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  • 1.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Addressing Gender Inequalities in Music: Sweden as a Comparative Case Study2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing media attention has been given to gender inequalities within the music industries, and across genres, in global Northern nations. Whilst noting that gender inequalities exist in different genres is not new, their persistence, as well as identifying successes in strategies to change them, require further exploration.In this respect, Sweden, a country with an international reputation for comparatively greater equality between binary genders, as well as popular music ‘folkbildning’ traditions, provides an important case study.This paper will address how notions of gender equality are constructed in activist and policy measures in Sweden. It notes how these influence and, in turn, are influenced by material resources which shape strategies in different ways. Drawing from 10 interviews with key-stakeholders in the UK and Sweden, as well as comparative policy analysis, the paper argues that both ‘cultural democratic’ and ‘gender mainstreaming’ traditions help to counter entrenched sexism and misogyny across genres. At the same time, it also advocates the need to extend and develop these in order to integrate more firmly intersectional understandings of equality as both an ethical and aesthetic concern.

  • 2.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Book Review: Masculinities in Contemporary American Culture: An Intersectional Approach to the Complexities and Challenges of Male Identity2018Inngår i: Men and Masculinities, ISSN 1097-184X, E-ISSN 1552-6828, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 759-761Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Bored of Bourdieu?: On the Limits of Bourdieusian Approaches to Music Sociology2017Inngår i: Beyond Bourdieu?: International Symposium, 22nd - 24th September 2017, Delmenhorst, Germany. Abstracts, 2017, s. 3-4Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bourdieu-inspired approaches have been the most influential in sociological research on music in many Western and Northern European nations, since the publication of Distinction in 1979. Cultural capital, particularly, was popularised in Anglophone countries through work on popular music aesthetics (Frith 2002) and notions of ‘subcultural capital’ (Thornton 1995) during the 1990s, whilst, more recently, habitus and cultural capital’s explanatory force in relation to music, have most obviously been indebted to large-scale projects around cultural capital and social exclusion (Bennett et al. 2008; Bihagen and Katz-Gerro 2000; Savage et al. 2015). In the Nordic countries, too, questions of music education and gentrification have also taken up Bourdieu’s concepts to explain the acquisition, deployment and institutionalisation of music taste (Burnard et al. 2015; Dyndahl et al. 2017). 

    A number of scholars have challenged Bourdieu’s formulation and the way in which his work has been taken up in relation to music specifically (see Prior 2013; Rimmer 2012). The question is how to locate a discussion of social inequalities of music whilst carrying out meaningful social research which takes into account material practices of music listening (DeNora 2003) in relation to (unevenly) globally dispersed, technological change.

    This presentation outlines how a range of quantitative and qualitative sociological methods may help to reveal more complex, intersecting forms of inequalities and notions of aesthetic experience than are currently offered by Bourdieusian frameworks. It also seeks to offer insights from postcolonial and posthumanist-feminist theorising as a means of rethinking the linear value-hierarchy between hexis/doxa, subject/object and material/cultural which work to reinscribe simplistic notions of hierarchically determined taste. Through this, the presentation aims to raise some implications for sociologically grounded studies of music education, specifically around notions of value and musical development which take account of Bourdieusian insights but are not limited to their frameworks.

  • 4.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan. Department of Sociology, Wentworth College, University of York, York, United Kingdom.
    Cheer up emo kid: rethinking the ‘crisis of masculinity’ in emo2014Inngår i: Popular Music, ISSN 0261-1430, E-ISSN 1474-0095, Vol. 33, nr 2, s. 225-242Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘Emo’, an abbreviation of the word ‘emotional’, is a term both used to describe music which places public emphasis on introspective displays of emotion and a pejorative phrase applied to fans of a diverse range of music. It is overwhelmingly male-dominated in terms of production and it has been suggested that the development of emo can be explained with reference to a ‘crisis in masculinity’. This implies that explicit, male emotional expression is historically incompatible with the performance of Western ‘masculinity’. This article first briefly explores how emo emerged and how it has been linked to the idea of a crisis. It then moves on to conduct a lyrical, discursive analysis around three themes: emotional expression and relationships; overt chauvinism; and ‘beta male misogyny’. Through these concepts I suggest that, rather than indicating a crisis or ‘softening’ of masculinity, there are actually a number of historical continuities with masculinities as a means of sustaining gendered inequalities.

