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  • 1.
    Forsberg, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Knowledge re/production in governing2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to analyze shifting forms of educational governing we focus on the tools of government action. We direct our interest to different phases of the educational political process – that is policy making, mediation, realization and evaluation – and the instruments used within them. At the end of the 20th century we witnessed a shift in governing from so called centralization to decentralization.

    Through examples from studies on different forms of instruments – such as the politics of naming, freedom of choice, differentiation, quality reports and different kinds of assessment tools – we describe and analyze the conditions of educational politics and governing in Sweden.

  • 2.
    Forsberg, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kunskapsbedömningar som styrmedia2006In: Utbildning & Demokrati, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 7-29Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    KNOWLEDGE ASSESSMENTS IN EDUCATION AS STEERING AND COMMUNICATION MEDIA.

    In Swedish educational research, tests, exams, grades and evaluations are often regarded as different kinds of phenomena. In line with international research we discuss them in terms of ”assessment in education”. Our interest is directed towards what unites rather than divides these phenomena, and in this article we focus on how assessment produces information on students’ performance that can be used in the governance of education. Using historical examples we argue for a view of knowledge assessment as part of the curriculum. The argument is advanced with reference to Basil Bernstein’s concept message system and Jürgen Habermas’s theory of steering and communication media

  • 3.
    Forsberg, Eva
    et al.
    Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Re/produktionen av kunskap i det svenska utbildningssystemet2012In: Vad räknas som kunskap: läroplansteoretiska utsikter och inblickar i lärarutbildning och skola / [ed] Tomas Englund, Eva Forsberg, Daniel Sundberg, Stockholm: Liber , 2012, p. 200-224Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Forsberg, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Skolans interna och externa kunskapsbedömningar2009In: Att säkra det osäkra: reflektion och makt i skolans utvärdering / [ed] Rita Foss Lindblad, Rolf Lander, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2009, 1, p. 61-84Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Learning and Environment, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden .
    Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Department of Educational Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Anders
    Education Department, Borås, Sweden.
    Evaluating a large-scale implementation of Assessment for Learning in Sweden2014In: Assessment in education: Principles, Policy & Practice, ISSN 0969-594X, E-ISSN 1465-329X, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 104-121Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on a large-scale implementation of Assessment for Learning (AfL) in a Swedish municipality. The implementation was founded on two principles: (1) teaching should be informed by educational research; (2) to be successful teachers’ professional development needs to be based in everyday classroom practice. From these principles, AfL was chosen as a strand of educa- tional research to inform teaching and ‘Teacher Learning Communities’ were chosen as a vehicle for professional development and for implementing AfL practices. Findings indicate that the project has been successful in bringing about a change in how teachers talk about teaching and learning and in changing teachers’ pedagogical practice towards AfL. Findings also suggest that AfL prac- tices are mostly teacher-centred, which means that the teachers still take most of the responsibility for the assessment. This leads to high workload for the teach- ers and may also hinder students from taking responsibility for their learning. 

  • 6.
    Landahl, Joakim
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Department of Education, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Bortom PISA2017In: Bortom PISA: Internationell och jämförande pedagogik / [ed] Joakim Landahl och Christian Lundahl, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2017, 7Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Landahl, Joakim
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Department of Education, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundahl, ChristianÖrebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Bortom PISA: Internationell och jämförande pedagogik2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Landahl, Joakim
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Department of Education, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Internationell och jämförande pedagogik2017In: Bortom PISA: Internationell och jämförande pedagogik / [ed] Joakim Landahl och Christian Lundahl, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2017, 7Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Pedagogiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Att samla in, publicera och använda skolresultat i de nordiska länderna2010Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Becoming international in the late 19th century - arguments for and against the Swedish participation in the World's fairs 1851-19042016In: Conference of the Comparative Education Society in Europe, University of Glasgow, Scotland, 2016: Abstracts, Glasgow: University of Glasgow , 2016, p. 69-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas early 19th century international comparisons were mainly found in travelling accounts, the second half of the 19th century offered new ways of comparison through international exhibitions (Dittrich 2010). The international World’s fairs were among the “few genuinely international cultural institutions” of their time (ibid., 17). When opening the first World’s fair exhibition in London in 1851, Prince Albert of the United Kingdom declared the importance of education, but it was in London in 1862 that education first got its own department at a World’s fair (Giberti 2002, Werner 2008, Ekström 2010, Lundahl & Lawn 2014). From the start, the international exhibitions contributed to make comparisons between states, based around identity and production, increasingly transparent and organized. Together they constituted a new mode of production in education, parallel to that of schooling.

    Investigating the history of comparative education implies a transnational perspective on history. A transnational perspective on history pays interest to contacts between communities, polities and societies and their exchanges, interactions, integrations and de-coupling. We also need to look at the trends, patterns, organisations, individuals that exist between and within our different historical entities (Saunier 2013) – the ones mainly representative for being transnational.

    This paper is about the people “allowed” to become transnational in the sense of learning and sharing at the international scenery constituted by the World’s fair. More specifically it is about the parliamentary debates in Sweden were it was decided how much Sweden could afford to pay for participating with own exhibits at ten major World’s fairs (1851 – 1904), and how much Sweden was prepared to fund “learning journeys” to these fairs.

    The analyses of the parliamentary debates show that becoming international was not an obvious thing – who was supposed to go and what interest would it gain? Even pedagogical issues were raised: is it possible to learn something from just studying it at an exhibition? How much can we say about Sweden without claiming too much, and what if we “loose” compared to other countries? These are questions about representations in international comparison and about who should have access to it. We can easily find them in the history of international comparisons, but they are just as important today.

    This paper is part of a four-paper panel called: The Rise of Comparative Governance in Education - exhibitions, trade, sun trips and the visual

    References

    Dittrich, K (2010), Experts Going Transnational: Education at World Exhibitions during the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century. University of Portsmouth.

