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  • 1.
    Behrens, Thomas
    et al.
    Bremen Institute of Prevention Research & Social Medicine, Bremen, Germany; Institute of Prevention & Occupational Medicine of German Social Accidents Insurance, Bochum, Germany.
    Lynge, Elsebeth
    Inst Publ Hlth, Univ Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Cree, Ian
    Inst Ophthalmol, University College London (UCL), London, England.
    Lutz, Jean-Michel
    National Institute for Cancer Epidemiology and Registration (NICER), Univ Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Dept of Oncology, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden..
    Guenel, Pascal
    Centre de recherche en épidémiologie et santé des populations (CESP), French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), Villejuif, France; Univ Paris Sud, Villejuif, France.
    Merletti, Franco
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Univ Turin, Piemonte, Italy; ll Centro di Riferimento per l'Epidemiologia e la Prevenzione Oncologica (CPO), Piemonte, Italy.
    Morales-Suarez-Varela, Maria
    Dept of Prevention Medicine, Unit Public Health & Environmental Care, University Valencia, Valencia, Spain; CIBER Act Epidemiology & Public Health, Res Grp CIBER CB06, Valencia, Spain; Center Public Health Research CSISP, Valencia, Spain.
    Afonso, Noemia
    Med Oncol Serv, Inst Portugues Oncol Francisco Gentil, Oporto, Portugal.
    Stengrevics, Aivars
    Latvia Canc Registry, Riga, Latvia.
    Fevotte, Joelle
    Umrestte UCB Lyon 1 InVS Inrets, Lyon, France.
    Sabroe, Svend
    Dept Epidemiol, Univ Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustin
    Dept Prevent Med, Unit Publ Hlth & Environm Care, Univ Valencia, Valencia, Spain; CIBER Act Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Res Grp CIBER CB06, Valencia, Spain.
    Gorini, Giuseppe
    Environm & Occupat Epidemiol Unit, ISPO Canc Prevent & Res Inst, Florence, Italy.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Region Örebro län, Örebro, Sweden.
    Stang, Andreas
    Inst Clin Epidemiol, Univ Halle Wittenberg, Halle, Germany; Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, Univ Duisburg Essen, Essen, Germany..
    Ahrens, Wolfgang
    Bremen Inst Prevent Res & Social Med, Bremen, Germany; Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, Univ Duisburg Essen, Essen, Germany.
    Pesticide exposure in farming and forestry and the risk of uveal melanoma2012In: Cancer Causes and Control, ISSN 0957-5243, E-ISSN 1573-7225, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 141-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since pesticides are disputed risk factors for uveal melanoma, we studied the association between occupational pesticide exposure and uveal melanoma risk in a case-control study from nine European countries.

    Incident cases of uveal melanoma and population as well as hospital controls were included and frequency-matched by country, 5-year age groups and sex. Self-reported exposure was quantified with respect to duration of exposure and pesticide application method. We calculated the exposure intensity level based on application method and use of personal protective equipment. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression analyses and adjusted for several potential confounders.

    293 case and 3,198 control subjects were interviewed. We did not identify positive associations with activities in farming or forestry, pesticide application or pesticide mixing. No consistent positive associations were seen with exposure intensity level scores either. The only statistically significantly raised association in this study was for exposure to chemical fertilizers in forestry (OR = 8.93; 95% CI 1.73-42.13), but this observation was based on only six exposed subjects. Results did not change when we restricted analyses to morphologically verified cases and excluded proxy interviews as well as cancer controls. We did not observe effect modification by sex or eye color.

    Risk estimates for pesticide exposures and occupational activities in agriculture and forestry were not increased and did not indicate a hormonal mechanism due to these exposures.

  • 2. Belpomme, D.
    et al.
    Irigaray, P.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Clapp, R.
    Montagnier, L.
    Epstein, S.
    Sasco, A. J.
    The multitude and diversity of environmental carcinogens2007In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 105, no 3, p. 414-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have recently proposed that lifestyle-related factors, screening and aging cannot fully account for the present overall growing incidence of cancer. In order to propose the concept that in addition to lifestyle related factors, exogenous environmental factors may play a more important role in carcinogenesis than it is expected, and may therefore account for the growing incidence of cancer, we overview herein environmental factors, rated as certainly or potentially carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). We thus analyze the carcinogenic effect of microorganisms (including viruses), radiations (including radioactivity, UV and pulsed electromagnetic fields) and xenochemicals. Chemicals related to environmental pollution appear to be of critical importance, since they can induce occupational cancers as well as other cancers. Of major concerns are: outdoor air pollution by carbon particles associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; indoor air pollution by environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds such as benzene and 1,3 butadiene, which may particularly affect children, and food pollution by food additives and by carcinogenic contaminants such as nitrates, pesticides, dioxins and other organochlorines. In addition, carcinogenic metals and metalloids, pharmaceutical medicines and cosmetics may be involved. Although the risk fraction attributable to environmental factors is still unknown, this long list of carcinogenic and especially mutagenic factors supports our working hypothesis according to which numerous cancers may in fact be caused by the recent modification of our environment. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 3. Belpomme, D.
    et al.
    Irigaray, P.
    Sasco, A. J.
    Newby, J. A.
    Howard, V.
    Clapp, R.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    The growing incidence of cancer: Role of lifestyle and screening detection (Review)2007In: International Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1019-6439, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 1037-1049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing incidence of a variety of cancers after the Second World War confronts scientists with the question of their origin. In Western countries, expansion and ageing of the population, as well as progress in cancer detection using new diagnostic and screening tests cannot fully account for the observed growing incidence of cancer. Our hypothesis is that environmental factors play a more important role in cancer genesis than it is usually agreed: i) over the last 2-3 decades, alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking in men have significantly decreased; ii) obesity is increasing in many countries, but the growing incidence of cancer also concerns cancers not related to obesity nor to other lifestyle-related factors; iii) there is evidence that the environment has changed over the same time scale as the recent rise in cancer incidence, and that this change included the accumulation of many new carcinogenic factors in the environment; iv) genetic susceptibility to cancer due to genetic polymorphism cannot have changed over one generation and actually favours the role of exogenous factors through gene-environment interactions; v) age is not the unique factor to be considered since the rising incidence of cancers is seen across all age categories, including children; vi) the fetus is specifically vulnerable to exogenous factors. A fetal exposure during a critical window period may explain why current epidemiological studies may be negative in adults. We therefore propose that the involuntary exposure to many carcinogens in the environment contributes to the rising trend in cancer incidence.