  • 5.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan. Department of Sociology, Wentworth College, University of York, Heslington, UK.
    Contesting ‘sex’ and ‘gender’ difference in emotions through music use in the UK2016Inngår i: Journal of Gender Studies, ISSN 0958-9236, E-ISSN 1465-3869, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 66-84Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article builds on social psychological critiques of ‘hardwired’ gender difference inemotions, looking at the topic through the emotional use of music. Starting from thepremise that gender differences in emotion are socially and discursively constructedrather than innate, it moves on to challenge existing work in which masculinity andfemininity are treated as singular, oppositional concepts, that are ‘normally’ attached toideas of existing sex differences. Drawing on data, generated from a UK-based onlinesurvey of 914 respondents (male = 361; female = 553), this article highlights thatwhilst gender plays a significant part in shaping the emotional experience of music, thisis often mediated heavily by age and personal experience. It suggests that music is apractical means of moving beyond ideas of differences in gender or sex differences inemotional display, towards ideas of diversity, especially given that existing face-to-face research has often found men to be ‘unable’ to communicate emotional experiencein particular ways. Both inductive quantitative trends and open-ended fragments frompeople’s emotional experiences of music are included in order to demonstrate howemotions and gender intersect discursively.

  • 6.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Cultural Capital and Music in the UK and Sweden: Exploring Class and Gender Inequalities2015Inngår i: Societies in transition: Progression or regression? : BSA Annual Conference 2015, Durham: British Sociological Association , 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As Prieur and Savage (2011) observe, Bourdieu's notion of cultural capital does not entail a timeless, fixed set of social relations. For example, some have pointed out that there are strong gender, rather than class, divides in 'highbrow' taste in Sweden (Bihagen and Katz-Gerro 2000) whereas in the UK, participation rather than consumption may often be a better indicator of social inequality (Bennett et al. 2008). How certain types of participation accrue symbolic value cross-culturally and temporally can therefore help illuminate differing forms of structural inequalities. Music has often been one of the most distinguishing measures in terms of class (Bennett et al. 2008: 46). Nevertheless a Bourdieusian approach to music tends to reduce its role entirely to its social function (Frith 2002: 251); neglects questions of aesthetics (Born 2010; Prior 2011), affect (Hennion 2007) and listening; and often fails to explore how inequalities can be subverted. Focusing on reproduction is important however we need to outline how groups renegotiate and contest symbolic violence also. This paper foregrounds the first stages of postdoctoral research project looking at inequalities in music practices in the UK and Sweden. Using a 3 stage mixed-methods research design, it aims to outline different types of 'public' and 'private' participation and provide a detailed picture of how music attachments (Hennion 2010) and practices relate to gender and class. Through highlighting the similarities as well as the differences between the two countries, this will help to expand on and extend the insights of cultural capital theory.

  • 7.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Editorial: is masculinity toxic?2019Inngår i: Norma, ISSN 1890-2138, E-ISSN 1890-2146, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 147-151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Fighting Gender Inequalities in Music: Comparing the UK and Sweden2017Inngår i: Popular Music Studies Today: Abstracts for the conference of the International Association for the Study of Popular Music, June 26-30, Kassel, Germany / [ed] Julia Merrill and Jan Hemming, 2017, s. 136-137Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many have documented how gendered discrimination impacts on inequalities across music scenes and genres (eg. Davies 2001; Donze 2010; Farrugia 2012; McClary 1991; Rustin and Tucker 2008). These studies have shown that gender influences access to, participation in and engagement with music, in a variety of different ways, providing important critiques of objective notions of musical ‘excellence’ and utopian views of music subcultures.Studies on gender inequalities in music have often focused on Anglophone countries. Yet research on Sweden (eg. Bergman 2014; Björck 2013; Gavanas and Reitsammer 2013) – a supposedly much more gender-equal nation - has demonstrated that many of the same issues are present. This indicates the prevalence of transnational discourses around popular music and a need to recognise the work of activists, networks and musicians in challenging such practices.This paper draws on research with 10 representatives from networks, in the UK and Sweden, involved in fighting gender inequalities in music. It outlines what benefits can be gained from a cross-national, comparative perspective before exploring how gender inequalities and equality are understood by networks working across and within particular genres. It links organizational strategies to structural differences between the two nations, before noting how these networks articulate their limitations.