    Giberti, B. (2002) Designing the Centennial. A History of the 1876 International Exhibition in Philadelphia. Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky

    Gorur, R. (2011) ANT on the PISA Trail: Following the statistical pursuit of certainty, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 43:sup1, 76-93, DOI: 10.1111/ j.1469-5812.2009.00612.x

    Ekström, A. (2010) Viljan att se – viljan att synas: Medieumgänge och publik kultur runt 1900 [The will to appear, the will to see: media relations and public culture around 1900]. Stockholm: Carlssons förlag, 2010.

    Lundahl, C. & Lawn, M. (2014): The Swedish Schoolhouse: a Case study in Transnational influences in Education at the 1870s World's fairs. Peadagica Historicahttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/.VCJSN0u0zJw.

    Saunier, P-Y (2013). Transnational history. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Werner, J. (2008) Medelvägens estetik. Sverigebilder i USA [Middle way aesthetics. Pictures of Sweden in USA] Hedemora: Gidlunds.   

  • 11.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Pedagogiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Bedömning: att veta vad andra vet2010In: Lärande, skola, bildning: grundbok för lärare / [ed] Lundgren, U. P., Säljö, R. & Lidberg, C., Stockholm: Natur och kultur , 2010, 1, p. 255-294Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bedömning för lärande2011Book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Bedömning och återkoppling2014In: Det goda lärandets grunder / [ed] Mats Ekholm & Hans-Åke Scherp, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2014, p. 33-60Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    FRÅN INLEDNINGEN:

    Det senaste decenniet har pedagogisk forskning och skolutveckling allt mer kommit att handla om värdet av bedömning för elevers och studenters kunskapsutveckling i skola och högskola. Jag vill därför ta tillfället i akt och diskutera hur nya praktiker kring bedömning kan ta sig uttryck och då särskilt med fokus på feedback, eller återkoppling. Jag utgår från centrala artiklar om feedback i skolan men använder också exempel från högre utbildning, då en hel del utmaningar nog kan sägas vara generella för all utbildning. Jag ger också några exempel på hur jag själv arbetat med bedömning och feedback i mina egna kurser. Efter en introduktion av centrala begrepp och det aktuella forskningsläget behandlar jag i tur och ordning hur vi kan tänka om vad det är som ska bedömas och ges återkoppling på, när vi kan och bör ge återkoppling i lärandeprocessen samt hur denna återkoppling kan utformas. 

  • 14.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Betyg som kulturella artefakter2017In: Bortom PISA: Internationell och jämförande pedagogik / [ed] Joakim Landahl och Christian Lundahl, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2017, 7Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Constructing encyclopaedic facts about international education: Comparative Educationa Society in Europe2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Encyclopaedia of Education, IEE (edited by Husén and Postlethwaite 1985) had as its ambition to be the first true international encyclopaedia of education. This meant breaking with the ethnocentrism, they thought had characterized earlier educational encyclopaedias, as well as reaching out to educational systems in the Third World.

    Through a closer reading of IEE it is possible to explore issues related to the construction of canonical texts. The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the re/production encyclopaedic knowledge of international education. Issues of representativeness in what is displayed as internationally valid knowledge and knowledge of international education, will be discussed. I will use IEE articles as well as archive material consisting of meeting protocols and editorial correspondence from the Torsten Husén personal archive in The National Archives, Sweden.

    Research about re/production of knowledge is often interested in the (micro) processes that shape scientific knowledge (e.g. Latour & Woolgar 1979/1986, Woolgar 1988, Knorr Cetina 1999, Ringer 2000,). What kinds of processes, decisions, problems, relations leads to the specific entries in an encyclopaedia? If we add to this an international dimension these questions relate to the new historiographies in education and the ways in which knowledge is produced on national and international levels (e.g. Schriewer & Martínez 2004, Lawn & Grosvenor 2005, Lawn and Grek 2012, Landahl & Lundahl 2013).

    Encyclopaedias often claim to be collections of facts. Typically we perceive facts as ‘unconstructed by anyone’ (Latour & Woolgar 1979/1986). But producing an encyclopaedia is not a straightforward and simple editorial process. Sections, headings, topics and the structure of the thematic articles are constantly changed based on new insights and on circumstances not possible to control for.

    In this paper I will focus on the 160 country reports in IEE. I will investigate the author guidelines and how these articles were structured. I will look at differences and similarities between them (using NVivo analysis) and also investigate what countries did not get an entrance, and what might have been the reason for that.

    Expected results: Editing IEE was not only about collecting pre-existing truths and facts about international education systems; it was also about constructing the image of such a collection. This image might be quite representative as a whole, but will be disputable in detail; the specific writers involved and other editorial circumstances characterize it.

  • 16.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Den populära pedagogiken: om hur ett kunskapsområde formas i det moderna samhället2007In: Studies in educational policy and educational philosophy, ISSN 1652-2729, no 1, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article concerns a special kind of educational knowledge which is neither practical nor academic or political – but all at the same time. The particular knowledge that is investigated is a co-produced knowledge about students and their performances in school during the 1940s. This knowledge was produced and spread by new social and discursive fields developed to both reflecting and making possible a new school organisation. It is argued that this knowledge while foremost supporting the Swedish reform towards a comprehensive school system in the 1940s, had looping effects on academic theories and on educational practice.

  • 17.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Det svenska skolhuset i Central Park: att skapa och använda utlandsbilder av skolan2014In: Vägval i skolans historia, ISSN 2002-0147, no 2Article, review/survey (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    FRÅN INLEDNINGEN:

    På västra sidan av Central park i New York vid 79 gatan, inte alls lång ifrån det berömda minnesmärket över John Lennon, står sedan 1877 ett svenskt skolhus som benämns The Swedish Cottage. Skolhuset byggdes ursprungligen av svenskt trä och av svenska hantverkare till världsutställningen i Filadelfia 1876. Hur kom det sig att Sverige gjorde denna i jämförelse ganska kraftfulla ansträngning att ställa ut ett helt skolhus? Var skolhuset representativt, eller vad annars kan det sägas ha representerat? Vad hade skolhuset för effekt på besökarna på världsutställningen, och hade den svenska ansträngningen i USA någon återverkanseffekt hemma i Sverige? Jag ska försöka ge svar på dessa frågor utifrån arkivmaterial, officiella handlingar från världsutställningarna och med hjälp av tidingsartiklar.

