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  • 1.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Digital divides revisited: towards a model for analysis2004In: Electronic government: Proceedings of the third international conference, EGOV 2004, Zaragoza, Spain, August 30 - September 3, 2004 / [ed] Roland Traunmüller, Berlin: Springer , 2004, p. 289-292Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a model for categories of divides, and how these categories are interrelated. The factors are found by a literature study from different countries attempting to measure various divides. The model is based on earlier research on the ‘divide’ and includes: physical access, autonomy of use, know-how and motivation. Depending on the type of digital divide and the local situation, rectifying efforts must address the most crucial factor, which could be any of the four. The paper also introduces the nature and amount of different proposed divides, and relations among factors.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Learning e-Learning: the restructuring of students beliefs and assumptions about learning2010In: International Journal on E-learning, ISSN 1537-2456, E-ISSN 1943-5932, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 435-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper builds on a case study on e-learning in Sri Lanka with focus on students’ underlying beliefs about how one learns. E-learning programs are most often set up with the assumption that students should think, act and learn independently and with underlying values of constructivism and learner–centred learning. For students used to classroom-based, didactic education the transition to the e-learning paradigm is, however, neither predetermined nor immediate. The objective of this paper is to find out if, and how, the e-learning practice manages to transform students into more independent and self sustaining learners. By drawing on Structuration Theory this study analyzes and compares novice and experienced students’ assumptions about learning when asking for a particular support function, because support needs should change if students start adopting the e-learning view on how learning is achieved. Findings show that students increasingly adopt the e-learning view on learning as they progress through the program. Students take increasingly more ownership of their learning and the teacher is no longer seen as the container of all knowledge. The importance of discussions also increases over time indicating that knowledge is no longer seen as being transmitted but rather created.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Learning to learn in e-Learning: constructive practices for development2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns technology use in distance educations and learning practices related to this use. The research was carried out over the period 2005 to 2009 in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka and has been reported in 6 published papers. The research is situated within the field of Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D) and within this field e-learning. Education is important for development and for many students in developing countries distance education is often the only option to get educated. The research question is if the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in distance education can contribute to development, and if so, how?

    This question is explored through two case studies in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. A variety of data collection methods have been used: interviews, questionnaires, participant observations and document review. The research approach is interpretative and findings are analyzed using Structuration Theory.

    Initial findings showed that a major challenge for students was the change of learning practices that distance education required. Findings also showed that new constructive learning practices emerged through the use of ICT. For development to take place the learning practices of students are important. Students used to learning practices based on uncritical memorization of facts will not easily take initiatives for change, whereas students used to constructive learning practices will.  Notwithstanding the fact that most students found this transition challenging, it was found that by introducing technology into long-established transmission structures, changes towards constructive learning practices occurred.

    A major contribution of this thesis is to increase the understanding of how ICT in distance education can facilitate constructive learning practices. By arguing that constructive learning practices are conducive to societal change this finding also has implications for development. The thesis also makes a theoretical contribution by extending Structuration Theory’s applicability in demonstrating its explanatory power in settings where researcher and informants are geographically and socially distant.

    List of papers
    1. A Conceptual Framework for E-Learning in Developing Countries: A Critical Review of Research Challenges
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Conceptual Framework for E-Learning in Developing Countries: A Critical Review of Research Challenges
    2009 (English)In: Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, ISSN 1681-4835, E-ISSN 1681-4835, Vol. 38, no 8, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a critical review of research on challenges for e-learning with a particular focus on developing countries. A comprehensive literature review including 60 papers on e-learning challenges was undertaken for the purpose of understanding how to implement e-learning in developing countries. Research questions were: what has existing research identified as the major challenges for e-learning, and, what differences, if any, are there between developing countries and developed countries in this respect? The literature study found 278 papers which were condensed to 60 based on exclusion and inclusion criteria designed to find papers of best quality as well as papers that clearly investigated well-defined challenges. The research found 30 specific challenges which were grouped into four categories, viz.: courses, individuals, technology and context. The overall conclusion is that these challenges are equally valid for both developed and developing countries; however in developing countries more papers focus on access to technology and context whereas in developed countries more papers concern individuals. A further finding is that most papers focus on one or two categories of challenges; few papers exhibit a comprehensive view. Because challenges are interrelated, based on the findings we propose a conceptual framework of emerging issues for e-learning in developed and developing countries. The framework is useful to guide both practice and research.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong, 2009
    Keywords
    e-learning, challenges, literature review, conceptual framework, developing countries
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Computer Science; informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-8058 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-10-01 Created: 2009-10-01 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Seven major challenges for e-learning in developing countries: Case study eBIT, Sri Lanka
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seven major challenges for e-learning in developing countries: Case study eBIT, Sri Lanka
    2008 (English)In: International Journal of Education and Development using ICT, ISSN 1814-0556, Vol. 4, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    By using an extensive framework for e-learning enablers and disablers (including 37 factors) this paper sets out to identify which of these challenges are most salient for an e-learning course in Sri Lanka. The study includes 1887 informants and data has been collected from year 2004 to 2007, covering opinions of students and staff. A quantitative approach is taken to identify the most important factors followed by a qualitative analysis to explain why and how they are important. The study identified seven major challenges in the following areas: Student support, Flexibility, Teaching and Learning Activities, Access, Academic confidence, Localization and Attitudes. In this paper these challenges will be discussed and solutions suggested.