  • 9.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Gender Equality in Music: A Comparison of the UK and Sweden2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Gender Inequalities and Higher Music Education: Comparing the UK and Sweden2018Inngår i: British Journal of Music Education, ISSN 0265-0517, E-ISSN 1469-2104, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 23-41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Whilst the impact of gender inequalities has been studied in relation to music education,especially in the UK, relatively little has been written about their impact on higher musiceducation (HME). This article compares data on HME programs and courses, in the UK andSweden, from 2010 to 2014. It looks at similarities and differences in the numbers of menand women who applied to HME subjects, compared to those who were offered a place ontheir chosen program or course, in both nations. Through this it demonstrates that whilst aSwedish HME appears to show less institutional discrimination against women, there arestill similar transnational divisions in men’s and women’s HME subject choices. Howeverthe article uses these data to build on existing critiques around a need for intersectionalunderstandings of gender inequalities, before arguing that a critique of neoliberalism isessential to tackling gender inequalities in HME.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Gender Inequalities in Higher Music Education: Comparing the UK and Sweden2017Inngår i: The 22nd Annual Conference of the Nordic Network for Research in Music Education, March 14-16 2017: Abstracts, Senior research, NNMPF 2017, 2017, s. 19-21Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of studies have either directly or indirectly pointed to the role of music education in reproducing broader gender inequalities, in broader music life, across genres (eg. Abeles 2009; Abeles and Porter 1978; Armstrong 2011; Bogdanovic 2015; Branch 2012; Gould 2004; Green 1997). Crucially, gender inequalities shape instrument and activity choices (Wych 2012) as well as perceptions about the relative value of those activities (Georgii-Hemming and Kvarnhall 2015). Such processes operate is alongside active discrimination against girls and women, as well as differential (and often preferential) treatment of individuals and groups on the basis of gender. Many, though not all, of these studies have been based on Anglophone countries. Yet despite its international reputation as a more ‘gender equal’ nation than many countries in other respects (U.N. 2014), music continues to be one field where people of non-male genders are excluded and discriminated against through ‘informal’ practices (Bergman 2014; Björck 2013; Kvarnhall 2015). 

    Furthermore, whilst many approaches have focused on primary (grundskola) and secondary (gymnasiet) education, relatively few have actively explored the state of gender inequalities in higher music education (HME). Given HME’s increasingly important role in the professionalization of music careers across Europe (Allsup 2015) a focus on gender inequalities in higher education is of critical importance (Bogdanovic 2015; Born and Devine 2015). Such an approach entails asking where the problems lie, how gender inequalities manifest themselves and, crucially, how to change them given that course choices are, already, often shaped by years of specialisation in ‘lower’ education.

    The first part of this paper presents comparative HME statistics from Sweden and the UK from 2010-2014, surrounding music course choices amongst undergraduate students. Drawing from statistical analysis on comprehensive data from UHR (Sweden) and UCAS (UK), it compares application and acceptance rates for men and women. This allows us to point to the extent to which institutional discrimination or previous education play a part in shaping participation rates at HME institutions at a national level. It relates similarities and differences between the two national contexts to key contextual features in the way music education is established and executed as well as broader societal commitments to gender equality.

    However whilst Sweden has adopted a highly-successful gender mainstreaming agenda, something which clearly has an impact on HME, it is problematic to represent inequalities only in terms of inequalities of representation. Attempts to ‘fix representation’ may do very little to challenge patriarchal assumptions on which different music traditions are founded (Macarthur 2010; 2014); traditions such as all-male canons (Citron 2004), instrumental fetishisation (Pellegrini 2008) or masculinist aesthetic judgment (Macarthur 2002). Furthermore it may actively lead to preferential treatment of men in areas where women are now better represented, despite historical exclusion - the so-called missing males problem in choirs for example (Koza 1993; O'Toole 1998) - as well as overlooking how intersectionality  impacts on different forms of gendered exclusion. In this respect, a gender-mainstreaming focus in Sweden has also tended to overlook how class, ethnic and racial inequalities in other areas influence gender inequalities (de los Reyes 2016); something which could well extend to music.