  • 4.
    Carlberg, Michael
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Evaluation of Mobile Phone and Cordless Phone Use and Glioma Risk Using the Bradford Hill Viewpoints from 1965 on Association or Causation2017In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, Vol. 2017, article id 9218486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Bradford Hill's viewpoints from 1965 on association or causation were used on glioma risk and use of mobile or cordless phones. Methods. All nine viewpoints were evaluated based on epidemiology and laboratory studies. Results. Strength: meta-analysis of case-control studies gave odds ratio (OR) = 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.31-2.76 with highest cumulative exposure. Consistency: the risk increased with latency, meta-analysis gave in the 10+ years' latency group OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.20-2.19. Specificity: increased risk for glioma was in the temporal lobe. Using meningioma cases as comparison group still increased the risk. Temporality: highest risk was in the 20+ years' latency group, OR = 2.01, 95% CI =1.41-2.88, for wireless phones. Biological gradient: cumulative use of wireless phones increased the risk. Plausibility: animal studies showed an increased incidence of glioma and malignant schwannoma in rats exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. There is increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from RF radiation. Coherence: there is a change in the natural history of glioma and increasing incidence. Experiment: antioxidants reduced ROS production from RF radiation. Analogy: there is an increased risk in subjects exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Conclusion. RF radiation should be regarded as a human carcinogen causing glioma.

  • 5.
    Carlberg, Michael
    et al.
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Oncology.
    On the association between glioma, wireless phones, heredity and ionising radiation2012In: Pathophysiology, ISSN 0928-4680, E-ISSN 1873-149X, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 243-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed two case–control studies on brain tumours diagnosed during 1 January 1997 to 30 June 2000 and 1 July 2000 to 31 December 2003, respectively. Living cases and controls aged 20–80 years were included. An additional study was performed on deceased cases with a malignant brain tumour using deceased controls. Pooled results for glioma yielded for ipsilateral use of mobile phone odds ratio (OR)=2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.8–4.7 in the >10 years latency group. The corresponding result for cordless phone was OR=3.8, 95% CI=1.8–8.1. OR increased statistically significant for cumulative use of wireless phones per 100h and per year of latency. For high-grade glioma ipsilateral use of mobile phone gave OR=3.9, 95% CI=2.3–6.6 and cordless phone OR=5.5, 95% CI=2.3–13 in the >10 years latency group. Heredity for brain tumour gave OR=3.4, 95% CI=2.1–5.5 for glioma. There was no interaction with use of wireless phones. X-ray investigation of the head gave overall OR=1.3, 95% CI=1.1–1.7 for glioma without interaction with use of wireless phones or heredity. In conclusion use of mobile and cordless phone increased the risk for glioma with highest OR for ipsilateral use, latency >10 years and third tertile of cumulative use in hours. In total, the risk was highest in the age group <20 years for first use of a wireless phone.

  • 6.
    Carlberg, Michael
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Koppel, Tarmo
    Department of Labour Environment and Safety, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University Hospital. Faculty of Medicine and Health, Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Case-control study on occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields and glioma risk2017In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 494-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) was in 2002 classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO.

    METHODS: Life time occupations were assessed in case-control studies during 1997-2003 and 2007-2009. An ELF-EMF Job-Exposure Matrix was used for associating occupations with ELF exposure (μT). Cumulative exposure (μT-years), average exposure (μT), and maximum exposed job (μT) were calculated.

    RESULTS: Cumulative exposure gave for astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) in the time window 1-14 years odds ratio (OR) = 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-2.6, p linear trend <0.001, and in the time window 15+ years OR = 0.9, 95%CI = 0.6-1.3, p linear trend = 0.44 in the highest exposure categories 2.75+ and 6.59+ μT years, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: An increased risk in late stage (promotion/progression) of astrocytoma grade IV for occupational ELF-EMF exposure was found.