    Keywords
    e-learning; challenges, developing countries; support; flexibility; access; academic confidence; localization; interactivity; attitudes
    National Category
    Information Systems Social Sciences Computer and Information Sciences Computer and Information Sciences
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5908 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-03-05 Created: 2009-03-03 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Letters from the field: e-learning students change of learning behaviour in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Letters from the field: e-learning students change of learning behaviour in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh
    2008 (English)In: Proceedings of ECEL 2008: 7th European conference on e-Learning, 2008, p. 29-37Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the findings from two case studies on e-learning in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. In these countries much hope is set on e-learning as a means to disseminate education to a larger population, but statistics show that drop out rates from e-learning courses are much higher than from traditional, classroom based, courses. In this paper it is argued that one reason for this is that the introduction of e-learning and a more student-centred learning model involves a drastic shift for students who are brought up in very teacher-centred didactic educational cultures. In order to investigate how this change in learning is perceived by its main stakeholders (i.e. the students) visits to learning centres in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh were made during 2007 and 2008. To capture the students’ opinions an open approach was chosen where students were asked to write letters about which major challenges they experience in changing their learning behaviour and completing the courses. Altogether the study is based on 107 student letters that have been analyzed and coded based on major differences and challenges identified by the students. Findings show that most students find learning on their own to be the major difference. They find this challenging because they feel very distant and because they do not know how to learn on their own. They have difficulties in managing their time and a lack of flexibility combined with a sloppy administration makes it even worse. Students used to being spoon-fed and learning by memorizing obviously need much support in taking ownership of their own learning in order to be able to learn by themselves. By comparing and mapping these findings to solutions suggested by existing research this study therefore suggests that support functions should be provided for students on ‘how to be an online learner’ and on ‘how to learn by yourself’. The teacher interaction and presence should also, at least in the early stages of the course, be frequent and active in order to make the student confident in his or hers ability to learn on their own. Finally, course flexibility (in regards to delivery mode and pace) should be high and much effort should be put into creating a supportive and well-organized administration

    Keywords
    e-learning, developing countries, educational structures, pedagogical differences, learning behaviour, support functions
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5909 (URN)
    Conference
    7th European Conference on e-Learning, Agia Napa, Cyprus, 6-7 November 2008
    Available from: 2009-03-05 Created: 2009-03-03 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Increasing interactivity in distance educations: Case studies Bangladesh and Sri Lanka
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increasing interactivity in distance educations: Case studies Bangladesh and Sri Lanka
    2010 (English)In: Information Technology for Development, ISSN 0268-1102, E-ISSN 1554-0170, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 16-33Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how distance educations in developing countries can enhance interactivityby means of information and communication technologies. It is argued that e-learning involvesa shift in the educational structure from traditional transmission of knowledge to interactivecreation of knowledge. Our case studies are two distance educations in Bangladesh and SriLanka that use different technologies for implementing interactivity; Internet and computersin one case and video and mobile phones in the other. The findings are analyzed based onStructuration Theory and we compare the two approaches based on emerging norms andbeliefs. Findings from both cases show the concurrent enactment of both the transmissionand the interactive structure. Whereas peer collaboration and the use of self-assessment toolsmake students take more ownership of their learning, we also found the idea of a classroomwith an instructive teacher to be deeply rooted in the students’ minds.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford, United Kingdom: Routledge, 2010
    Keywords
    e-learning, interactivity, educational structures, developing countries, Structuration Theory
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10267 (URN)10.1080/02681100903533719 (DOI)000208173200003 ()2-s2.0-78650331369 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2010-03-29 Created: 2010-03-29 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    5. Learning e-Learning: the restructuring of students beliefs and assumptions about learning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning e-Learning: the restructuring of students beliefs and assumptions about learning
    2010 (English)In: International Journal on E-learning, ISSN 1537-2456, E-ISSN 1943-5932, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 435-461Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper builds on a case study on e-learning in Sri Lanka with focus on students’ underlying beliefs about how one learns. E-learning programs are most often set up with the assumption that students should think, act and learn independently and with underlying values of constructivism and learner–centred learning. For students used to classroom-based, didactic education the transition to the e-learning paradigm is, however, neither predetermined nor immediate. The objective of this paper is to find out if, and how, the e-learning practice manages to transform students into more independent and self sustaining learners. By drawing on Structuration Theory this study analyzes and compares novice and experienced students’ assumptions about learning when asking for a particular support function, because support needs should change if students start adopting the e-learning view on how learning is achieved. Findings show that students increasingly adopt the e-learning view on learning as they progress through the program. Students take increasingly more ownership of their learning and the teacher is no longer seen as the container of all knowledge. The importance of discussions also increases over time indicating that knowledge is no longer seen as being transmitted but rather created.