    The second part of the paper therefore outlines some of the issues the data throws up around how to define, understand and combat gender inequalities in HME. It makes specific reference to how gender mainstreaming approaches may discriminate against trans* individuals (Hines 2013), and how efforts to increase women’s representation may miss more fundamental strategies in engaging and transforming men’s attitudes and behaviour. Crucially, in doing so, it also touches on more complex issues around what the marketization of higher education means for gender inequalities at a university level. Comparing the more-recently neoliberal free-market system in the UK (Allen et al. 2013; De Angelis and Harvie 2009; Radice 2013), with the more ‘public institution’ approach in Sweden, allows for debate as around how universities should challenge already-gendered ‘consumer’ choices and how far they can seek to actively change those choices. These questions centre not just on the subjects that are offered but the way in which the subjects are marketed to appeal to a range of groups.

  • 12.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Gender Mainstreaming in the Music Industries: Perspectives from Sweden and the UK2019Inngår i: Towards Gender Equality in the Music Industry: Education, Practice and Strategies for Change / [ed] Catherine Strong and Sarah Raine, London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2019, s. 117-130Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    I’m Not Homophobic, “I’ve Got Gay Friends”: Evaluating the Validity of Inclusive Masculinity2015Inngår i: Men and Masculinities, ISSN 1097-184X, E-ISSN 1552-6828, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 318-339Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anderson’s concept of “inclusive masculinity” has generated significant academic and media interest recently. It claims to have replaced hegemonic masculinity as a theoretical framework for exploring gender relations in societies that show “decreased” levels of cultural homophobia and “homohysteria”; this clearly has important implications for critical studies on men and masculinities (CSMMs). This article is divided into two parts and begins with a theoretical evaluation of work using the framework of inclusive masculinity and what it claims to offer over hegemonic masculinity. The second half is an analysis of inclusive masculinity’s conceptual division of homophobia and homohysteria. Through this analysis, it is suggested that there are several major theoretical concerns, which call into question the validity of research utilizing the framework of inclusive masculinity.

  • 14.
    de Boise, Sam
    University of York, Heslington, UK.
    Learning to Be Affected: Masculinities, Music and Social Embodiment2014Inngår i: Sociological research online, ISSN 1360-7804, E-ISSN 1360-7804, Vol. 19, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Connell's concept of hegemonic masculinity remains a pervasive influence in critical studies on men and masculinities (CSMM). However as Connell and Messerschmidt note, one of the key drawbacks of the approach is that it lacks an adequate theory of 'social embodiment'. Subsequent authors have explored how masculinities entail bodily control and regulation but this often reproduces the Cartesian divide between mind and body that CSMM is highly critical of. On the other hand, poststructuralist critiques often see the body as entirely constructed through discourse, undermining the problem of gendered, embodied experience. This article suggests that literature on affect is a means of moving between these two approaches in order to see masculinities as corporeally experienced through power relations, but ultimately not entirely reducible to them. Drawing on 6 life history case studies from a larger research project, the article demonstrates how 'learning to be affected' by music is an embodied process which relies fundamentally on learning physiological experience through social interaction. This highlights the potential for both re-producing and transforming gendered performances and offers a new theoretical framework for conceptualising masculinities in the field of CSMM.