  • 7.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Pooled analysis of two Swedish case-control studies on the use of mobile and cordless telephones and the risk of brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-20032007In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 63-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we present the pooled analysis of 2 case-control studies on the association of brain tumours with mobile phone use. Use of analogue cellular phones increased the risk for acoustic neuroma by 5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2-9% per 100 hrs of use. The risk increased for astrocytoma grade III-IV with latency period with highest estimates using > 10-year time period from first use of these phone types. The risk increased per one year of use of analogue phones by 10%, 95% CI = 6-14%, digital phones by 11%, 95% CI = 6-16%, and cordless phones by 8%, 95% CI = 5-12%. For all studied phone types OR for brain tumours, mainly acoustic neuroma and malignant brain tumours, increased with latency period, especially for astrocytoma grade III-IV.

  • 8.
    Hardell, Elin
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bao, Jia
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Case-control study on perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) and the risk of prostate cancer2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 63, p. 35-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) are emerging environmental contaminants. Possible health effects for humans include increased risk for cancer but the knowledge is limited. In this study serum concentrations of certain perfluorinated sulfonates (PFHxS and PFOS) and carboxylates (PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA) were analyzed among 201 cases with prostate cancer and 186 population based control subjects. All blood samples were collected during 2007-2011 and no case had been treated with radio- or chemotherapy before enrolment in the study. The blood concentrations did not differ statistically significant between cases and controls except for PFDA with higher concentration among the cases (p = 0.03). Analyses based on Gleason score and prostate specific antigen (PSA) level did not change the results. Heredity was a risk factor for prostate cancer yielding odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-3.1. The analyzed PFAAs yielded statistically significant higher ORs in cases with a first degree relative reporting prostate cancer, e.g., PFOA gave OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.2-6.0 and PFOS gave OR = 2.7,95% CI = 1.04-6.8. The results showed a higher risk for prostate cancer in cases with heredity as a risk factor. In further studies interaction between gene and environment should be considered. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Hardell, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Carlberg, Micael
    Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Björnfoth, Helen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Concentrations of organohalogen compounds and titres of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus antigens and the risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma2009In: Oncology Reports, ISSN 1021-335X, E-ISSN 1791-2431, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 1567-1576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to some pesticides and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been indicated to be a risk factor for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with some subgroups of NHL. In a previous study we found an interaction between high concentrations of some POPs and titres of antibodies to EBV early antigen (EA IgG) in relation to NHL. In the present study we measured lipid adjusted plasma concentrations of 35 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), p,p'- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethyelene (p,p'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), seven subgroups of chlordanes (cisheptachlorepoxide, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, oxychlordane, MC6, trans-nonachlordane, cis-nonachlordane) and one polybrominated diphenylether (PBDE) congener (no. 47) in 99 cases with NHL and 99 population based controls. Odds ratios (OR) for NHL were estimated. Sum of PCBs > median in the controls gave odds ratio (OR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99-3.9. High sum of chlordanes yielded OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.5. An interaction with EBV EA IgG was found. High sum of PCB gave OR 5.2, 95% CI 1.9-14 in the group with EA IgG > 40. Similarly HCB yielded OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.9-15, pp'-DDE gave OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-7.7 and sum of chlordanes yielded OR 6.8, 95% CI 2.3-20, whereas no association was found with PBDE. In summary, thisstudy confirmed an association between certain POPs andNHL with an interaction with titre of IgG antibody to EBV EA.

  • 10.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Effects of Mobile Phones on Children's and Adolescents' Health: A Commentary2017In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 137-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of digital technology has grown rapidly during the last couple of decades. During use, mobile phones and cordless phones emit radiofrequency (RF) radiation. No previous generation has been exposed during childhood and adolescence to this kind of radiation. The brain is the main target organ for RF emissions from the handheld wireless phone. An evaluation of the scientific evidence on the brain tumor risk was made in May 2011 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at World Health Organization. The scientific panel reached the conclusion that RF radiation from devices that emit nonionizing RF radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz-300 GHz is a Group 2B, that is, a "possible" human carcinogen. With respect to health implications of digital (wireless) technologies, it is of importance that neurological diseases, physiological addiction, cognition, sleep, and behavioral problems are considered in addition to cancer. Well-being needs to be carefully evaluated as an effect of changed behavior in children and adolescents through their interactions with modern digital technologies.

  • 11.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Pesticides, soft-tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: historical aspects on the precautionary principle in cancer prevention2008In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 347-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. After the 2nd World War a long range of chemical agents have been introduced on the market, both in Sweden and most other countries. From the 1950's several pesticides gained increasing use in agriculture and forestry. In the 1970's public concern increased in Sweden especially regarding use of phenoxy herbicides to combat deciduous wood, although statements from different authorities were reassuring of the safety. Materials and methods. At the end of the 1970's the author and his colleagues published the first scientific evidence of an association between exposure to phenoxyacetic acids, chlorophenols and certain malignant tumours, i.e., soft-tissue sarcoma and malignant lymphoma. The study subjects were also exposed to contaminating dioxins such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Later studies showed also an association between certain persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with an interaction with titers of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus early antigen. These results have been corroborated in other studies. Discussion. Over the years industry and its allied experts have attacked our studies, but in 1997 IARC classified TCDD as a human carcinogen, Group I. The increasing incidence of NHL in Sweden levelled off about 1990. The author postulated that the regulation or ban of the use of chlorophenols, certain phenoxy herbicides and some persistent organic pollutants in Sweden back in the 1970s has contributed to the now decreasing incidence of NHL. Unfounded criticism from industry experts may prohibit the precautionary principle and early warnings of cancer risk can be ignored. Cancer risks by certain chlorinated phenols may serve as a model of how the precautionary principle should be used by taking early warnings seriously.

