant assessment, and race or ethnicity.

    METHOD: Computer-assisted searches were executed to identify relevant studies.

    RESULTS: Fifteen studies using adolescents as informants met inclusion criteria (n = 3401), of which only 2 reported within a subsample on parent-derived diagnoses. The mean prevalence of any disorder was 69.9% (95% CI 69.5% to 70.3%); with conduct disorder occurring most frequently (46.4%, 95% CI 45.6% to 47.3%), followed by substance use disorder (45.1%, 95% CI 44.6% to 45.5%), oppositional defiant disorder (19.8%, 95% CI 19.2% to 20.3%), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (13.5%, 95% CI 13.2% to 13.9%). Although lower, rates for internalizing disorders were still substantial, with any anxiety disorder found in 15.9% (95% CI 15.6% to 16.1%), major depression in 12.0% (95% CI 11.7% to 12.2%), and posttraumatic stress disorder in 9.6% (95% CI 9.2% to 10.0%). Three studies reported on psychotic disorders, finding low rates (1.35%, 95% CI 1.32% to 1.39%). Estimates of prevalence were only marginally different when impairment was not required, while consistency between adolescents and parents was poor. Findings on the relations between race or ethnicity were too scarce and inconsistent to interpret.

    CONCLUSION: Detained male adolescents bear substantial mental health needs, emphasizing the need to organize effective mental health services for this troubled group. However, our knowledge on mental disorders in detained youth should be enhanced, in particular regarding the reliability of adolescents, compared with parent report, and whether clinically relevant differences exist by race or ethnicity.

  • 16.
    Corovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Colins, Olivier
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    Criminal pathways: key findings from the Swedish IDA-program concerning early predictors and adulthood adjustment outcomes2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current talk, a chapter from a 2014 upcoming European Hand-book of Criminal Careers and Life-course Criminology will be present-ed. The chapter is a summary of the key findings concerning criminality from a Swedish large scale prospective longitudinal research program: the IDA-program (Individual Development and Adaptation; previously named The Örebro Project). It is an ongoing longitudinal research program in which individuals have been followed from 1965, when they were at the age of 10, in a mid-sized Swedish municipality. Crime has been assessed from childhood to adulthood primarily by using official registers. The program has been listed as a key longitudinal criminological study and has thus far contributed with many original research studies on both the description and explanation of the development of criminal behavior. In this chapter, the focus is on the nature and prevalence of crime, stability of criminal behavior over developmental age-spans, early individual and social school age risk factors predicting registered criminality in general (through age 35), and criminal pathways more specifically, and the type of adulthood maladjustments associated with the different criminal path-ways, among both males and females. Results will be presented in relation to the theoretical assumptions of Moffitt’s life-course theory and Thorn-berry and Krohn’s Interactional theory. Several studies from the IDA-pro-gram are unique and have often been cited because of the holistic-inter-actionistic theoretical perspective on crime and the novel person-oriented methodological approaches to study crime, and not the least because both males and females are studied

  • 17.
    Corovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Colins, Olivier F.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Risk Factors and Adulthood Adjustment Outcomes for Different Pathways of Crime: Key Findings from the Swedish IDA Program.2017In: The Routledge Handbook on Life-Course Criminology / [ed] A. Blokland & V. van der Geest, London: Routledge, 2017, p. 220-244Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Decuyper, Mieke
    et al.
    Department of Developmental, Personality and Social Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Colins, Olivier F.
    Curium-Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands .
    De Clercq, Barbara
    Department of Developmental, Personality and Social Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Curium-Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands; VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Broekaert, Eric
    Department of Orthopedagogy, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Bijttebier, Patricia
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium .
    Roose, Annelore
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium .
    De Fruyt, Filip
    Department of Developmental, Personality and Social Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Latent personality profiles and the relations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits in detained adolescents2013In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 217-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study constructed empirically derived subtypes of adolescent offenders based on general traits and examined their associations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits. The sample included 342 detained minors (172 boys and 170 girls; mean age 15.85 years, SD = 1.07) recruited in various Youth Detention Centers across the Flemish part of Belgium. All adolescents provided self-reports on the quick big five, the youth self report, and the youth psychopathic traits inventory to assess general traits, psychopathology, and psychopathic traits respectively. Latent class analyses based on general personality traits were performed and suggested three personality types, consisting of an emotionally labile, close-minded and goal-oriented class, an undercontrolled class, and an emotionally labile-careless class. These three personality types within detained minors showed particular constellations of general traits and differed meaningfully in terms of their mean-scores on externalizing psychopathology and psychopathy measures.