  • 15.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Masculinity and homophobiaArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Men, masculinities and music2020Inngår i: Routledge International Handbook of Masculinity Studies / [ed] Lucas Gottzén, Ulf Mellström, Tamara Shefer, London: Routledge, 2020, s. 414-424Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Men, masculinity, music and emotions2015Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This book examines how we can reconcile the widely held belief that men are 'less emotional' than women, with a history of emotions in music. A belief that men identify with an ideal of rationality  - understood as the separation of emotion from rational action  - has informed critical studies on men and masculinities. Yet engaging with a wide range of music to stimulate, reflect and express, as well as manage particular types of emotions continues to be the key to music's appeal. Through detailing how judgments about emotions are expressed in relation to music tastes and distastes, this book demonstrates that emotions are as much social, value judgments as embodied, affective responses. It therefore raises the importance of looking at music listening contexts, culture, personal experience and a history of emotions in order to contest the orthodoxy that men's privilege stems from the 'repression' of emotions.

  • 18.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Music Participation Matters: Gender Inequalities and Higher Education Music Course Selection in the UK and Sweden2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    de Boise, Sam
    Department of Sociology, University of York, York, UK.
    Patriarchy and the Crisis of Masculinity2013Inngår i: New Left ProjectArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 20.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Post Bourdieusian Moments and Methods in Sociologies of Music2016Inngår i: Global Societies: Fragmenting and Connecting: BSA Annual Conference 2016, Aston University, Birmingham, Wednesday 6 - Friday 8 April 2016, BSA Publications Ltd. , 2016, s. 258-258Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bourdieu’s theoretical shortcomings in his approach to music have been heavily critiqued, leading to what Prior (2011) has called, an emerging trend toward a ‘post-Bourdieu moment’ in the sociology of music. Yet despite sustained criticism, many recent empirical studies have tried to ‘update’ his initial approach whilst avoiding questions of aesthetics, social change and questions of production. The uses of cultural capital and habitus, particularly, have tended to depict a certain cohesion in increasingly complex music practices which go far beyond the nation state. Enormous, global, technological changes have also not only impacted on the way in which many consume, but also write and engage with music.

    A ‘post-Bourdieu moment’ in the sociology of music raises particular methodological and theoretical issues; primarily, how can we integrate a non-deterministic approach to musical sociology which recognizes music’s sensory and affective qualities, without negating questions of power and the focus on critical, large-scale, empirical research. This paper makes the case for new interventions in empirical frameworks for exploring music in relation to social inequalities. It argues that we need to be sensitive to the impact of digital technologies, the changing structures of the music industries and adopt a much more explicit focus on listening practices. Drawing on mixed-methods, empirical data from my own research, the paper looks particularly at focusing on ‘music engagement’ in order to understand not only how music relates to inequalities but also how it offers a means of contesting them, without reverting to static models of taste.

  • 21.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Post-Bourdieusian Moments and Methods in Music Sociology: Toward a Critical, Practice-Based Approach2016Inngår i: Cultural Sociology, ISSN 1749-9755, E-ISSN 1749-9763, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 178-194Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bourdieu’s work has been hugely influential in sociological research on music and society, especially in shaping research on the relationship between social inequalities and music. Recent sociological work has also ‘updated’ his approach in order to demonstrate how his central insights are still relevant today, demonstrating strong links between music and social inequalities. Despite a move toward a ‘post-Bourdieu moment’ in the sociology of music (Prior, 2011), few have attempted to outline empirical strategies which are critically sensitive to social inequalities, whilst addressing questions of aesthetics, value, resistance and social change. This article acknowledges Bourdieusian contributions to the sociology of music as well as attempts to ‘update’ Bourdieu’s initial approach. However, it argues that a new understanding of musical subjectivity, a broader focus on music engagement, as well as greater methodological flexibility, are required in order to help us explore increasingly complex relationships between music and social inequalities today.

  • 22.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Tackling gender inequalities in music: A comparative study of policy responses in the UK and Sweden2019Inngår i: The International Journal of Cultural Policy, ISSN 1028-6632, E-ISSN 1477-2833, Vol. 25, nr 4, s. 486-499Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-disciplinary research has highlighted the persistence of gender inequalities across music scenes. However, the way in which cultural policy shapes responses to gender inequalities in music has been relatively underexplored. This article draws on research from Swedish and UK contexts, supporting analysis with reference to 9 key-stakeholder interviews from both. Comparing perspectives from ‘more’ and ‘less’ gender-equal contexts, with sufficiently different cultural policy traditions, the article explores how responses to gender inequalities in music are influenced by ‘cultural democratic’ and ‘arm’s length’ approaches. It demonstrates that, as a result of these traditions, there is a comparatively more interventionist approach in Sweden at a national level, whereas the lack of central government response in the UK has encouraged more market-oriented solutions. It suggests that this ‘arm’s length’ approach necessitates different grassroots organisational strategies in order to affect change but notes that these, alongside austerity agendas, are insufficient in the long term.