  • 12.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    World Health Organization, radiofrequency radiation and health: a hard nut to crack (Review)2017In: International journal of oncology, ISSN 1791-2423, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 405-413Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In May 2011 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluated cancer risks from radiofrequency (RF) radiation. Human epidemiological studies gave evidence of increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma. RF radiation was classified as Group 2B, a possible human carcinogen. Further epidemiological, animal and mechanistic studies have strengthened the association. In spite of this, in most countries little or nothing has been done to reduce exposure and educate people on health hazards from RF radiation. On the contrary ambient levels have increased. In 2014 the WHO launched a draft of a Monograph on RF fields and health for public comments. It turned out that five of the six members of the Core Group in charge of the draft are affiliated with International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), an industry loyal NGO, and thus have a serious conflict of interest. Just as by ICNIRP, evaluation of non-thermal biological effects from RF radiation are dismissed as scientific evidence of adverse health effects in the Monograph. This has provoked many comments sent to the WHO. However, at a meeting on March 3, 2017 at the WHO Geneva office it was stated that the WHO has no intention to change the Core Group.

  • 13.
    Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Carlberg, M.
    Ohlson, C-G
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Eriksson, M.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Use of cellular and cordless telephones and risk of testicular cancer2007In: International Journal of Andrology, ISSN 0105-6263, E-ISSN 1365-2605, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 115-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A case-control study on testicular cancer included use of cellular and cordless telephones. The results were based on answers from 542 (92%) cases with seminoma, 346 (89%) with non-seminoma, and 870 (89%) controls. Regarding seminoma the use of analog cellular phones gave odds ratio (OR) = 1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.9-1.6, digital phones OR = 1.3, CI = 0.9-1.8, and cordless phones OR = 1.1, CI = 0.8-1.5. The corresponding results for non-seminoma were OR = 0.7, CI = 0.5-1.1, OR = 0.9, CI = 0.6-1.4, and OR = 1.0, CI = 0.7-1.4, respectively. There was no dose-response effect and OR did not increase with latency time. No association was found with place of keeping the mobile phone during standby, such as trousers pocket. Cryptorchidism was associated both with seminoma (OR = 4.2, CI = 2.7-6.5) and non-seminoma (OR = 3.3, CI = 2.0-5.6), but no interaction was found with the use of cellular or cordless telephones.

  • 14.
    Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Increasing rates of brain tumours in the swedish national inpatient register and the causes of death register2015In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 3793-3813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiofrequency emissions in the frequency range 30 kHz-300 GHz were evaluated to be Group 2B, i.e., "possibly", carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO in May 2011. The Swedish Cancer Register has not shown increasing incidence of brain tumours in recent years and has been used to dismiss epidemiological evidence on a risk. In this study we used the Swedish National Inpatient Register (IPR) and Causes of Death Register (CDR) to further study the incidence comparing with the Cancer Register data for the time period 1998-2013 using joinpoint regression analysis. In the IPR we found a joinpoint in 2007 with Annual Percentage Change (APC) +4.25%, 95% CI +1.98, +6.57% during 2007-2013 for tumours of unknown type in the brain or CNS. In the CDR joinpoint regression found one joinpoint in 2008 with APC during 2008-2013 +22.60%, 95% CI +9.68, +37.03%. These tumour diagnoses would be based on clinical examination, mainly CT and/or MRI, but without histopathology or cytology. No statistically significant increasing incidence was found in the Swedish Cancer Register during these years. We postulate that a large part of brain tumours of unknown type are never reported to the Cancer Register. Furthermore, the frequency of diagnosis based on autopsy has declined substantially due to a general decline of autopsies in Sweden adding further to missing cases. We conclude that the Swedish Cancer Register is not reliable to be used to dismiss results in epidemiological studies on the use of wireless phones and brain tumour risk.

  • 15.
    Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Hardell, Karin
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Björnfoth, Helen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Wickbom, Gunnar
    Ionescu, Mircea
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Decreased survival in pancreatic cancer patients with high concentrations of organochlorines in adipose tissue2007In: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, ISSN 0753-3322, E-ISSN 1950-6007, Vol. 61, no 10, p. 659-664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analysed adipose tissue concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in 21 cases with exocrine pancreatic cancer. The comparison group consisted of 59 subjects. Significantly increased concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), sum of chlordanes and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) were found in the cases. For 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE) no significant difference was seen. For PCBs no odds ratio (OR) could be calculated since all cases had concentration>median in controls used as a cut-off. HCB yielded OR=53.0, 95% confidence interval (CI)=4.64-605 and sum of chlordanes OR=18.4, 95% CI=2.71-124 whereas OR was not significantly increased for p,p'-DDE or PBDEs. Body mass index (BMI) at the time of tissue sampling was significantly lower for the cases. This might have influenced the results. Using BMI one year previously or decreasing the concentrations of POPs with the same percentage as weight loss among the cases did not change the results. Survival of the cases was shorter in the group with the concentration of POPs>median among cases, significantly so for the sum of PCBs (147 vs. 294 days), p,p'-DDE (134 vs. 302 days), and sum of chlordanes (142 vs. 294 days) in the high and low group, respectively. The results were based on a low number of cases and should be interpreted with caution.