    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10268 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-03-29 Created: 2010-03-29 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    6. Learning from e-learning: emerging constructive learning practices
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning from e-learning: emerging constructive learning practices
    2009 (English)In: Doing IT research that matters, 2009Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research is situated within the field of Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D) and asks if ICT use can make learning practices change. While constructive learning practices are critical to both individual and societal development, repetitive learning practices are the norm in many developing countries. The study is based on observations and in-depth interviews and uses a structurational approach to understand if and how students views of learning change during an e-learning program in Sri Lanka. We found four constructive learning practices that emerged through technology use; individual exploring, interaction with peers, interaction with teachers, and taking responsibility of the learning. Many constructive learning practices emerged outside the LMS used, in students’ voluntary uses of publicly available resources on the Internet. The study shows that technology use can play a positive role for development, provided an open environment is available; students learn constructive practicesfrom e-learning.

    Keywords
    ICT4D, e-learning, learning practices, Structuration Theory, constructive learning theory
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-8886 (URN)
    Conference
    International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Phoenix 2009
    Note

    ICIS 2009 Proceedings. Paper 51.

    Available from: 2009-12-21 Created: 2009-12-21 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
  • 4.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Letters from the field: e-learning students change of learning behaviour in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh2008In: Proceedings of ECEL 2008: 7th European conference on e-Learning, 2008, p. 29-37Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the findings from two case studies on e-learning in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. In these countries much hope is set on e-learning as a means to disseminate education to a larger population, but statistics show that drop out rates from e-learning courses are much higher than from traditional, classroom based, courses. In this paper it is argued that one reason for this is that the introduction of e-learning and a more student-centred learning model involves a drastic shift for students who are brought up in very teacher-centred didactic educational cultures. In order to investigate how this change in learning is perceived by its main stakeholders (i.e. the students) visits to learning centres in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh were made during 2007 and 2008. To capture the students’ opinions an open approach was chosen where students were asked to write letters about which major challenges they experience in changing their learning behaviour and completing the courses. Altogether the study is based on 107 student letters that have been analyzed and coded based on major differences and challenges identified by the students. Findings show that most students find learning on their own to be the major difference. They find this challenging because they feel very distant and because they do not know how to learn on their own. They have difficulties in managing their time and a lack of flexibility combined with a sloppy administration makes it even worse. Students used to being spoon-fed and learning by memorizing obviously need much support in taking ownership of their own learning in order to be able to learn by themselves. By comparing and mapping these findings to solutions suggested by existing research this study therefore suggests that support functions should be provided for students on ‘how to be an online learner’ and on ‘how to learn by yourself’. The teacher interaction and presence should also, at least in the early stages of the course, be frequent and active in order to make the student confident in his or hers ability to learn on their own. Finally, course flexibility (in regards to delivery mode and pace) should be high and much effort should be put into creating a supportive and well-organized administration