  • 18.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Inter/national assessments as national curriculum: the case of Sweden2008In: An Atlantic crossing? : the work of the International Examination Inquiry, its researchers, methods and influence, Oxford: Symposium books , 2008, p. 157-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Kunskap in/om pedagogik: produktion, visualisering och effekter av skolresultat2014In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 7-31Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is built upon an inaugural speech I gave at Örebro University on 1 October 2014. I start by positioning the disciplinary subject ‘Pedagogik’ within the larger field of ‘Utbildningsvetenskap’ [educational research] and I claim that ‘Pedagogik’ can serve the purpose of being an especially reflexive discipline within the field of ‘Utbildningsvetenskap’ based on its tradition and strength in the fields of knowledge production, knowledge dissemination and learning. Thereafter, I position myself in the discipline of education as a curricular theorist with a particular interest in the retrospective sociology of knowledge. My research emphasizes the processes and the context of knowledge production as well as the correspondence between actors, places and networks. I give three examples from my own research to illustrate the complexities of the production, visualisation and use of knowledge: the transnational flows of ideas at the world fairs; the production and editorial work of the International Encyclopaedia of Education; and the use of international comparisons of assessment systems in local politics. I conclude by stressing that a reflexive ‘Pedagogik’ has important politics of its own when it is used to scrutinise the structures and conditions that build up everyday discourses in and about education.

  • 20.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kunskapsbedömning och kunskapssyn2007In: I kunskapens namn: en antologi om kunskap, makt och kreativitet / [ed] Karin Åmossa, Stockholm: Lärarförbundet , 2007, p. 34-47Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kunskapsbedömningens historia2007In: Sporre eller otyg: om bedömning och betyg, Stockholm: Lärarförbundets förlag , 2007, p. 51-68Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Making testers out of teachers – Swedish summer courses in IQ-testing2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 1946 and 1956 the Swedish Psychological and Pedagogical Institute organised eleven summer courses for the purpose of training teachers in intelligence testing. Approximately 600 primary school teachers from all over Sweden participated. The courses were held with help from representatives from the Universities, especially from the discipline of Psychology and pedagogy. The aim was to make these teachers the first gatekeeper instance that met and directed the youngest pupils (age 7) to ordinary classes or into special classes. The paper investigates the course leaders and the participants of these courses as well as the content taught. One finding is that the teachers practiced their testing skills for a couple of weeks on pupils from unprivileged social groups sent to summer camps by the state. Not only did the government give the children a summer holiday in the Stockholm archipelago at the “Island of Children”, they also returned home with their intelligence measured. The paper also discusses how these courses were ‘training camps’ for the younger generation of educational scholars having to teach these courses. It is also argued that researches and teachers were part of a larger change in the politics of IQ, simplifying the processes of intelligence measurement in order to screen the complete population of children, not just those who could be assumed to have learning disabilities – thus making the IQ-testing a public familiarity as well as the stratification the children that often followed from it.

    The paper makes use of STS tools and consepts. STS theories make visible the work that is required to make certain understandings of fact-making, truths and rationalities stick as common sense or scientific beliefs (Sismondo 2010). The questions of interest to STS are pragmatic and profoundly practical and they help us investigate how certain knowledge has come to be regarded as knowledge in the first place, and the consequences thereof (Latour 1987). The paper draws on archive studies in the archive of the Swedish Psychological and Pedagogical Institute and relates specific findings to a more general analyses of the history of assessment (Kamin 1974; Danziger 1990; Porter 1996).

  • 23.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Pedagogiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Nationella prov: ett redskap med tvetydiga syften2010In: Bedömning i och av skolan: praktik, principer, politik / [ed] Lundahl, C. & Folke-Fichtelius, M., Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2010, 1, p. 223-242Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Perspektiv på Nationella prov.2017In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 5-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Recension av: Karen E. Andreasen, Mette Buchardt, Annette Rasmussen & Christian Ydesen (eds.). Test og prøvelser: Oprindelse, udvikling, aktualitet. Aalborg: Aalborg Universitetsforlag. 2015, 304 pp.2016In: Nordic Journal of Educational History, ISSN 2001-7766, E-ISSN 2001-9076, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 135-137Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Pedagogiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Skolbedömningens pedagogiska och administrativa dimensioner2010In: Bedömning i och av skolan: praktik, principer, politik / [ed] Lundahl, C & Folke-Fichtelius, M., Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2010, 1, p. 299-314Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Pedagogiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Skyldig att fostra: Karin Boyes Kris och den pedagogiska paradoxen2010In: Pedagogiska Magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, no 1, p. 80-83Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Swedish Education Exhibitions and Aesthetic Governing at World´s Fairs in the Late Nineteenth Century2016In: Nordic Journal of Educational History, ISSN 2001-7766, E-ISSN 2001-9076, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 3-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For many historians of education, the emergence of a modern education system after the mid-nineteenth century was a national and regional process, neatly and carefully closed off within the borders of the nation. However, these accounts have often disregarded the effects of the flows of cross-border ideas and technologies, such as international comparisons, lesson-drawing, policy diffusion and travel, as well as local adaptations and translations of education policy originating elsewhere. The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the relations between Swedish education and the international scene when it comes to policy and practice formation. The field of study is the international World´s Fairs of 1862–1904. Looking at what Sweden displayed, and understanding how visitors perceived it, the paper raises questions concerning how exhibitions like these worked as mediators of educational ideals. The focus will be on the dissemination of aesthetic ideals, and the paper will show that the World’s Fairs were platforms for an aesthetic normativity that had governing effects locally as well as globally.