  • 16. Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Söderqvist, Fredrik
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Meta-analysis of long-term mobile phone use and the association with brain tumours2008In: International Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1019-6439, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 1097-1103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated long-term use of mobile phones and the risk for brain tumours in case-control studies published so far on this issue. We identified ten studies on glioma and meta-analysis yielded OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.8-1.1. Latency period of > or =10-years gave OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.8-1.9 based on six studies, for ipsilateral use (same side as tumour) OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.4 (four studies), but contralateral use did not increase the risk significantly, OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.6-2.0. Meta-analysis of nine studies on acoustic neuroma gave OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.7-1.1 increasing to OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.6-2.8 using > or =10-years latency period (four studies). Ipsilateral use gave OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1-5.3 and contra-lateral OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.7-2.2 in the > or =10-years latency period group (three studies). Seven studies gave results for meningioma yielding overall OR = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.7-0.99. Using > or =10-years latency period OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.9-1.8 was calculated (four studies) increasing to OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 0.99-3.1 for ipsilateral use and OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.3-3.1 for contralateral use (two studies). We conclude that this meta-analysis gave a consistent pattern of an association between mobile phone use and ipsilateral glioma and acoustic neuroma using > or =10-years latency period.

  • 17.
    Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Söderqvist, Fredrik
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Hardell, Karin
    Björnfoth, Helen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Increased concentrations of certain persistent organic pollutants in subjects with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity: a pilot study2008In: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, ISSN 1536-8378, E-ISSN 1536-8386, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 197-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is used for a variety of subjective symptoms related to exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). The aim of this pilot study was to analyze the concentrations of certain persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in subjects with self-reported EHS. In total, 13 EHS subjects and 21 controls were included, all female. The concentration of several POPs was higher in EHS subjects than in controls. Lower concentrations were found for hexachlorobenzene and two types of chlordanes. The only significantly increased odds ratios (ORs) were found for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) #47 yielding OR=11.7, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.45-94.7 and the chlordane metabolite MC6 with OR=11.2, 95% CI=1.18-106. The results were based on low numbers and must be interpreted with caution. This hypothesis generating study indicates the necessity of a larger investigation on this issue.

  • 18.
    Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Walker, Martin J.
    Walhjalt, Bo
    Friedman, Lee S.
    Richter, Elihu D.
    Secret ties to industry and conflicting interests in cancer research2007In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 227-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Recently it was reported that a Swedish professor in environmental health has for decades worked as a consultant for Philip Morris without reporting his employment to his academic employer or declaring conflicts of interest in his research. The potential for distorting the epidemiological assessments of hazard and risk through paid consultants, pretending to be independent, is not exclusive to the tobacco industry Methods Documentation is drawn from peer reviewed publications, websites, documents from the Environmental Protection Agency, University reports, Wellcome Library Special Collections and the Washington Post. Results Some consulting firms employ university researchers for industry work thereby disguising industry links in the income of large departments. If the industry affiliation is concealed by the scientist, biases from conflicting interests in risk assessments cannot be evaluated and dealt with properly. Furthermore, there is reason to suspect that editors and journal staff may suppress publication of scientific results that are adverse to industry owing to internal conflict of interest between editorial integrity and business needs. Conclusions Examples of these problems from Sweden, UK, and USA are presented. The shortfalls cited in this article illustrate the need for improved transparency, regulations that will help curb abuses as well as instruments for control and enforcement against abuses. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • 19. Irigaray, P.
    et al.
    Newby, J. A.
    Clapp, R.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Howard, V.
    Montagnier, L.
    Epstein, S.
    Belpomme, D.
    Lifestyle-related factors and environmental agents causing cancer: an overview2007In: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, ISSN 0753-3322, E-ISSN 1950-6007, Vol. 61, no 10, p. 640-658Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing incidence of a variety of cancers after the Second World War confronts scientists with the question of their origin. In Western countries, expansion and ageing of the population as well as progress in cancer detection using new diagnostic and screening tests cannot fully account for the observed growing incidence of cancer. Our hypothesis is that environmental factors play a more important role in cancer genesis than it is usually agreed. (1) Over the last 2-3 decades, alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking in men have significantly decreased in Western Europe and North America. (2) Obesity is increasing in many countries, but the growing incidence of cancer also concerns cancers not related to obesity nor to other known lifestyle-related factors. (3) There is evidence that the environment has changed over the time period preceding the recent rise in cancer incidence, and that this change, still continuing, included the accumulation of many new carcinogenic factors in the environment. (4) Genetic susceptibility to cancer due to genetic polymorphism cannot have changed over one generation and actually favours the role of exogenous factors through gene-environment interactions. (5) Age is not the unique factor to be considered since the rising incidence of cancers is seen across all age categories, including children, and adolescents. (6) The fetus is specifically vulnerable to exogenous factors. A fetal exposure during a critical time window may explain why current epidemiological studies may still be negative in adults. We therefore propose that the involuntary exposure to many carcinogens in the environment, including microorganisms (viruses, bacteria and parasites), radiations (radioactivity, UV and pulsed electromagnetic fields) and many xenochemicals, may account for the recent growing incidence of cancer and therefore that the risk attributable to environmental carcinogen may be far higher than it is usually agreed. Of major concern are: outdoor air pollution by carbon particles associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; indoor air pollution by environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds such as benzene and 1,3 butadiene, which may particularly affect children and food contamination by food additives and by carcinogenic contaminants such as nitrates, pesticides, dioxins and other organochlorines. In addition, carcinogenic metals and metalloids, pharmaceutical medicines and some ingredients and contaminants in cosmetics may be involved. Although the risk fraction attributable to environmental factors is still unknown, this long list of carcinogenic and especially mutagenic factors supports our working hypothesis according to which numerous cancers may in fact be caused by the recent modification of our environment. (C) 2007 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  • 20.
    Johansson, Bengt
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Karlsson, Leif
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Persliden, Jan
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Pulsed dose rate monobrachytherapy for cancer of the lip: first long time results from a clinical studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the long time outcome with regard to local tumour control and side effects of a pulsed dose rate (PDR) monobrachytherapy of primary or recurrent cancr of the lip.