  • 5.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Seven major challenges for e-learning in developing countries: Case study eBIT, Sri Lanka2008In: International Journal of Education and Development using ICT, ISSN 1814-0556, Vol. 4, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By using an extensive framework for e-learning enablers and disablers (including 37 factors) this paper sets out to identify which of these challenges are most salient for an e-learning course in Sri Lanka. The study includes 1887 informants and data has been collected from year 2004 to 2007, covering opinions of students and staff. A quantitative approach is taken to identify the most important factors followed by a qualitative analysis to explain why and how they are important. The study identified seven major challenges in the following areas: Student support, Flexibility, Teaching and Learning Activities, Access, Academic confidence, Localization and Attitudes. In this paper these challenges will be discussed and solutions suggested.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    A Conceptual Framework for E-Learning in Developing Countries: A Critical Review of Research Challenges2009In: Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, ISSN 1681-4835, E-ISSN 1681-4835, Vol. 38, no 8, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a critical review of research on challenges for e-learning with a particular focus on developing countries. A comprehensive literature review including 60 papers on e-learning challenges was undertaken for the purpose of understanding how to implement e-learning in developing countries. Research questions were: what has existing research identified as the major challenges for e-learning, and, what differences, if any, are there between developing countries and developed countries in this respect? The literature study found 278 papers which were condensed to 60 based on exclusion and inclusion criteria designed to find papers of best quality as well as papers that clearly investigated well-defined challenges. The research found 30 specific challenges which were grouped into four categories, viz.: courses, individuals, technology and context. The overall conclusion is that these challenges are equally valid for both developed and developing countries; however in developing countries more papers focus on access to technology and context whereas in developed countries more papers concern individuals. A further finding is that most papers focus on one or two categories of challenges; few papers exhibit a comprehensive view. Because challenges are interrelated, based on the findings we propose a conceptual framework of emerging issues for e-learning in developed and developing countries. The framework is useful to guide both practice and research.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Islam, M. Sirajul
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    From one-to-one to integration of multiple toolsIn: Research in Learning Technology, ISSN 2156-7069, E-ISSN 2156-7077Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Wicander, Gudrun
    Karlstad universitet, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Development as Freedom: how the Capability Approach can be used in ICT4D Research and Practice2012In: Information Technology for Development, ISSN 0268-1102, E-ISSN 1554-0170, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Åström, Joachim
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    “You can't make this a science!”: Analyzing decision support systems in political contexts2012In: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 543-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on problems and conflicts encountered when using decision support systems (DSS) in political contexts. Based on a literature study and two case studies we describe problems encountered in relation not only to the DSS itself, but also to the political decision process. The case studies have been carried out in two cities in Sweden that at different times but in similar situations have used DSS in order to reach a decision in complicated and contested matters. In both cases we have previously found that the method and IT tool used for decision analysis were appreciated by most participants, but the inherent rationality of the DSS was in conflict with how participants usually make decisions as well as with the political process. The assumption was that a strict and open method would make grounds for clear decisions, but the results of the decision process were none of the cases implemented. In one case the result of the decision analysis was that no clear decision was made. In the other case the lowest ranked alternative was implemented. Furthermore, in neither city the method was ever used again. We therefore ask: What are the challenges and limitations to using DSS in political contexts? Our study shows that challenges relate to selecting and using criteria; eliciting weights for criteria (high level of subjectivity); understanding all the amount of facts available in the system; time constraints; and lack of impact on the final decision. This study contributes to both research and practice by increasing the understanding of what challenges are experienced in DSS use, since the findings can be used as a framework of challenges that should be addressed, in design of systems as well as method for use. The study also contributes to understanding the role of politicians in decision-making and the consequences for the use of DSS. Further, the literature study showed that there are overall very few studies on the actual use of DSS in a political context, and we therefore conclude by encouraging more studies reporting actual use.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Hatakka, Mathias
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Increasing interactivity in distance educations: Case studies Bangladesh and Sri Lanka2010In: Information Technology for Development, ISSN 0268-1102, E-ISSN 1554-0170, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 16-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how distance educations in developing countries can enhance interactivityby means of information and communication technologies. It is argued that e-learning involvesa shift in the educational structure from traditional transmission of knowledge to interactivecreation of knowledge. Our case studies are two distance educations in Bangladesh and SriLanka that use different technologies for implementing interactivity; Internet and computersin one case and video and mobile phones in the other. The findings are analyzed based onStructuration Theory and we compare the two approaches based on emerging norms andbeliefs. Findings from both cases show the concurrent enactment of both the transmissionand the interactive structure. Whereas peer collaboration and the use of self-assessment toolsmake students take more ownership of their learning, we also found the idea of a classroomwith an instructive teacher to be deeply rooted in the students’ minds.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hatakka, Mathias
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    What are we doing?: theories used in ICT4D research2013In: 12th International Conference on Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries / [ed] Niall Hayes, Renata Lèbre La Rovere, 2013, p. 282-300Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hatakka, Mathias