  • 29.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The ‘Beauty’ of PISA – the Politics of How PISA Scores Are Used to Represent Public Education: In session What does it mean? The role of assessment and data in public opinion2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I offer a new perspective on the intended and unintended effects of international large-scale assessments like PISA, and investigate the image of PISA as an aesthetic artefact. Using Jacques Rancière’s diptych The Aesthetics of Politics and The Politics of Aesthetics, I analyse more than 4,000 digital images retrieved from systematic Google searches in 12 different countries. The results show clear differences between low- and high-performing countries concerning the images selected to present PISA results. There is clearly a ‘pictorial discourse’ that works in tandem with the dominant educational policies. I argue that this kind of ‘aesthetic governing’ involves the possibility of touching people in other, and maybe even more profound ways, compared to rational arguments.

  • 30.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The Book of books: Editing the International Encyclopedia of Education in the 1980s2014In: ECER 2014, "The Past, the Present and Future of Educational Research in Europe", 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the short story “The Library of Babel” Lois Jorge Borges distinguishes between different ways of perceiving issues of interpretation: the “purifiers” try to destroy every book that is meaningless while the “inquisitors” seek the canonical Book of books that reveals the meaning of all the others; it “is the formula and perfect compendium of all the rest” (Borges 1941/1962). This perfect compendium is something that has not only attracted the mythological librarian, The Man of Books, as described by Borges, but also to a high degree people of today (Keller 2011).

    There are obvious gains of publishing a handbook or an encyclopedia from a market perspective, but what are the gains from a research perspective? Who will undertake such a work, what would be the scholarly motives of the editors working on it, how is that work carried out and what mechanisms shape the content of it? By investigating the archives of one of the most ambitious Encyclopedias of education, The International Encyclopedia of Education, IEE 1985 (cf. Phillips et al 1986), I will explore issues related to the construction of canonical texts. The main purpose of the paper is to provide an understanding of the re/production of canonical knowledge of education. In the paper I will investigate these topics with help from an archive material consisting of meeting protocols and editorial correspondence from the Torsten Husén archive in Stockholm National Archives. Husén was the Editor in Chief for the IEE together with Postlethwaite (Husén, T. & Postlethwaite 1985).

    There exist of course several guidelines on how to edit encyclopedias (e.g. Aschmore 1962, Sillis 1969, Beede 2001, Edwards 2012), but it is difficult to find research about the actual work of editing such books. Most of what can be found is biographical notes.

    Investigating the becoming of an encyclopedia can probably best be resembled to the work carried out within the Sociology of knowledge and/or History of knowledge. These shall not be considered as coherent research disciplines but for this paper some traits from them are particularly relevant. One basic assumption is that knowledge (in an encyclopedia) is human knowledge – it is produced under social and historical circumstances and reflects society and particular needs (Charle, Schriewer and Wagner 2004, Schriewer, J. & Martínez 2004, Wagner and Wittrock 1991).

    If we accept encyclopedic knowledge as a reflection of certain needs and developed within certain systems, we can expect the encyclopedia to be part of also a larger educational socio-political context. To put it differently, it is not only “truth criteria” (or the preservation/development of knowledge) that can be expected as reasons to produce an encyclopedia. Encyclopedias can be treated as we treat other kinds of historical knowledge. We have knowledge practices that develop and change over time, but that always are preoccupied by gathering, analysing, disseminate and employ knowledge. We accumulate, refine and dived knowledge; we loose knowledge or reject knowledge. Knowledge is geographical, sociological and chronological (cf. Burke 2012). In other words we can expect editors of an encyclopedia to struggle with geographical and periodical frames as well as issues of deciding on relevance and limitations of content (and of authors).

    The main questions answered in the paper are: What kinds of processes, decisions, problems and relations can we find behind an encyclopedia, including the idea of making it at the first place? If and how does these circumstantial conditions in the re/production of knowledge to the IEE effect the structure of it and the final content?

    Method

    The research method used in this project is basic historical reading; trying to take as much cross references as possible within the archive material itself and from e.g. reviews of the IEE from 1985 and 1986 and autobiographies from editorial members. In this way it is possible to validate interpretations and claims. Contemporary biographical notes on the editing of handbooks or encyclopedias have some perspectives that are helpful when looking into detail of the editorial work. Some recurrent issues that are dealt with in these notes, that helped structure my own material are: Which considerations provided the necessary strong motivation, given that considerable time investment over an extended period of time could be anticipated? Related to that, what opportunities or contributions could be associated with the creation of such a work? Who was the intended/implied readership? What considerations guided decisions regarding topic and author selection? What particular opportunities, what editorial constraints characterized the project, and how were they addressed? (e.g. Byrnes 2011, Ross and Chanty 2009). In total the Torsten Husén archive builds up to 38 running meters of which about three foot (eight volumes) are IEE material. The documents in these volumes are either chronologically ordered or alphabetically. I have briefly looked at approximately 3000 – 4000 documents. The actual manuscripts and how they developed from editorial comments are not available in this archive, only the comments. The paper is a first attempt to find some researchable themes among all these documents. I have limited the query to the early formative phase of IEE. The paper is structured along three major themes: Deciding on purposes and target groups; Producing and indexing the content; Dealing with contingences and interruptions.

    Expected Outcomes

    Why take on such a time consuming and demanding project as that of editing an Encyclopedia? A common answer in biographical notes has to do with the opportunity of putting your subject that you worked on for such a long time (editors tend to be prominent) on the map (cf. Chapelle 2011). Husén clearly wanted to illustrate the potential of comparative and international education. It also seems as he believed that by doing this, he could really help the Third world to develop, and then not as many earlier encyclopedias had, from a particular ethnocentric perspective but from the global perspective of a united educational research community. IEE filled a need at the end of the cold war in creating a sense of objectivity and coherence in an increasingly diversified discipline, in a less divided world. IEE is clearly an example of the globalisation of scientific knowledge, but making it was not based on theory or on a well-defined methodology per se. It was an explorative and circumstantial endeavour. There is none, and can never exist any, Book of books – at least not in the field of education. An encyclopedia, even if ten volumes thick, is quickly out-dated. Editing an encyclopedia is not only about collecting pre-existing truths and facts about what for example educational research and studies are all about, it is also about constructing the image of such a collection – presented as an index. This image might be quite representative at large, but will be disputable in detail; it is characterized by the specific writers involved. IEE contracted some 500 authors out of 25000 researches in education 1982 (preface 1982). To the layman though, an index with 45000 entries, as it had, will give an impression that the reader had in its hand, the Books of books.