  • 23.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan. School of Sociology and Social Policy, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    The Coming Crisis?: Some Questions for the Future of Empirical Sociology in the UK2012Inngår i: Graduate Journal of Social Science, ISSN 1572-3763, E-ISSN 1572-3763, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 40-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Working in commercial research, it was interesting to note that many researchers had little grounding in academic social research methods or social theory. Organizations dealing with research often took for granted that to get at ‘the truth’ involved either simply ‘talking to people’ and looking at an aggregation of opinions, or carrying out a mix of ‘pre’ and ‘post’ (usually online) surveys and ‘ad-hoc’ pieces which privilege Likert scales as the primary tool of ‘measurement’. As Mike Savage and Roger Burrows (2007) note, such industries have challenged the public legitimacy of empirical sociological inquiry. Such a challenge arguably hinges on political rhetoric around demonstrable ‘impact’ and ‘maximising efficiency’. However, a lack of attention to research design poses significant problems for the authority that these industries lay claim to. Noting sociology’s ethical value and personal experience of commercial, ‘client led’ research, this paper seeks to outline a case for the continued importance of rigorous, ethical social research in contemporary society and against narrow conceptions of impact.

  • 24.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    The Performing Rights of Man: The Global Music Industries and Transnational Hegemonies of Men2019Inngår i: Unsustainable Institutions of Men: Transnational Dispersed Centres, Gender Power, Contradictions / [ed] Jeff Hearn, Ernesto Vasquez del Aguila, Marina Hughson, Abingdon: Routledge, 2019, 1, s. 155-171Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 25.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    The Personal is Political … just not Always Progressive: Affective Interruptions and their Promise for CSMM2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 26.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    The Personal is Political … just not Always Progressive: Thinking and Re-Thinking Men and Emotions2016Inngår i: Global Societies: Fragmenting and Connecting: BSA Annual Conference 2016, Aston University, Birmingham, Wednesday 6 - Friday 8 April 2016, BSA Publications Ltd. , 2016, s. 79-79Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a widespread belief that a majority of men, in the US, the UK and Western Europe, are getting ‘more in touch’ with their emotions, leading to a ‘softening’ of masculinity. Feminist and profeminist campaigners have (rightly) cited an increasing understanding of men’s emotional lives, and getting men to understand their own emotions, as central to any project addressing gender inequality. Psychologists have also linked greater emotional self-attunement as key to tackling men’s underreporting of depression and (both separately and in connection with) high suicide rates. In short: men being ‘more emotional’ is almost always seen as progressive.

    There is a problem, however, with narratives around increasingly ‘more emotional’ men. Not only do these fail to engage with historical precedents, they divide ‘progressive’ from ‘regressive’ men without accounting for structural power relations impacting on ideas around progress and regression. Furthermore, assuming that men’s emotions are inherently gender-progressive, ignores more sinister examples of antifeminist rage, easily identifiable through men’s rights activism and online misogyny.

    This paper argues that we need to engage critically with how we think about both emotions and a history of emotions in relation to gender equality. Considering how emotions are put into language as well as the mechanisms by which societies are expected to articulate and measure certain emotions have an impact on how we characterize emotions and ‘emotional’ behaviour. In focusing on these areas, this paper aims to contribute a critical analysis on a developing and much-needed area of sociological research on men and emotions.