  • 19.
    Eriksson, Ida
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Fanti, Kostas A
    University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Frogner, Louise
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Colins, Olivier
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Temperamental and personality dimensions associated with stability and change of conduct problems and CU traits during childhood2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with early onset conduct problems are at risk for long lasting psychosocial problems, which is especially true for children who also dis-play Callous-Unemotional (CU) traits. Very few studies have investigated the co-development of conduct problems and CU traits across time and none have done so in preschool years. In this study, we examined joint tra-jectories/groups of conduct problems and CU traits and examine whether temperamental and personality dimensions are associated with stability and change of co-occurring conduct problems and CU traits during early childhood. A longitudinal data base (the SOFIA study) was used in which children (n = 2121) were followed longitudinally at ages 3–5 years, 4–6 years, and 5–7 years. The Child Problematic Traits Inventory (CPTI) was used as the measure of psychopathic traits. Results suggested that children exhibiting high conduct problems and CU traits over time were charac-terized by deviations in temperament (fearlessness and low levels of easy temperament) and psychopathic personality dimensions. Children with decreasing or increasing conduct problems and CU traits were character-ized by marked decreases and increases respectively on temperamental and personality dimensions. In contrast, children with high conduct problems but low CU traits over time were characterized by less deviation on tem-peramental and personality dimensions compared to all other groups of children except the children with low conduct problems and low CU traits. In conclusion, specific temperamental and personality dimensions seem to be closely associated with stability and change of conduct problems and CU traits during the preschool years. Temperamental and personali-ty dimensions associated with the development of conduct problems and CU traits are changeable over time and may constitute key dimensions in preventive efforts.

  • 20.
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Kyranides, Melina N.
    Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Georgiou, Giorgos
    Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Petridou, Maria
    Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Colins, Olivier F.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Curium-Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Callous-unemotional, impulsive-irresponsible, and grandiose-manipulative traits: Distinct associations with heart rate, skin conductance, and startle responses to violent and erotic scenes2017In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 663-672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to examine whether callous-unemotional, grandiose-manipulative, and impulsive-irresponsible dimensions of psychopathy are differentially related to various affective and physiological measures, assessed at baseline and in response to violent and erotic movie scenes. Data were collected from young adults (N = 101) at differential risk for psychopathic traits. Findings from regression analyses revealed a unique predictive contribution of grandiose-manipulative traits in particular to higher ratings of positive valence for violent scenes. Callous-unemotional traits were uniquely associated with lower levels of sympathy toward victims and lower ratings of fear and sadness during violent scenes. All three psychopathy dimensions and the total psychopathy scale showed negative zero-order correlations with heart rate at baseline, but regression analyses revealed that only grandiose manipulation was uniquely predictive of lower baseline heart rate. Grandiose manipulation was also significantly associated with lower baseline skin conductance. Regarding autonomic activity, findings resulted in a unique negative association between grandiose manipulation and heart rate activity in response to violent scenes. In contrast, the impulsive-irresponsible dimension was positively related with heart rate activity to violent scenes. Finally, findings revealed that only callous-unemotional traits were negatively associated with startle potentiation in response to violent scenes. No associations during erotic scenes were identified. These findings point to unique associations between the three assessed dimensions of psychopathy with physiological measures, indicating that grandiose manipulation is associated with hypoarousal, impulsive irresponsibility with hyperarousal, and callous-unemotional traits with low emotional and fear responses to violent scenes.

  • 21.
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Kyranides, Melina Nicole
    Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Drislane, Laura E.
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, USA.
    Colins, Olivier F.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Curium-Leiden University Medical Center, Oegstgeest, The Netherlands.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Validation of the Greek cypriot translation of the triarchic psychopathy measure2016In: Journal of Personality Assessment, ISSN 0022-3891, E-ISSN 1532-7752, Vol. 98, no 2, p. 146-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychopathy is conceived of as a pathological constellation of personality traits, manifested in aberrant behavioral, interpersonal, and emotional tendencies. This study examined within a Greek-speaking nonclinical sample (N = 419) associations between differing phenotypic dimensions of psychopathy (boldness, meanness, disinhibition) assessed via the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) and self-report criterion measures of psychopathology, personality, and history of abuse and neglect. Consistent with predictions of the triarchic model of psychopathy, evidence was found for distinct correlates of the 3 phenotypic dimensions. Boldness was associated with both adaptive (immunity to anxiety/distress, fearlessness, low hostility) and maladaptive tendencies (grandiose manipulative traits, Machiavellian features including desire for control/status, and verbal aggression). Meanness was related to callous and unemotional traits, features of Machiavellianism (e.g., amoral manipulation and distrust of others), physical aggression, and absence of positive parenting. Disinhibition, by contrast, was characterized by anxiety and distress, exposure to violence, and retrospective accounts of abuse history, along with impulsive, irresponsible, and hostile tendencies. These findings indicate that the Greek-Cypriot translation of the TriPM effectively assesses the constructs of the triarchic model and extend what we know about their empirical correlates.