    References

    Ashmore, H. S. (1962).Editing the Universal Encyclopedia. American Behavioural Scientist 1962;6 (15), p. 15-18 Beede B.R. (2001). Editing a specialized encyclopedia. Journal of Scholarly Publishing, 2001;33(1), p. 1–10. Borges, L. J. (1941/1962). The Library of Babel. Extract: http://jubal.westnet.com/hyperdiscordia/library_of_babel.html Burke, P. (2012). A Social History of Knowledge. Volume II. From the Encyclopédie to Wikipedia. Cambridge: Polity Press. Byrnes, H. (2011) Perspectives. The Modern Language Journal 95 (2011), p. 628-629. Chapelle, C A. (2011) Why Would Anyone Want to Edit an Encyclopedia? The Modern Language Journal 95 (2011), p. 632-633. Charle, C., Schriewer, J. & Wagner, P. eds. (2004). Transnational Intellectual Net¬works: Forms of Academic Knowledge and the Search for Cultural Identities. Frankfurt/New York: Campus. Edwards, L. (2012). Editing Academic Books in the Humanities and Social Sciences: Maximizing Impact for Effort. Journal of Scholarly Publishing, 2012;44 (1), p. 61-74. Husén, T. & Postlethwaite, T.N. (ed.) (1985). The international encyclopedia of education: research and studies. Oxford: Pergamon. Keller, (2011). The Symbiosis Between Publisher and Librarian. The Modern Language Journal 95 (2011), p. 631-632. Phillips, D., Mallinson, V., Wilson, K., Gruber, K-H., and Backhouse, J. K. (1986). The International Encyclopedia of Education. Oxford Review of Education, 1986;12 (1), p. 77-93. Ross, J. I. & Shanty, F. (2009). Editing Encyclopedias for Fun and Aggravation. Publishing Research Quarterly, 25 (3), p. 159-169. Schriewer, J. & Martínez, C. (2004). Constructions of Internationality in Education. In: The Global Politics of Educational Borrowing and Lending, ed. Steiner-Khamsi, G. New York & London: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, pp. 29-53. Sills, D. L. (1969). Editing a Scientific Encyclopedia. Science 1969 (14), p. 1169-1175. Wagner, P. & Wittrock, B. (1991). States, Institutions, and Discourses: A Comparative Perspective on the Structuration of the Social Sciences. In P. Wagner, B. Wittrock & R. Whitley. Discourses on Society. The Shaping of the Social Science Disciplines. Dordrecht, Boston, London: Kluwer Academinc Publishers.

  • 31.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The Book of Books: encyclopaedic writing in the science of education in the 1980s2014In: Transnational policy flows in European education: the making and governing of knowledge in the education policy field / [ed] Daniel Sundberg, Andreas Nordin, Oxford: Symposium Books, 2014, p. 79-103Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Encyclopaedia of Education (IEE) edited by Husén and Postlethwaite 1985 had as its ambition to be the first true international encyclopaedia of education. This meant being a comprehensive collection of all relevant educational knowledge from around the world; breaking with ethnocentrism and reaching out to educational systems in the Third World. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an understanding of the re/production of encyclopaedic knowledge of international education. Issues of representativeness in what is displayed as internationally valid knowledge and knowledge of international education is discussed. The chapter draws upon a close reading of archive material consisting of meeting protocols and editorial correspondence in the Torsten Husén personal archive at The National Archives, Sweden. 

  • 32.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The Editing of an Encyclopedia of Education as a Social Science Example of “Laboratory Work”2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bruno Latour’s and Steve Woolgar’s book, Laboratory life. The Construction of Scientific Facts (1979/1986) departs from a very evident example of what the production of knowledge could look like in practice. Would it be possible to find an equivalent example to the natural sciences laboratory from the social sciences? Possibly editorial work can get close to resemble the laboratory work. This paper draws on the research from the rigorous archive of the editorial work behind The International Encyclopaedia of Education (IEE) from 1985 and 1994. The IEE had as its ambition to be the first true international encyclopaedia of education. This meant being a comprehensive collection of all relevant educational knowledge from around the world; breaking with ethnocentrism and reaching out to educational systems in the Third World. One important motif of IEE was for it to be useful in international education policymaking. The IEE was a huge project and contracted some 500 authors from 100 different countries, resulting after five years of work in 10 volumes with an index of more than 45,000 entries (Husén & Postlethwaite 1985, preface). Many people tend to perceive encyclopaedic facts as solid, truthful and fair representations of the reality. But how fair are really these representations? The purpose of the paper is to provide an understanding of the re/production of encyclopaedic knowledge of international education. Issues concerning representativeness in what has been displayed as internationally valid knowledge and knowledge of educational systems world wide, will be discussed, using IEE articles, archive material such as meeting protocols and editorial correspondence. Research about re/production of knowledge is often interested in the (micro) processes that shape scientific knowledge (e.g. Latour & Woolgar 1979/1986, Woolgar 1988, Ringer 2000, Camic, Gross et al 2011). What kinds of processes, decisions, problems, relations and networks leads to the specific entries in an encyclopaedia? Encyclopaedias often claim to be collections of facts. Typically we perceive facts as ‘unconstructed by anyone’ (Latour & Woolgar 1979/1986). But producing an encyclopaedia is not a straightforward and simple editorial process. Sections, headings, topics and the structure of the thematic articles are constantly changed based on new insights and on circumstances not possible to control. A better way to frame the knowledge in an encyclopaedia would be to understand it as a product of a specific epistemic culture; the actual and theoretical conditions of the production of knowledge (Knorr Cetina 1999).

    References

    Camic, C., Gross, N. & Lamont, M. (red.) (2011). Social knowledge in the making. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Chapelle, C A. (2011) Why Would Anyone Want to Edit an Encyclopedia? The Modern Language Journal 95 (2011), p. 632-633.