  • 27.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    The personal is political … just not always progressive: Affective interruptions and their promise for CSMM2018Inngår i: Norma, ISSN 1890-2138, E-ISSN 1890-2146, Vol. 13, nr 3-4, s. 158-174Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In critical studies on men and masculinities (CSMM), a well-established argument has been that white, heterosexual, middle-class men practice emotional repression as a means of maintaining social power. Whilst CSMM have often overlooked emotions, there is an increasing body of work which argues that men both have an active understanding of their emotional lives and that men’s emotional lives have significantly changed. Crucially, emotions are important for exploring how men’s practice connects to structure; what has been called ‘the problem of social embodiment’. However, recent perspectives on emotions and masculinities may over-emphasise the gender-progressive effects of men discussing emotions, tending to overlook how ‘semi-’ and ‘non-conscious’ forms of men’s embodiment shape far less progressive trends and even how discourses around ‘softening masculinity’ may support various forms of misogynstic behaviour. This article argues that critical feminist ‘turns to affect’ can help foreground the problem of social embodiment in CSMM in less deterministic ways, without neglecting intersectional questions of power. To illustrate potential uses for affect in CSMM, the article adopts Wetherell’s concepts of ‘affective practice’ in combination with Ahmed’s notion of ‘happy objects’ through an exploration of three key case studies: online masculinist rage; ‘nice guy’ discourse and nationalist politics.

  • 28.
    de Boise, Sam
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Conway, Daniel
    Declining Homophobia, ‘Softening’ Masculinity and Liberalism in the UK: Evaluating the Evidence2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few years, there have been numerous claims, by both academics and journalists, regarding the declining significance of homophobia in the UK in particular. Legal and institutional gains won through the actions of LGB [sic] activists have seen the repeal of Section 28, the passing of the 2014 Same Sex Couples Act and its public championing by the UK’s Conservative Prime Minister, as well as the condemnation of other countries’ repressive policies on sexuality.

    These significant gains have been theorized against a backdrop of increasing inclusivity in gender relations. Anderson’s (2009) concept of ‘inclusive masculinity’, particularly, has generated significant interest because it claims to explain the processes behind ‘decreased’ levels of cultural homophobia and reduced ‘homohysteria’. The central tenet of which is that heterosexual-identifying men, and Western societies more generally, no longer construct ‘ideal’ masculine genders through the subordination of gay individuals in everyday life. This clearly has important repercussions for gender equality at large.

    However, in focusing on rights-based gains and observable physical violence against some gay-identifying individuals, the case for ‘declining homophobia’ has been overstated. Such a narrow definition of homophobia has the potential to divert attention from persistent systemic discrimination on the grounds of sexuality and we must be cautious of research which couches broad notions of ‘decline’ and ‘inclusion’ in liberal terms. These supposedly historically unprecedented trends may not be as novel as they seem. This paper therefore looks at work around hybridity (Demetriou 2001; Bridges and Pascoe 2014) and ‘homonationalism’ (Puir 2007) in the 'declining homophobia' thesis in order to suggest that the incorporation of ‘acceptable’ gay subjects (at the expense of others) into discourses of ‘progress’, rest on dubious theoretical and methodological assumptions. These have potentially damaging policy implications for LGBT rights.

  • 29.
    de Boise, Sam
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Dobre Billström, Rebecca
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Playing with Gender: Toward Critical, Transnational Perspectives on Music and Gender2016Inngår i: Music in an intercultural perspective / [ed] Antenor Ferreira Corrêa, Brasilia: Strong Edições , 2016, s. 25-40Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30.
    de Boise, Sam
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Hearn, Jeff
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap. University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK; Management and Organisation, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Are men getting more emotional?: Critical sociological perspectives on men, masculinities and emotions2017Inngår i: Sociological Review, ISSN 0038-0261, E-ISSN 1467-954X, Vol. 65, nr 4, s. 779-796Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sociological research, influenced by feminist and other critical perspectives, has noted how men’s emotional inexpressiveness was influenced, and supported, by patriarchal privilege. Such approaches have argued that ‘inexpression’ needs to be broken down in order to build gender equality and improve men’s own wellbeing. Emerging research has, however, challenged the argument that men are ‘emotionally inexpressive’ on two main premises: that, as a result of feminist critiques, many men now practise ‘softer’ or ‘more emotional’ forms of masculinity; second, that emotions always influence social action and so need to be better incorporated into sociological accounts of men’s behaviour. Yet these approaches entail some conceptual confusion as to what emotions are, how they link to social action and whether men’s emotions are inherently transformative for gender relations. This article first details how emotions and masculinity have been theorized in feminist-inspired approaches. It outlines recent work on emotions, men and masculinities before arguing for an understanding of emotions that engages with both physiologically grounded and postconstructionist debates. It finally suggests incorporating a material-discursive approach to men’s emotions, through feminist work on affect, which is attentive to the political dimensions of ‘increasing emotionality’ in order to contribute to a developing field of sociological research.