  • 22.
    Frogner, Louise
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Colins, Olivier F.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The Importance of CU traits and Other Psychopathic Personality Traits in Predicting Early Childhood Conduct Problems2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Hoeve, Machteld
    et al.
    Research Institute of Child Development and Education, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Colins, Olivier F.
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Curium – Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth (Academische Werkplaats Forensische Zorg voor Jeugd), Zutphen, the Netherlands.
    Mulder, Eva A.
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Curium – Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth (Academische Werkplaats Forensische Zorg voor Jeugd), Zutphen, the Netherlands.
    Loeber, Rolf
    Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh Medical School, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Stams, Geert Jan J M
    Research Institute of Child Development and Education, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Vermeiren, Robert R J M
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Curium – Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth (Academische Werkplaats Forensische Zorg voor Jeugd), Zutphen, the Netherlands.
    The association between childhood maltreatment, mental health problems, and aggression in justice-involved boys2015In: Aggressive Behavior, ISSN 0096-140X, E-ISSN 1098-2337, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 488-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The link between childhood maltreatment and adolescent aggression is well documented; yet, studies examining potential mechanisms that explain this association are limited. In the present study, we tested the association between childhood maltreatment and adolescent aggression in boys in juvenile justice facilities (N = 767) and examined the contribution of mental health problems to this relationship. Data on childhood maltreatment, mental health problems, and aggression were collected by means of self-report measures and structural equation models were used to test mediation models. We found that mental health problems mediated the link between maltreatment and aggression. Results demonstrated different pathways depending on the type of aggression examined. The association between childhood maltreatment and reactive aggression was fully mediated by a variety of mental health problems and for proactive aggression the association was partially mediated by mental health problems. We also found that reactive and proactive aggression partially mediated the association between maltreatment and mental health problems. These findings suggest that a transactional model may best explain the negative effects of childhood trauma on mental health problems and (in particular reactive) aggression. In addition, our findings add to the existing evidence that reactive and proactive aggression have different etiological pathways.

  • 24.
    Klingzell, Ida
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Fanti, Kostas
    Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Colins, Olivier
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Curium-Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Frogner, Louise
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Early Childhood Trajectories of Conduct Problems and Callous-Unemotional Traits: The Role of Fearlessness and Psychopathic Personality Dimensions2016In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 236-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with early onset of conduct problems (CP) are at risk for long lasting psychosocial problems, especially if CP co-occurs with callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Joint trajectories of CP and CU traits during early childhood were identified using data from the SOFIA study, following 2031 children longitudinally from ages 3-5 to 5-7 years. The results showed that children exhibiting stable high CP and CU traits were characterized by high levels of fearlessness, and psychopathic traits, including grandiose-deceitfulness, and impulsivity, need for stimulation. Children with decreasing or increasing CP and CU traits were characterized by decreases and increases respectively in their levels of fearlessness and psychopathic traits. Children high on CP and low on CU traits exhibited lower levels of these dimensions. Thus, stability and change of fearlessness and psychopathic traits are associated with stability and change in CP and CU traits, making these temperamental and personality traits promising target candidates for early intervention.

  • 25.
    Krabbendam, Anne A
    et al.
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Curium-LUMC), Leiden, Netherlands; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center Amsterdam, De Bascule, Amsterdam, Netherlands; EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Colins, Olivier F.
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center (Curium-LUMC), Leiden, Netherlands.
    Doreleijers, Theo A H
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center Amsterdam, De Bascule, Amsterdam, Netherlands; EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    van der Molen, Elsa
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center (Curium-LUMC), Leiden, Netherlands.
    Beekman, Aartjan T F
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center Amsterdam, De Bascule, Netherlands; EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Vermeiren, Robert R J M
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Medical Center (Curium-LUMC), Leiden, Netherlands; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center Amsterdam, De Bascule, Netherlands .
    Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: a prospective study2015In: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, ISSN 0002-9432, E-ISSN 1939-0025, Vol. 85, no 1, p. 63-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed for traumatic experiences and mental health problems (mean age = 15.5 years). Three to 6 years later (M = 4.5; SD = 0.6), ASPD and BPD were diagnosed with a semistructured interview. Forty percent of the women had a personality disorder (i.e., ASPD 15.8%, BPD 9.2%, or both ASPD and BPD 15.2%). Posttraumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and dissociation during detention increased the risk for BPD in adulthood. Surprisingly, neither conduct problems nor substance dependence predicted ASPD; these findings require further study because they add to the controversy surrounding ASPD in females. The high prevalence rates of personality disorders indicate the need for intervention programs that target these unwanted outcomes.