    Edwards, L. (2012). Editing Academic Books in the Humanities and Social Sciences: Maximizing Impact for Effort. Journal of Scholarly Publishing, 2012;44 (1), p. 61-74.

    Husén, T. & Postlethwaite, T.N. (ed.) (1985). The international encyclopedia of education: research and studies. Oxford: Pergamon.

    Knorr Cetina, Karin (1999).Epistemic Cultures. How the sciences make knowledge. Harvard University Press.

    Latour, B. & Woolgar, S. (1979/1986): Laboratory Life. The Construction of Scientific Facts. NJ: Princeton University Press.

  • 33.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The Organising Principles of Disciple Assessment in the Swedish School Ordinances 1561–17242017In: Student Assessment Cultures in historical perspective / [ed] Cristina Alarcón och Martin Lawn, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The Power of Teacher Assigned Grades in Outcome Based Education2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In measuring and governing the quality of education, outcomes in terms of academic achievement have come to play an increasingly important role in recent decades (Hopmann, 2003; Sahlberg, 2016). In many countries, the policies accompanying this development have relied on an increased use of testing for accountability purposes (Baker, 2016; Brookhart, 2015; Linn, 2000). In arguing for alternatives to test-based accountability, researchers have suggested that teacher-assigned student grades could be used for high-stakes purposes in order to moderate negative effects of testing (Brookhart et al., 2016; Willingham, Pollack & Lewis, 2002). In this study, Sweden serves as an example of a school system in which teacher-assigned grades have a major role in performance management and accountability. We study how politicians view and legitimise the strengths of grading in an outcome-based accountability system.

    Based on two-part analysis, we will show how teacher-assigned grades, through complex processes of legitimation, have acquired and retained a central position in governing the overall quality of the educational system in Sweden. The first part of our analysis focuses on the revision of the grading system in the early 1990s, which was part of a major reform of the Swedish school system in order to improve the outcomes of schooling. The grading system was redesigned and new functions for governing educational quality were developed: new means of accountability was designed (Lundahl, Erixon Arreman, Holm & Lundström, 2013).

    In the second part of our analysis, we study the system almost two decades after its initial construction. Also in this analysis we focus on a grading reform (launched in 2011). The quality of the Swedish school system was again considered to be too poor, and the grading system was again considered a key part of improving educational quality.

    The two parts of our analysis reveal differences in how a grading system that could serve outcome-based accountability was legitimised: in the first reform, the main legitimising processes concerned the core principles, and the work to find a grading system that could be broadly accepted among stakeholders. In the second reform we observed a new strategy in achieving legitimacy for a grading system by reference to other countries’ grading systems (‘policy borrowing’).

    We argue that in the Swedish system, grades used in an administrative rather than a pedagogical way function as a ‘quick language’ (Lundahl 2008), that effectively reduces the complexity of communication between various actors with regard to what students learn and accomplish in education. As such, grades are legitimate in terms of their communicative efficacy. A grade, as well as a test result, is quick in its representation (it includes much information), and (therefore) it is quick to use.

    At the same time the use of grades in communicating student learning has not been sufficient to meet the needs of government. We conclude that in order to turn grading into an instrument that can moderate some of the downsides of testing regimes, a broader view of what constitute outcomes in education needs to follow. 

  • 35.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The Scholarship of the International Encyclopaedia of Education 1980 – 1994: Learning how to Produce Knowledge in a Public genre2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Encyclopaedia of Education (IEE) from 1985, and thoroughly revised in 1994, had as its ambition to be the first true international encyclopaedia of education. This meant being a comprehensive collection of all relevant educational knowledge from around the world; breaking with ethnocentrism and reaching out to educational systems in the Third World. The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the re/production of encyclopaedic knowledge of international education. A special attention is given to issues of curriculum representations in the IEE and therefor 60 country system reports are compared and analyzed. The paper also draws upon a close reading of a unique archive material consisting of meeting protocols and editorial correspondence between 1980-1994.

  • 36.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Department of Education, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    The Swedish School house at the Centennial exposition in Philadelphia 1876: World's fairs and innovation in policy and practice2014In: AERA Repository Annual Meeting Papers, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the world exhibition in Philadelphia 1876 Sweden displayed a school house with examples of teaching material and student work. How come, Sweden shipped a school house to this exhibition? What impact did the school house have, on the visitors at the exhibition and back home? The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the relations between Swedish education and the international scene, foremost the American, when it comes to policy and practice formation. The field of study is the World’s fairs in the 19th C. By looking at what Sweden displayed, and understanding how it was perceived by visitors the paper raise questions about cultural transfer. Focus will be put on the transfer of innovations and ideals.

  • 37.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The Use Of Things As Data And Aesthetic Governmentality2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International comparisons have become central to education governance in Europe and globally; however, they are not just a contemporary phenomenon. On the contrary, governing by comparison in education is historically as deep-rooted as the founding of the European nation-states themselves. When it comes to education the earliest modern examples of systematic comparisons of education and learning outcomes are the late 19th century World fairs’ educational exhibitions (Dittrich 2010, Lundahl & Lawn 2014 Sobe & Boven 2014, Lundahl 2016). One important function of international comparisons today as well as from a historical perspective, is to use it for various forms of accountability. Today we often understand accountability as measures, league tables, and formal responsibilities. However, the late 19th century seems to present us with a different view on accountability. In this aspect we are inspired by Ghertner´s (2010, 2011) concept aesthetic governmentality, as well as Simmel’s notion of exhibitions as (crowded) spaces pushing forward a competition of aesthetics ideals (1998). In this paper we will especially focus on what was considered learning outcomes, during the early phase of international comparison that started with the World fairs and national exhibitions such as school museums in late 19th C. For this we use archive material that we have found in our earlier research on World fairs (e.g. Lundahl & Lawn 2014, Landahl 2014). We have also investigated objects displayed at the early 20th C national school museum. For instance we have traced accounts on learning outcomes in the shape of handicraft (sloyd), gymnastics drill exhibits, drawings, pupils writings etc.