    Patients and methods: Between 1995 and 2007 we treated 43 patients with primary or recurrent T1-T3 lip cancers. The clinical stage was T1N0 for 22 patients (51 %), T2N0 for 16 patients (37 %) and T3N0 for 5 patients (12 %). A median dose of 60 (55-66) Gy was given, depending on the tumour volume. The PDR treatment was given with 0.83 Gy/pulse every second hour for 5.5-6.5 days. The patients were followed for a median of 55 (1-158) months.

    Results: The 2-, 5- and 10-years rates of actuarial local control were 97.6 %, 94.5 % and 94.5 %, overall survival 88.0 %, 58.9 % and 39.1 %, disease free survival 92.7 %, 86.4 % and 86.4 % respectively. The regional control rate was 93 %. One patient (2 %) developed distant metastases. A dosimetrical analysis showed a mean treated volume of 14.9 (3.0-56.2) cm3.  In a review of late complications we found 1 (2 %) soft tissue necrosis and 1 (2 %) osteoradionecrosis. Long-term side effects were very mild and the cosmetic outcome excellent.

    Conclusions: Local outcome is excellent and very similar to other published studies of continuous low dose rate (cLDR) brachytherapy.

  • 21.
    Johansson, Bengt
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Karlsson, Leif
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Liljegren, Göran
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Persliden, Jan
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Pulsed dose rate brachytherapy as the sole adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery of T1-T2 breast cancer: first long time results from a clinical study2009In: Radiotherapy and Oncology, ISSN 0167-8140, E-ISSN 1879-0887, Vol. 90, no 1, p. 30-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate the long time outcome with regard to local tumour control, cosmetic outcome and side effects of a short (5 days) accelerated interstitial brachytherapy treatment delivered to the surroundings of the operated sector. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1993 and 2003 we treated 50 women with early T1 and T2 breast cancer. Radical sector resection was performed and followed later with an interstitial pulsed dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy of 50Gy in 5 days. The treatment was centred on the tumour with a margin of 30mm. One patient was treated bilaterally. The patients were followed for a median of 86 (32-126) months. RESULTS: Ipsilateral breast cancer recurrence was seen in 3 patients (6%). Two of them occurred outside the treated volume. The 5- and 7-year rates of actuarial local control were 96% and 96%, respectively, overall survival 88% and 85%, disease free survival 88% and 88%, respectively. A dosimetrical analysis showed that the partial breast irradiation covered a median of 31% of the total breast volume. Fat necrosis was seen in 12% and local (moderate-strong) fibrosis in 26% of the patients. Independent cosmetic scoring showed good or excellent result in 56% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Local outcome is favourable and very similar to other published studies of accelerated partial breast irradiation. Our long time cosmetic results are lower than other published results.

  • 22.
    Johansson, Bengt
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Karlsson, Leif
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Reizenstein, Johan
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    von Beckerath, Mathias
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Persliden, Jan
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Long term results from a uniform clinical series on pulsed dose rate brachytherapy as the boost to external beam irradiation in base of tongue cancerManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the long time outcome with regard to local tumour control, side effects and quality of life of a combined pulsed dose rate (PDR) boost and hyperfractionated accelerated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for primary base of tongue (BOT) cancers.

    Patients and methods: Between 1994 and 2007 we treated 83 patients, median age 60 (38-82) years, with primary T1-T4 BOT cancers. Seven patients (8 %) were T1-2N0 (AJCC stage I-II) and 76 (92 %) patients were T1-2N+ or T3-4N0-3 (AJCC stage III-IV). The mean estimated primary tumour volume was 15 (1-75) cm3.  EBRT was given with 1.7 Gy twice daily to 40,8 Gy to primary tumour and bilateral neck lymph nodes in 2.5 weeks. A PDR boost of 35 Gy and a neck dissection in clinical node positive cases was performed 2-3 weeks later. The patients were followed for a median of 54 (2-168) months.