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Wiklund, Matilda
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Reclaiming the students: coping with social media in 1:1 schools2014In: Learning, Media & Technology, ISSN 1743-9884, E-ISSN 1743-9892, Vol. 39, p. 37-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a debate about the advantages and disadvantages of using social media in education. Drawing on interviews and surveys with students and teachers in three Swedish schools, this study finds that studentsas well as teachers find much of the students' social media use distractive to learning. We investigate this by means of an interpretative study of students' and teachers' experiences. We find that concerns relate to how social media use makes students less social, how weaker students are more likely to get distracted, how teachers lack strategies for tackling the problem and how the responsibility of the use is delegated to the students. We discuss how the distractive use of social media is made possible as a result of education policies requiring a higher degree of individual work, individual responsibility, and educational choices forstudents. Teachers and school leaders need to jointly reclaim the students and coping strategies for the distractive use are urgently needed.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Learning from e-learning: emerging constructive learning practices2009In: Doing IT research that matters, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research is situated within the field of Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D) and asks if ICT use can make learning practices change. While constructive learning practices are critical to both individual and societal development, repetitive learning practices are the norm in many developing countries. The study is based on observations and in-depth interviews and uses a structurational approach to understand if and how students views of learning change during an e-learning program in Sri Lanka. We found four constructive learning practices that emerged through technology use; individual exploring, interaction with peers, interaction with teachers, and taking responsibility of the learning. Many constructive learning practices emerged outside the LMS used, in students’ voluntary uses of publicly available resources on the Internet. The study shows that technology use can play a positive role for development, provided an open environment is available; students learn constructive practicesfrom e-learning.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Terminologi och begrepp inom informationssäkerhet: Hur man skapar en språkgemenskap2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien är att utvärdera svensk terminologi på informationssäkerhetsområdet med fokus på frågor om målgrupper och grundläggande termer. Baserat på en Delphi-studie, där experter från olika yrkeskategorier har fått definiera en uppsättning grundläggande begrepp, har vi utvärderat både experternas definitioner och processen med att ta fram definitionerna. Vi har identifierat flera problem med svensk terminologi på informationssäkerhetsområdet. För att stödja arbetet med att utveckla svensk terminologi för informationssäkerhet beskriver vi i rapporten förslag på hur arbetet kan bedrivas vidare. De problem vi har identifierat är bl.a. att begrepp som inte finns med i rådande styrdokument blir otydliga och svårtolkade för experter inom området och att det är problematiskt med två olika styrdokument (HB550 och SIS-TR50:2015) i användning med delvis olika definitioner av samma begrepp. Vi har även sett att olika yrkeskategorier ofta definierar begreppen utifrån sin specifika profession, vilket kan innebära att det finns ett behov av att säkerhetsbegrepp kontextualiseras utifrån yrkesroller. Processen med att arbeta med experter enligt Delphi-metoden gav ett bra underlag för att analysera och diskutera olika definitioner av centrala begrepp inom informationssäkerhetsområdet. Dessutom har experterna varit mycket engagerade i processen. Vi föreslår att framtida begreppsutredningar använder sig av denna metod eller varianter av den och att det är experterna, de som i sitt dagliga yrke handhar informationssäkerheten, som ska vara de som skapar definitionerna. Vi ser också ett stort behov av större, effektivare och mer samordnade former för framtida begreppsutredningar.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Konfliktfylld kultur vid framtagande av informationssäkerhetsstandarder2017In: Informationssäkerhet och organisationskultur / [ed] Jonas Hallberg, Peter Johansson, Fredrik Karlsson, Frida Lundberg, Björn Lundgren, Marianne Törner, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Räisänen, Kalle
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Using class blogs in 1:1 schools: searching for unexplored opportunities2014In: Computers in The Schools, ISSN 0738-0569, E-ISSN 1528-7033, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 173-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on class blogs and presents results from 1:1schools in Sweden. While Swedish schools are increasingly usingWeb 2.0 technologies (e.g., wikis and blogs), most of this use is stillatanexperimentalstage.Tofurthertheunderstandingofhowblogsare and can be used, we compare class blogs used in practice withthe fast-growing literature in the field. Previous work suggests eightuses: collaboration, making assignments, journal writing, instruc-tion, posting supplemental material, community building, externalreaders, and prompting. In practice, we found blogs to be used ina fairly narrow way—mainly for instruction and posting supple-mental material. We hope that this article will inspire teachers tofurther their blog use.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Wiklund, Matilda
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hatakka, Mathias
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Emerging Collaborative and Cooperative Practices in 1:1 Schools2016In: Technology, Pedagogy and Education, ISSN 1475-939X, E-ISSN 1747-5139, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 413-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the authors explored how laptops used in 1:1 classrooms affect cooperation and collaboration practices. Based on an observational time study, the authors found that the most common activity in 1:1 classrooms is group work using the computer. They also found that, despite what the concept 1:1 alludes to about one student working with one computer, most laptop use takes on other forms such as two students working with one computer (1:2) or two students working together using two laptops (2:2). The findings reported in this article about the various different collaboration arrangements have implications for both research and practice. For practice, because teachers can arrange activities based on an awareness of the different student–laptop constellations that emerge when students are given a laptop. Research is likewise informed about the various group work constellations and can build on this knowledge for further analysis of the pros and cons with the different collaborative forms.