  • 26.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Colins, Olivier F.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Departments of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Curium-Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute Solna, Stockholm, Sweden; Center for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Karolinska Institute Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Psychopathic personality traits in 5 year old twins: the importance of genetic and shared environmental influences2017In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 469-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is limited research on the genetic and environmental bases of psychopathic personality traits in children. In this study, psychopathic personality traits were assessed in a total of 1189 5-year-old boys and girls drawn from the Preschool Twin Study in Sweden. Psychopathic personality traits were assessed with the Child Problematic Traits Inventory, a teacher-report measure of psychopathic personality traits in children ranging from 3 to 12 years old. Univariate results showed that genetic influences accounted for 57, 25, and 74 % of the variance in the grandiose-deceitful, callous-unemotional, and impulsive-need for stimulation dimensions, while the shared environment accounted for 17, 48 and 9 % (n.s.) in grandiose-deceitful and callous-unemotional, impulsive-need for stimulation dimensions, respectively. No sex differences were found in the genetic and environmental variance components. The non-shared environment accounted for the remaining 26, 27 and 17 % of the variance, respectively. The three dimensions of psychopathic personality were moderately correlated (0.54-0.66) and these correlations were primarily mediated by genetic and shared environmental factors. In contrast to research conducted with adolescent and adult twins, we found that both genetic and shared environmental factors influenced psychopathic personality traits in early childhood. These findings indicate that etiological models of psychopathic personality traits would benefit by taking developmental stages and processes into consideration.

  • 27.
    Vahl, Pauline
    et al.
    Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth, Zutphen, Netherlands; Academic Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Centre (Curium-LUMC), Oegstgeest, Netherlands .
    Colins, Olivier F.
    Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth, Zutphen, Netherlands; Academic Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Centre (Curium-LUMC), Oegstgeest, Netherlands .
    Lodewijks, Henny P B
    Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth, Zutphen, Netherlands; LSG-Rentray, Zutphen, Netherlands .
    Markus, Monica T
    Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth, Zutphen, Netherlands; Academic Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Centre (Curium-LUMC), Oegstgeest, Netherlands .
    Doreleijers, Theo A H
    Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth, Zutphen, Netherlands .
    Vermeiren, Robert R J M
    Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth, Zutphen, Netherlands;Academic Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Centre (Curium-LUMC), Oegstgeest, Netherlands; VUmc de Bascule, Duivendrecht, Netherlands .
    Psychopathic-like traits in detained adolescents: clinical usefulness of self-report2014In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 691-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have demonstrated that self-report tools can be used to reliably and validly examine psychopathic-like traits in adolescents. However, it is unclear if self-report instruments are still reliable and valid when confidentiality cannot be guaranteed, such as during routine assessments in juvenile detention centres. To address this issue, the current study used data from the routine mental health screening of 365 detained male adolescents (12-18 years) in two juvenile detention centres. With the intention of gaining insight in the clinical usefulness of self-reported psychopathic-like traits, we examined relations known from literature with emotional and behavioural features. Self-reported psychopathic-like traits, measured by the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short version (YPI-S), were uniquely associated with substance abuse, anger/irritability, conduct problems and hyperactivity, but not with internalizing problems. YPI-S-dimensions showed several specific relationships with variables of interest. For example, only the callous unemotional dimension was negatively related with prosocial behaviour and only the behavioural dimension was positively related with hyperactivity. In conclusion, self-reported psychopathic-like traits showed expected relations with relevant variables. These findings suggest that self-report can be used to identify detained youths with high levels of psychopathic-like traits outside a research context, thus, even when anonymity and confidentiality are not guaranteed.