    References

    Ghertner, A. (2010). Calculating without numers: aesthetic governmentality in Delhi's slums. Economy and Society, 39,2, 185-217.Lundahl, C., & Lawn, M. (2014). The Swedish schoolhouse: a case study in transnational influences in education at the 1870s world fairs. Paedagogica Historica, (ahead-of-print), 1-16.Sobe, N. W., & Boven, D. T. (2014). Nineteenth-Century World’s Fairs as Accountability Systems: Scopic Systems, Audit Practices and Educational Data. Education policy analysis archives, 22, 118.

  • 38.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Vad är betyg?2015In: Att ta utbildningens komplexitet på allvar: En vänbok för Eva Forsberg / [ed] Maja Elmgren, Maria Folke Fichtelius, Stina Hallsén, Henrik Román, Wieland Wermke, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet , 2015Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitelet ställer sig frågan vad kan betygs vara betraktat i ljustet av amhällsvetenskapens mest klassiska teorier

  • 39.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Varför nationella prov?: framväxt, dilemman, möjligheter2009 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Lundahl, Christian
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Folke-Fichtelius, Maria
    Bedömning i och av skolan: praktik, principer, politik2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Lundahl, Christian
    et al.
    Pedagogiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Folke-Fichtelius, MariaPedagogiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Bedömning i och av skolan: praktik, principer, politik2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Lundahl, Christian
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Folke-Fichtelius, Maria
    Förskolebarns lärande som mått på kvalitet: statliga krav på dokumentation i förskolan2015In: Utvärdering & pedagogisk bedömning i förskolan / [ed] Gunnar Åsén, Stockholm: Liber, 2015, p. 38-50Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Lundahl, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kunskapsbedömningar: utvärdering, betyg och nationella prov2006In: Skolans kontrollregim: ett kontraproduktivt system för styrning? / [ed] Eva Forsberg & Erik Wallin, Stockholm: HSL förlag , 2006, p. 19-45Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Lundahl, Christian
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Grek, Sotiria
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    From Paris to PISA: Aesthetic Governing in Comparative Education2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International comparisons have become the lifeblood of education governance in Europe and globally; however, they are not just a contemporary phenomenon. On the contrary, governing by comparison in education is historically as deep-rooted as the founding of the European nation-states themselves. Using Sweden as a case study, the aim of this paper is to explore and analyse the ways in which national systems and their innovations were influenced, constructed and traded through the use of education comparisons. By focusing on Sweden, a country considered to be one of the leading European education systems for most of the 19th and 20th centuries, we will examine the workings and effects of international education comparisons through an examination of the role and impact of representing the Swedish education system in two historical junctures: the first historical point in our analysis will be the late 19th century World Fairs and the exhibition of Sweden as a model education system (through the literal use of models to represent schooling in the nation); the second historical moment is the one of Sweden being represented as a failed system, as this has been exemplified in the ‘killer’ charts and rankings of the OECD PISA results. Through both primary data collection and secondary analysis of qualitative data, we will explain the ways in which aesthetic governing and the use of comparison as a spectacle – either of glory or of fear- creates policy dispositions that may be far starker and effective than any detailed analysis and use of evidence in contemporary policy making. The case of Sweden will also be seen from the broader spectrum of European education governance and situated in this context and policy landscape.The power of the spectacle of comparison, from the traditional World fairs all the way to PISA tables, is often related to the notion of accountability. Sobe and Boven describe the accountability of exhibitions  (and perhaps their contemporary equivalent of the rating and ranking of country tables) as the “’political’ work of establishing norms, constructing subjectivities and helping to establish what is and is not possible’ through ”rituals of verification” (2014). Exhibitions have often been considered as ways of standardising and creating uniformity via information on educational systems that in some ways is quantifiable.Going beyond the notion of the comparative spectacle (which has been developed eloquently by the classic work of Novoa and Yariv-Mashal, 2003) when looking closer both at older exhibitions and at OECD reports like Education at a Glance, and in particular the media presentation of PISA results, we are able to discern efforts for an aesthetic representation  of educational comparisons (Ghertner 2010; 2011; for an example of international assessments as  aesthetic representation, see: C. Lundahl, The Beauty in PISA http://www.paristopisa.com/?p=66) ; these can be educational objects, such as schoolhouses, teaching materials, and pupils’ work at display at a World’s fair or even the colourful sloping diagram of a country’s PISA result in the morning news. Therefore we suggest that we distinguish between  numerical accountability and aesthetic governing, where the former is seen more as a panoptical power producing standards through statistical norms and calculations whilst the latter can be seen as a synoptical power, producing and displaying ideals effecting emotions, beliefs, hopes etc. The notion of aesthetic governing would then work as a complement to numerical accountability, allowing an understanding of how traditional exhibitions as well as modern comparative data can both relate to governing senses and thus selves. The paper is based on current research in the project ‘From Paris to Pisa: Governing Education by Comparison 1867-2015’, funded by the Swedish Research Council.MethodEmpirically the project makes use of a wide array of sources. Archives in Sweden as well as abroad (UNESCO, IEA, OECD), are examined. Policy documents, scientific journals, newspapers, magazines for teachers and interviews with key policy and research actors – in Sweden and abroad – are also used. For the purposes of this paper, archival analysis as well as critical discourse analysis will be used in order to analyse a. the exhibition as a space of comparison and b. the visual discourse as created through the use of numbers and statistics as well as exhibited objects and educational artefacts. For the investigation of the first historical juncture (exhibitions) we will use a range of sources, for example: The World Fairs 1867–1904; The Swedish exhibition of school material 1877–1906; and the national school museum 1908–1930. The preliminary sources we are going to use are, amongst others, the Victoria and Albert (V&A) archive in the UK; the archives of Foreign affairs (Svenska UD); the archives of the Expo agency (Utställningsbestyrelserna); the Nordic museum archive, newspapers and teacher union magazines. In order to analyse the second historical point in our analysis (OECD PISA tables) we will use critical discourse analysis of the OECD reports on the Swedish education system as well as reporting of the PISA 2012 results.Expected OutcomesAlthough national systems have so far been regarded as internally constructed, with particular policies and politics, our approach builds on historiographies in education, science and technology, as well as political/historical sociology, to create a novel and original interpretation which treats comparison and the cross border flow of data and expert actors as mutually constitutive. This means that our paper will offer insights and explanation of phenomena largely ignored: the role of Sweden in international exhibitions; the Swedish School Museum; and the impact of the aesthetic governmentality of large international assessments on the Swedish education system and beyond.More specifically, the paper will argue that there are two different aspects of aesthetics that play a role in comparative education: as representation as well as aesthetic education in itself. Aesthetics as representation is a governing instrument that renders comparisons visible, interesting and alluring. Such a quality of aesthetics can be found both in World’s Fairs as well as in PISA. Aesthetics as educational content in itself however relates more to what kinds of knowledge international comparisons value. The era of the World Fairs was obsessed with aesthetic aspects of school knowledge, with drawing, gymnastics, Sloyd and beautiful school houses. PISA, on the other hand, shows little interest in comparing knowledge that values aesthetics. Thus, the paper will explore whether the relationship between representation and content has changed. Aesthetics as representation no longer mirrors an interest in aesthetics as content.