  • 18.
    Grönlund, Åke
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Accessibility revisited: identifying research gaps2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Grönlund, Åke
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    E-gov research 2003-2006: improvements and issues2007In: Current issues and trends in e-government research / [ed] Donald F. Norris, Hershey, PA: Cybertech publishing , 2007, p. 247-268Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Grönlund, Åke
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    e-Gov research quality improvements since 2003: more rigor, but research (perhaps) redefined2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper follows up on an earlier study [1] by assessing the nature of 80 papers from EGOV 05 in terms of rigor and relevance criteria. Both studies use the same method and makes comparison between the results. We find that however still focusing overwhelmingly on descriptions and little on theory testing and creation, paper quality appears much better in that references to literature have increased grossly, there are very few dubious claims, philosophical research and theoretical arguments are virtually extinct, and the number of case stories is vastly reduced. However, the number of product descriptions is more than doubled to just over 30 %. The reasons for this are discussed, and as most of these papers are based on EU research funding we propose that an important reason may be the funding mechanism where researchers are employed as helpers in product development rather than critical scrutiny and analysis.

  • 21.
    Grönlund, Åke
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Hatakka, Mathias
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Mobile technologies for development – a comparative study on challenges2008In: Proceedings of Sig GlobDev Workshop Paris 2008, Paris: AIS SIG GLobal Development , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares and analyzes three cases where mobile technology is developed and used for everyday learning in developing countries. Preliminary results from field studies and tests are presented and analyzed in terms of the technical, professional, social, cultural and organizational challenges involved in development. In Bangladesh Virtual Classroom SMS is used together with TV to make education interactive. The eduPhone project develops a system and a method for delivering everyday “situated education”, such as emergency medical advice, to people lacking access to such services. The Agricultural Market Information System project disseminates information to improve local agricultural markets and, in particular, supporting small farmers, by mobile phones. The paper reports the cases and findings from investigations and tests, including field studies, laboratory and field tests, and experiences from implementation. We find that technical challenges are not great and in most cases concern innovativeness of application rather than access, use and usability; e-readiness among people is higher than often reported. The main problems lie in organizational challenges – developing a sustainable business model and reorganizing processes consequently – and social and cultural challenges such as local power structures and professional traditions.

  • 22.
    Grönlund, Åke
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Right on time: understanding eGovernment in developing countries2006In: Social inclusion: societal and organizational implications for information systems / [ed] Eileen M. Trauth, Debra Howcroft, Tom Butler, Brian Fitzgerald, Janice I. DeGross, New York: Springer , 2006, p. 73-87Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many, if not most, developing countries today engage in Electronic Government (eGovernment) pojects. There are big hopes, not just modernizing government and making it more ffective and efficient, but also eGovernment is expected to drive the general development owards the information society, both by examples of good practice and by major investment. However, many sources claim project failure rate is high. Reasons are found in many places,but it is reasonable to summarize them by saying that project goals are too ambitious given existing production capacity. Hence there is need to find ways of choosing and defining projects in a way that meets the conditions in the country and sector where they are going to be implemented. To do so, this paper presents two tools, a checklist and a maturity model, for assessing the preconditions for eGovernment projects in developing countries. The underlying data sources are threefold: e-government readiness indexes, project experiences and assessments of social and political conditions. The checklist matches requirements for successful eGovernment against supply and demand side factors, hence providing a guide in choosing which of projects to initiate and which to avoid. The maturity model supports in mapping projects on a wider development agenda, hence helping avoiding dead ends such as investing in unused technology, supporting dysfunctional processes with ICT (Information and Communication Technology) instead of first redesigning them and then putting in ICT in support for the new and better processes etc. In particular, the tools show the close relation between eGovernment and other development agendas, for example education, investment policies or telecom (de)regulation – without alignment with such programmes, eGovernment is likely to fail. The two tools help making factors pertinent to success and failure more explicit and hence improve decision making.

  • 23.
    Hatakka, Mathias
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Students’ use of one to one laptops: a capability approach analysis2013In: Information Technology and People, ISSN 0959-3845, E-ISSN 1758-5813, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 94-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - We evaluate effects of students’ 1:1 laptop use from a capability perspective by investigating increases and decreases of students’ opportunities and choices. We investigate changes that have taken place and how these changes enable or restrict students to do and be what they desire.

    Design/methodology/approach – We undertake an interpretive case study based on group interviews and questionnaires. Sen’s capability approach is used as theoretical framework and has informed the data collection and the analysis.

    Findings – 1:1 laptops in schools have provided students with new opportunities and choices, but also restricted others. An evident opportunity is the equalization of access to computers. Other opportunities relate to schoolwork efficiency and increased access to information. Gains also include the use of different media for overcoming disabilities or to fit individual learning styles. Regarding students’ well-being, a “fun” learning environment is mentioned. However, the “fun” is often about playing games or using social media – something which diverts the students’ attention from the learning. Students also find that they are less social, too computer dependent, and that they miss using pen and paper. Additionally, health issues such as back problems and headaches are reported, as well as an increased risk of being robbed.

    Originality/value – Most research on 1:1 laptops in education focuses on easily quantifiable measures and reports from a teacher perspective. We take a broader approach and investigate the impact 1:1 laptops have on students’ well-being and agency. 

  • 24.
    Hatakka, Mathias
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Avdic, Anders
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    SCORM: from the perspective of the course designer : a critical review2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of e-Learning opens new possibilities and new ways of delivering courses. Learning objects can be used and reused in educational contexts to educate students, employees, administrative officers and citizens. In later years Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) developed by Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) has more or less become a de-facto standard for creating learning materials that can be used in different learning management systems (LMS).There are many scientific papers that deal with the benefits of e-Learning from a learner’s perspective, or from a strictly economical point of view. In this paper we critically evaluate which benefits and drawbacks a course designer in a university setting can have from using the SCORM standard to deliver a course to the students. We use scenarios to test what benefits and drawbacks can be observed by setting up a course on an LMS with and without the use of the SCORM specification.Our findings show that for a course designer, advantages with SCORM are possibility of reuse, use of metadata and possibility to sequence the learning path of the learner. The most important drawback for a course designer is the lack of flexibility when using SCORM. Another major drawback is structure rigidity. In order to fully be able to use the potential of SCORM the course design and content should not be changed after the course is started. This might have negative impact on the possibilities to design a university course if the field of study is volatile, like many ICT-related topics are.