  • 31.
    de Boise, Sam
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Hearn, Jeff
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap. Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland; University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK.
    'The Expressive Male': Thinking Critically about Emotions in Critical Studies on Men and Masculinities2016Inngår i: The 7th Midterm Conference on Emotions, Stockholm: Abstracts, 2016, s. 18-18Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In his (1976) article, The Inexpressive Male: Tragedy or Sexual Politics? Sattel made the case that men’s relative lack of emotional expression emerged as a direct result of, and helped to sustain, men’s social privilege. Feminist and profeminist campaigners have (rightly) cited an increasing understanding of men’s emotional lives, and getting men to understand their own emotions, as central to any project addressing gender inequality. Some scholars within Critical studies on Men and Masculinities (CSMM), too, have often made the case that men need to become ‘more emotional’.

    Various authors have documented empirical research that argues, as a result of feminist gains, men are gradually getting ‘more in touch’ with their emotions, leading to a ‘softening’ of masculinity. There is a problem, however, with narratives around increasingly ‘more emotional’ men. These often fail to engage with literature on emotions and historical precedents of men being valued for displays of ‘authentic’ emotions - through music for instance – which have often supported privilege. In addition, assuming that men’s emotions are inherently gender-progressive, ignores more sinister examples of men’s rights activism, violence and online misogyny.

    This paper argues for the need to engage critically with how we think about both emotions and a history of emotions, in relation to CSMM. Considering how emotions are put into language, as well as the mechanisms by which emotions are identified and understood, have an impact on how emotions and ‘emotional’ behaviour are characterized in both research and everyday life. Crucially, it is important to retain a focus on the embodied aspects of experience. We suggest distinguishing between emotions, affect and kindred concepts as a productive way to approach issues of power and embodied experience in CSMM. Focusing on these areas, this paper aims to contribute a critical analysis on a developing and much-needed area of research.

     

  • 32.
    de Boise, Sam
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Varkøy, Øivind
    Norwegian Academy of Music, Oslo, Norway.
    Rolle, Christian
    Universität zu Köln, Köln, Germany.
    Georgii-Hemming, Eva
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Contesting the Concept of ‘Activism’ in Music Education2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 33.
    Lindblad, Katarina
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    de Boise, Sam
    Örebro universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Musical engagement and subjective wellbeing amongst men in the third age2020Inngår i: Nordisk tidskrift for musikkterapi - Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, ISSN 0803-9828, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 20-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: This article explores the wellbeing benefits of musical engagement for men in the third age. Older men face specific health challenges such as loneliness, isolation and a heightened risk for suicide, tied to gendered norms around emotional control, and a reluctance to seek professional help. There is substantial evidence of the positive health and wellbeing outcomes from older people’s engagement in music, but no studies on older men, music and wellbeing.

    Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 Swedish men aged 66–76, with different demographic backgrounds and engagement with music. Interviews were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis.

    Results: Analysis resulted in four themes: “emotions and embodiment”, “adjusting to growing older”, “developing and maintaining friendships” and “maintaining contact as a caregiver”. Regardless of musical genre or whether singing, playing, dancing or listening to music, the men used music to come into contact with their bodies and emotions, as well as improving relationships and social contacts. In particular, men as caregivers to sick partners benefited from sharing music with their partner, thus improving the quality of the relationship.

    Discussion: This study shows that engagement with music fills deep psychological and social/emotional needs for the participants, in both “being” with the music and “doing” musical activities, where also talking about music is highlighted as an important part of the musical engagement. The results have implications for the field of music therapy, in that it foregrounds music therapists’ potentially important role in developing opportunities for older men to engage with music.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Musical engagement and subjective wellbeing amongst men in the third age
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