  • 28.
    Van Damme, Lore
    et al.
    Department of Special Education, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium .
    Colins, Olivier F.
    Curium-Leiden University Medical Centre, Oegstgeest, Netherlands .
    De Maeyer, Jessica
    Department of Special Education, University College Ghent, Ghent, Belgium .
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Curium-Leiden University Medical Centre, Oegstgeest, Netherlands .
    Vanderplasschen, Wouter
    Department of Special Education, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium .
    Girls' quality of life prior to detention in relation to psychiatric disorders, trauma exposure and socioeconomic status2015In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 1419-1429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Practice and research on detained girls has mainly been problem oriented, overlooking these minors' own perspective on and satisfaction with life. The aim of this study was to examine how girls evaluate multiple domains of quality of life (QoL) and how each domain is affected by psychiatric (co)morbidity, trauma, and socioeconomic status (SES).

    Methods An abbreviated version of the World Health Organization (WHO) QoL Instrument was used to assess the girls' (N = 121; M age  = 16.28) QoL prior to detention. This self-report questionnaire consists of two benchmark items referring to their overall QoL and health, and 24 remaining items measuring their QoL regarding four domains (physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment). The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV was used to assess the past-year prevalence of psychiatric disorders and life-time trauma exposure.

    Results: Detained girls perceived their QoL almost as good as the 12- to 20-year-olds from the WHO's international field trial on all but one domain (i.e., psychological health). They were most satisfied with their social relationships and least satisfied with their psychological health. Psychiatric disorders, trauma, and low SES were distinctively and negatively related to various domains of QoL. The girls' psychological health was most adversely affected by psychosocial and socioeconomic problems, while these variables had an almost negligible impact on their satisfaction with their social relationships.

    Conclusions: The particularity of each domain of QoL supports a multidimensional conceptualization of QoL. Regarding treatment, psychological health appears as a domain of major concern, while social relationships might serve as a source of resilience.

  • 29.
    Van Damme, Lore
    et al.
    Department of Special Education, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium .
    Colins, Olivier F.
    Curium-Leiden University Medical Centre, Oegstgeest, Netherlands .
    Vanderplasschen, Wouter
    Department of Special Education, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium .
    Gender differences in psychiatric disorders and clusters of self-esteem among detained adolescents2014In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 220, no 3, p. 991-997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detained minors display substantial mental health needs. This study focused on two features (psychopathology and self-esteem) that have received considerable attention in the literature and clinical work, but have rarely been studied simultaneously in detained youths. The aims of this study were to examine gender differences in psychiatric disorders and clusters of self-esteem, and to test the hypothesis that the cluster of adolescents with lower (versus higher) levels of self-esteem have higher rates of psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was assessed in 440 Belgian, detained adolescents using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV. Self-esteem was assessed using the Self-perception Profile for Adolescents. Model-based cluster analyses were performed to identify youths with lower and/or higher levels of self-esteem across several domains. Girls have higher rates for most psychiatric disorders and lower levels of self-esteem than boys. A higher number of clusters was identified in boys (four) than girls (three). Generally, the cluster of adolescents with lower (versus higher) levels of self-esteem had a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders. These results suggest that the detection of low levels of self-esteem in adolescents, especially girls, might help clinicians to identify a subgroup of detained adolescents with the highest prevalence of psychopathology.

  • 30.
    van den Bos, Wouter
    et al.
    Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden, the Netherlands; Center for Adaptive Rationality (ARC), Max-Planck-Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany; Department of Psychology, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    Vahl, Pauline
    Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands .
    Güroğlu, Berna
    Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands .
    van Nunspeet, Félice
    Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Psychology, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    Colins, Olivier F.
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands .
    Markus, Monica
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands .
    Rombouts, Serge A R B
    Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    van der Wee, Nic
    Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands .
    Crone, Eveline A
    Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Psychology, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Neural correlates of social decision-making in severely antisocial adolescents2014In: Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, ISSN 1749-5016, E-ISSN 1749-5024, Vol. 9, no 12, p. 2059-2066Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurobiological and behavioral findings suggest that the development of delinquent behavior is associated with atypical social-affective processing. However, to date, no study has examined neural processes associated with social interactions in severely antisocial adolescents. In this study we investigated the behavioral and neural processes underlying social interactions of juvenile delinquents and a matched control group. Participants played the mini-Ultimatum Game as a responder while in the MRI scanner. Participants rejected unfair offers significantly less when the other player had 'no alternative' compared with a 'fair' alternative, suggesting that they took the intentions of the other player into account. However, this effect was reduced in the juvenile delinquents. The neuroimaging results revealed that juvenile delinquents showed less activation in the temporal parietal junction (TPJ) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). However, the groups showed similar activation levels in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the right anterior insula (AI) when norms were violated. These results indicate that juvenile delinquents with severe antisocial behavior process norm violations adequately, but may have difficulties with attending spontaneously to relevant features of the social context during interactions.

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