  • 25. Hellquist, Fredrik
    et al.
    Ibrahim, Samir
    Jatko, Robin
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Getting their Hands Stuck in the Cookie Jar: students’ security awareness in 1:1 laptop schools2013In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     This paper presents results from an ongoing research project studying schools that have implemented oneto-one-laptops (1:1). The research is interpretative and builds on interviews and survey-responses fromstudents and teachers in two public 1:1 schools in Sweden. We are focusing on the students’ security awareness and compliance by researching into whether the students in 1:1 schools comply with the school’s information security policy (ISP). Theoretically, a security awareness perspective is drawn up based o three parts - formal, cognitive and behavioral awareness - that should be in parity with each other. This means that the students’ psychological perception and actual behavior should be in parity with the schools’ ISP. Our findings show that the schools have communicated their ISPs well and that the students’ security awareness in most areas is equivalent to the schools’ ISPs. However, we also found many instances where  it was not the case that the formal, cognitive and behavioral security awareness were in parity with each other. In the analysis of the students’ behavioral security awareness we found that despite the fact that they were aware of the rules they occasionally violated them –  most notably when file-sharing and the downloading of software were involved. We conclude by arguing that non-compliance can only be understood based on an understanding of the students’ underlying reason for following or not following the policies and regulations, and that in order to create a secure information environment, school manager must talk to the students to understand their reasoning. In a situation where 1:1 is spreading rapidly among schools, studies regarding students’ security awareness and behavior are urgent, but so far the field is under-examined.

  • 26.
    Islam, M. Sirajul
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Investigating choices of appropriate devices for one-to-one computing initiatives in schools worldwide2016In: International Journal of Information and Education Technology, ISSN 2010-3689, Vol. 6, no 10, p. 817-825Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of technology in schools is rapidly increasing - today most notably through theone-to-one (1:1) programs that are being implemented all around the world.Considering how new technologies are emerging fast and obsoleting others in schools,there is a need to continuously monitor and understand the features of various devicesin terms of embedded technology and interaction with the users. This paper thereforepresents the nature of computing devices used in 1:1 computing programs at schoollevel around the world, including investigating the benefits of drawbacks, by means ofa systematic literature review and a survey conducted in some schools in Sweden. Thepaper also presents findings based on how the various uses of technology affectcooperation practices as well as personal exploration.

  • 27.
    Khan, Sana Z.
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Shahid, Zahraa
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hopes and fears in implementation of electronic health records in Bangladesh2012In: Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, ISSN 1681-4835, E-ISSN 1681-4835, Vol. 54, no 8, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health is seen as a major key for development and many developing country governments invest in ICT-based Health Information Systems (HIS). The purpose of this paper is to explore physicians’ hopes and fears for implementing Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems in Bangladeshi hospitals. Data was collected through interviews and observations at two Bangladeshi hospitals. We found very little use of EHR systems at the hospitals and many physicians were skeptical of using EHR systems. Whereas this skepticism could be seen as a symptom of backward thinking our analysis found much of this skepticism to be reasonable. In this way this research contributes to the ongoing debate on how to implement HIS in developing countries. We articulate and analyze users’ concerns beyond mere “attitudes” and “acceptance”. Our results show that the fears and concerns on the hospital floors are legitimate and should be taken into consideration when HIS projects are initiated.

  • 28.
    Lagsten, Jenny
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Use of information systems in social work: challenges and an agenda for future research2017In: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the age of digitalisation social work is transforming. With increased use of information systems social workers are meeting new professional challenges. In this paper we report findings covering a nine-year longitudinal study on critical issues in the use of a Case Management System in a Swedish social work agency. The study includes a stakeholder based evaluation, interviews and document analysis. Comparing the evaluation findings with literature helped us identify six areas in need of intensified research: i) Usability and interface design ii) Mismatch between social conceptualisation and system conceptualisation of the case iii) Skills and training for information systems use iv) Statistical production for accountability and quality assurance v) Terminology for interpersonal understanding vi) IT Governance. As can be seen from the areas above, this kind of research depends on professional knowledge from the social work field - but also from the field of information systems. Hence, we suggest deeper collaboration between the two areas of knowledge in order to scrutinize the complexity of social work information systems. Clearly the intersection of social work and information systems is a neglected research area and we attempt to contribute by providing guidance for intensified research and practical knowledge generation.

  • 29.
    Larsson, Ken
    et al.
    Stockholm University/KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Wikramanayake, Gihan
    University of Colombo School of Computing.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Stockholm University/KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Glimbert, Lars
    Stockholm University/KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Weerasinghe, Thushani
    University of Colombo School of Computing.
    Evaluation of didactics from a cross cultural perspective: the eBIT project : online education in Sri Lanka2009In: Proceedings of the 23rd ICDE world conference on open learning and distance education, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study is to identify and discuss the challenges when transferringevaluation methodology and practice from one cultural context to another.