    Results: The 2-, 5- and 10-years rates of actuarial local control were 91 %, 89 % and 85 %, overall survival 85 %, 65 % and 44 %, disease free survival 86 %, 80 % and 76 % respectively. The regional contral rate was 95 %. Six patients (7 %) developed distant metastases. Analysis of dosimetry showed a mean treated volume of 58 cm3.  In a review of late complications we found 11 (13 %) minor and 4 (5 %) major soft tissue necroses and 6 (7 %) osteoradionecroses. The patients median subjective SOMA/LENT scoring at last follow up was; grade 0 for pain and trismus, grade 1 for dysphagia and taste alteration and grade 2 for xerostomia. Global visual-analog-scale (VAS) scoring of quality of life was 8.

    Conclusions: Local and regional tumour control rate was excellent in this treatment protocol. The data support that PDR boost is at least as effective as published continuous low dose rate (CLDR) results.

  • 23.
    Söderqvist, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Universitetssjukhuset Örebro.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå universitet.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Exposure to an 890-MHz mobile phone-like signal and serum levels of S100B and transthyretin in volunteers2009In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 189, no 1, p. 63-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether low-intensity non-thermal microwave radiation alters the integrity of the blood-brain barrier has been debated since the late 1970s, yet no experimental study has been carried out on humans. The aim of this study was to test, using peripheral markers, whether exposure to a mobile phone-like signal alters the integrity of the human blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers. A provocation study was carried out that exposed 41 volunteers to a 30 min GSM 890 MHz signal with an average specific energy absorption rate distribution of 1.0 W/kg in the temporal area of the head as measured over any 1g of contiguous tissue. The outcome was assessed by changes in serum concentrations of two putative markers of brain barrier integrity, S100B and transthyretin. Repeated blood sampling before and after the provocation showed no statistically significant increase in the serum levels of S100B, while for transthyretin a statistically significant increase was seen in the final blood sample 60 min after the end of the provocation as compared to the prior sample taken immediately after provocation (p=0.02). The clinical significance of this finding, if any, is unknown. Further randomized studies with use of additional more brain specific markers are needed.

  • 24.
    Söderqvist, Fredrik
    et al.
    Centre for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Västerås Hospital, Västerås, Sweden.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden .
    Hardell, Lennart
    Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden .
    Biomarkers in volunteers exposed to mobile phone radiation2015In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 235, no 2, p. 140-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For some time it has been investigated whether low-intensity non-thermal microwave radiation from mobile phones adversely affects the mammalian blood-brain barrier (BBB). All such studies except one have been either in vitro or experimental animal studies. The one carried out on humans showed a statistically significant increase in serum transthyretin (TTR) 60 min after finishing of a 30-min microwave exposure session. The aim of the present study was to follow up on the finding of the previous one using a better study design. Using biomarkers analyzed in blood serum before and after the exposure this single blinded randomized counterbalanced study, including 24 healthy subjects aged 18-30 years that all underwent three exposure conditions (SAR(10G) = 2 W/kg, SAR(10G) = 0.2 W/kg, sham), tested whether microwaves from an 890-MHz phone-like signal give acute effects on the integrity of brain-shielding barriers. Over time, statistically significant variations were found for two of the three biomarkers (TTR; beta-trace protein); however, no such difference was found between the different exposure conditions nor was there any interaction between exposure condition and time of blood sampling. In conclusion this study failed to show any acute clinically or statistically significant effect of short term microwave exposure on the serum levels of S100 beta, TTR and b-trace protein with a follow up limited to two hours. The study was hampered by the fact that all study persons were regular wireless phone users and thus not naive as to microwave exposure. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Söderqvist, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Universitetssjukhuset Örebro.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Mobile and cordless telephones, serum transthyretin and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier: a cross-sectional study2009In: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 8, p. 19-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Whether low-intensity radiofrequency radiation damages the blood-brain barrier has long been debated, but little or no consideration has been given to the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In this cross-sectional study we tested whether long-term and/or short-term use of wireless telephones was associated with changes in the serum transthyretin level, indicating altered transthyretin concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid, possibly reflecting an effect of radiation. METHODS: One thousand subjects, 500 of each sex aged 18-65 years, were randomly recruited using the population registry. Data on wireless telephone use were assessed by a postal questionnaire and blood samples were analyzed for serum transthyretin concentrations determined by standard immunonephelometric techniques on a BN Prospec instrument. RESULTS: The response rate was 31.4%. Logistic regression of dichotomized TTR serum levels with a cut-point of 0.31 g/l on wireless telephone use yielded increased odds ratios that were statistically not significant. Linear regression of time since first use overall and on the day that blood was withdrawn gave different results for males and females: for men significantly higher serum concentrations of TTR were seen the longer an analogue telephone or a mobile and cordless desktop telephone combined had been used, and in contrast, significantly lower serum levels were seen the longer an UMTS telephone had been used. Adjustment for fractions of use of the different telephone types did not modify the effect for cumulative use or years since first use for mobile telephone and DECT, combined. For women, linear regression gave a significant association for short-term use of mobile and cordless telephones combined, indicating that the sooner blood was withdrawn after the most recent telephone call, the higher the expected transthyretin concentration. CONCLUSION: In this hypothesis-generating descriptive study time since first use of mobile telephones and DECT combined was significantly associated with higher TTR levels regardless of how much each telephone type had been used. Regarding short-term use, significantly higher TTR concentrations were seen in women the sooner blood was withdrawn after the most recent telephone call on that day.