    References

    Ghertner, D. A. (2011) Rule by aesthetics: World-class city making in Delhi, A. Roy and A. Ong (eds). Worlding Cities: Asian Experiments and the Art of Being Global, Oxford: Blackwell.Ghertner, D.A. (2010) Calculating without numbers: aesthetic governmentality in Delhi's slums, Economy and Society, 39:2, 185-217 Novoa, A. and Yariv-Mashal, T. (2003) Comparative Research in Education: a mode of governance or a historical journey, Comparative Education, 39(4), 423-438.Sobe, N.W. & D.T. Boven (2014). Nineteenth-century world’s fairs as accountability systems: Scopic Systems, Audit Practices and Educational Data. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 22(118), 4. http://dx.doi.org/10.14507/epaa.v22.1673.

  • 45.
    Lundahl, Christian
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies (ISV), Linköpings University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Betyg och bedömning i en marknadsutsatt skola2018In: Skolan, marknaden och framtiden / [ed] Fejes, A. & Dahlstedt, M., Lund: Studentlitteratur AB , 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Lundahl, Christian
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    DN Debatt: Skolans betygssystem saknar vetenskaplig grund2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47.
    Lundahl, Christian
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping university, Linköping, Sweden.
    To grade or not to grade: an analysis of assessment debates in Swedish media 1980 – 20142015In: NERA 2015, 2015, p. 85-85Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish assessment culture has emerged in the meeting between the educational, scientific, bureaucratic and political needs and traditions. In this study we approach the assessment culture from the perspective of media debates, particularly focusing on daily newspapers. The aim is to understand the stakes that appear around educational assessment in public debate, hopes, fears and controversies, and to analyze this from the perspective of on the one hand the history of Swedish assessment culture, on the other a discursive perspective: what can and can not be said and what might the consequences/dangers of certain discourses be? Preliminary results show that grades and grading systems has dominated the debate while test and testing culture for a long time played a minor role, something that is beginning to change. However, even though grades have been in the center, the way grades have been discussed have changed. We argue that the educational assessment debate has become more inward-looking through the introduction of criterion referenced grading, not unlikely correlating to the regime of accountability policies dominating schooling in many countries. From the perspective of grades being “the basic currency” of education (perhaps challenged by school choice lately), we ask whether we can find topics concerning social justice in today’s assessment debate. We also suggest ways of recontextualizing the debate around grades and tests. Why does for example the grading seem to be such a polarized topic in Swedish debated relative the international debate about assessment matters?

  • 48.
    Lundahl, Christian
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Klapp, Alli
    Institutionen för pedagogik och specialpedagogik, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Mickwitz, Larissa
    Institutionen för språkdidaktik, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Betygens geografi: forskning om betyg och summativa bedömningar i Sverige och internationellt. Delrapport från skolforsk-projektet2015Report (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Lundahl, Christian
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies (ISV), Linköpings University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Tveit, Sverre
    University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Betygssystem i internationell belysning2016Report (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Lundahl, Christian
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Tveit, Sverre
    Agder University, Kristiansand, Norway.
    The Power of Grades: How Teachers' Internal Assessments Become Legitimate External Data on the Quality of Education2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The simple question of what constitutes school results is rarely asked, even though schooling has become increasingly results-oriented in the Western world in recent decades. One measure that is used while being relatively unproblematised is student grades. How students perform, as assessed by their teachers in the form of formal grades, is often treated as if it is highly informative about school quality. In this paper, we illuminate how internal assessments of pupils’ knowledge, carried out by their teachers, becomes external data on the quality of education: a learning outcome.

    Teacher-assigned grades have a long history in the Swedish school system, as a pedagogical tool and as information for parents and employers. In a first analysis portrays a development, from the increased emphasis on grades used for merit based admission through the rise of New Public Management thinking from the 1980s to the 2010s (Lundahl, Erixon Arreman, Holm & Lundström, 2013) where grades more and more are used for accountability purposes. The methodological approach is to systematically follow arguments concerning how grades can be used as performance data in relevant committee work, governmental reports (SOU) and propositions.

    In a second analysis, we follow the political argument to widen and strengthen the accountability of the Swedish grading system by references to other countries’ grading systems. The argument is that in order to achieve better PISA rankings, Sweden needs a system that formally grades children at a younger age than normally done in Sweden. We analyse the legitimisation of this policy by investigating the governments’ referral to other European countries’ grading and accountability systems and how these are represented in Eurydice, which was a principal source in the government’s legitimation. Eurydice holds the most accessible knowledge regarding educational systems in Europe.

    Over all we treat the development for how teachers' internal assessments become legitimate external data on the quality of education, as a process of legitimation in which grading works as a ‘quick language’: a way to reduce complexity by creating a common language to enable a smooth transfer of information in the field of education (Lundahl 2008).

     

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