    Approach: TheAsia-Link project Asia eBIT aimed to develop and implement a 3-year online externalBachelor program in ICT in Sri Lanka. An important part of the project is recurringevaluations of several different aspects of the program. Information has been obtained byquestionnaires, interviews, field visits, focus groups and expert evaluations, conducted faceto face and online.

    Findings: The structural differences of the educational systems amongpartners created a number of challenges, such as: organizational aspects of educationalactivities, didactic practice, learning culture in traditional education and online courses, staffresponsibilities and duties, the financial model, language and other cultural issues. Majorchallenges mainly concern the interviews and have been three-fold: 1) getting students totalk; 2) when they talk - overcoming the language barrier; and 3) getting students to honestlyspeak their minds. This process has been a requirement in order to produce usableevaluations at the same time as it is part of the ongoing evaluation itself.

    Conclusions: Thefindings in this study further the understandings of the complexity when conductingevaluations across different cultural contexts. This understanding is important in order toperform high quality evaluations and should be part of any evaluators’ skills when facingsimilar challenges. This is a unique study on evaluation approaches of Sri Lankan online ICTprogram.

  • 30.
    Lim, Nena
    et al.
    School of Accounting, Curtin Business School, Curtin University, Perth WA, Australia .
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Cloud computing: the beliefs and perceptions of Swedish school principals2015In: Computers and education, ISSN 0360-1315, E-ISSN 1873-782X, Vol. 84, p. 90-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights the importance of cloud computing in education and explores the environment surrounding schools' adoption of cloud services. Based on the technology leadership literature, the study investigates the beliefs and perceptions of school principals toward cloud computing. Principals of primary and high schools in Sweden were invited to participate in an online survey and 342 responses were received. Results suggest principals of Swedish schools believe the main benefits of cloud computing to be its ability to allow users to access data and software anywhere as long as there is Internet access and its ability to facilitate sharing of learning materials and data. The biggest obstacle is the concerns about security and privacy of data. Moreover, principals of public schools perceived more obstacles than those of private schools. Results also indicate a misalignment of beliefs between the principals and other stakeholders such as the municipalities' information technology (IT) departments and lawyers. This lack of shared views is another major obstacle for cloud computing adoption. Results provide useful first-hand information to municipalities, school administrators, and teachers on the beliefs and perceptions of the principals toward this new technology.

  • 31.
    Wiklund, Matilda
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Student-initiated use of technology: friend and foe2018In: E-Learning and Digital Media, ISSN 2042-7530, E-ISSN 2042-7530, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multitude of different technologies are used in school today. Some are provided by the school and others are brought by the individual teacher or student. In addition, different applications are available. In this study the focus is on student-initiated uses of technology and how it conditions learning. Based on a case study with surveys, interviews and an observational time study, it is shown that students appear to be the most frequent users of technology in the classroom and for the most part initiate its use. We also show that they often initiate uses directed towards communication and inquiry. Against the prevailing understanding that students mainly use technology for extra-curricular activities, we found that most of the student-initiated technology and applications related to the task in hand and were therefore not regarded as problematic by teachers or students. However, with regard to student-initiated uses of social media, games and communicative applications the picture is more diverse. In this context, teachers and students complain that such use may distract students, although some regard it as rewarding, for example due to the informal learning or time for contemplation and relaxation that results. We conclude by questioning the dichotomies of curricular–non-curricular and intended - unintended learning and we argue for the need to add contemplation to the taxonomy used for understanding the educational use of information technologies as conditions for learning. 

  • 32.
    Yingqin, Zheng
    et al.
    School of Management, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, UK.
    Hatakka, Mathias
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Sahay, Sundeep
    Department of Informatics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Conceptualizing development in information and communication technology for development (ICT4D)2018In: Information Technology for Development, ISSN 0268-1102, E-ISSN 1554-0170, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ICT4D research is faced with the challenge of rapidly changing technologies and increasingly complex social dynamics and development processes. We argue that ICT4D research requires a more acute sense of where our research is situated within a broader picture of development, e.g. with a better understanding of development processes, their ideological nature, the power structures and driving forces, and the mechanisms through which ICTs may be embedded in and shape these processes. Such a reflexivity is crucial not least in justifying our claims of contribution, but also in understanding the implications and potential impact of our research and practice. This editorial seeks to explore key conceptual components in ICT4D and their relationships, including dimensions of development, perspectives of development, conceptions of artefacts, and theory of change. A tentative conceptual schema is presented that connects these conceptual components.

  • 33.
    Zafeiropoulou, Styliani
    et al.
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Sven
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Towards the Understanding of Success in E-Participatory Budgeting Projects2015In: Case studies in e-government 2.0: changing citizen relationships / [ed] Imed Boughzala, Marijn Janssen, Saïd Assar, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2015, p. 103-120Chapter in book (Refereed)
1 - 33 of 33
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