  • 26.
    Söderqvist, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Universitetssjukhuset Örebro.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Use of wireless telephones and self-reported health symptoms: a population-based study among Swedish adolescents aged 15-19 years2008In: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Despite the last years of rapid increase in use of wireless phones little data on the use of these devices has been systematically assessed among young persons. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to assess use of wireless phones and to study such use in relation to explanatory factors and self-reported health symptoms. METHODS: A postal questionnaire comprising 8 pages of 27 questions with 75 items in total was sent to 2000 Swedish adolescents aged 15-19 years and selected from the population registry using a stratified sampling scheme. RESULTS: The questionnaire was answered by 63.5% of the study subjects. Most participants reported access to a mobile phone (99.6%) and use increased with age; 55.6% of the 15-year-olds and 82.2% of the 19-year-olds were regular users. Girls generally reported more frequent use than boys. Use of wired hands-free equipment 'anytime' was reported by 17.4%. Cordless phones were used by 81.9%, and 67.3% were regular users. Watching TV increased the odds ratio for use of wireless phones, adjusted for age and gender. Some of the most frequently reported health complaints were tiredness, stress, headache, anxiety, concentration difficulties and sleep disturbances. Regular users of wireless phones had health symptoms more often and reported poorer perceived health than less frequent users. CONCLUSION: Almost all adolescence in this study used a wireless phone, girls more than boys. The most frequent use was seen among the older adolescents, and those who watched TV extensively. The study further showed that perceived health and certain health symptoms seemed to be related to the use of wireless phones. However, this part of the investigation was explorative and should therefore be interpreted with caution since bias and chance findings due to multiple testing might have influenced the results. Potentially this study will stimulate more sophisticated studies that may also investigate directions of associations and whether, or to what degree, any mediation factors are involved.

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    Use of wireless telephones and self-reported health symptoms: a population-based study among Swedish adolescents aged 15–19 years
  • 27.
    Söderqvist, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Universitetssjukhuset Örebro.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Use of wireless telephones and serum S100B levels: a descriptive cross-sectional study among healthy Swedish adults aged 18-65 years2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 2, p. 798-805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Since the late 1970s, experimental animal studies have been carried out on the possible effects of low-intensive radiofrequency fields on the blood-brain barrier (BBB), but no epidemiological study has been published to date. OBJECTIVE: Using serum S100B as a putative marker of BBB dysfunction we performed a descriptive cross-sectional study to investigate whether protein levels were higher among frequent than non-frequent users of mobile and cordless desktop phones. METHOD: One thousand subjects, 500 of each sex aged 18-65 years, were randomly recruited using the population registry. Data on wireless phone use were assessed by a postal questionnaire and blood samples were analyzed for S100B. RESULTS: The response rate was 31.4%. The results from logistic and linear regression analyses were statistically insignificant, with one exception: the linear regression analysis of latency for UMTS use, which after stratifying on gender remained significant only for men (p = 0.01; n = 31). A low p-value (0.052) was obtained for use of cordless phone (n = 98) prior to giving the blood samples indicating a weak negative association. Total use of mobile and cordless phones over time yielded odds ratio (OR) 0.8 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3-2.0 and use on the same day as giving blood yielded OR=1.1, CI=0.4-2.8. CONCLUSIONS: This study failed to show that long- or short-term use of wireless telephones was associated with elevated levels of serum S100B as a marker of BBB integrity. The finding regarding latency of UMTS use may be interesting but it is based on small numbers. Generally, S100B levels were low and to determine whether this association - if causal - is clinically relevant, larger studies with sufficient follow-up are needed.

  • 28.
    Söderqvist, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Carlberg, Michael
    Universitetssjukhuset Örebro.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Ownership and use of wireless telephones: a population-based study of Swedish children aged 7-14 years2007In: BMC public health, ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 7, p. 105-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the use of mobile phones and other sources of microwave radiation, raising concerns about possible adverse health effects. As children have longer expected lifetime exposures to microwaves from these devices than adults, who started to use them later in life, they are a group of special interest. METHODS: We performed a population-based study to assess ownership and use of mobile phones and cordless phones among children aged 7-14 years. A questionnaire comprising 24 questions was sent to 2000 persons selected from the Swedish population registry using a stratified sampling scheme. RESULTS: The response rate was 71.2%. Overall, 79.1% of the respondents reported mobile phone access, and 26.7% of them talked for 2 minutes or more per day. Of those who reported mobile phone access, only 5.9% reported use of hands-free equipment. Use of cordless phones was reported by 83.8% of the respondents and 38.5% of them talked for 5 minutes or more per day. Girls generally reported more frequent use than boys. CONCLUSION: This study showed that most children had access to and used mobile and cordless phones early in life and that there was a rapid increase in use with age. It also showed very low use of hands-free equipment among children with mobile phone access, and finally that girls talked significantly more minutes per day using mobile and cordless phones than boys did.

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    Ownership and use of wireless telephones: a population-based study of Swedish children aged 7–14 years
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