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  • 1.
    Argyriou, Marios
    et al.
    DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Spognardi, Angelo
    Dipartimento Informatica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome, Italy.
    Analysis and Evaluation of SafeDroid v2.0, a Framework for Detecting Malicious Android Applications2018In: Security and Communication Networks, ISSN 1939-0114, E-ISSN 1939-0122, article id UNSP 4672072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Android smartphones have become a vital component of the daily routine of millions of people, running a plethora of applications available in the official and alternative marketplaces. Although there are many security mechanisms to scan and filter malicious applications, malware is still able to reach the devices of many end-users. In this paper, we introduce the SafeDroid v2.0 framework, that is a flexible, robust, and versatile open-source solution for statically analysing Android applications, based on machine learning techniques. The main goal of our work, besides the automated production of fully sufficient prediction and classification models in terms of maximum accuracy scores and minimum negative errors, is to offer an out-of-the-box framework that can be employed by the Android security researchers to efficiently experiment to find effective solutions: the SafeDroid v2.0 framework makes it possible to test many different combinations of machine learning classifiers, with a high degree of freedom and flexibility in the choice of features to consider, such as dataset balance and dataset selection. The framework also provides a server, for generating experiment reports, and an Android application, for the verification of the produced models in real-life scenarios. An extensive campaign of experiments is also presented to show how it is possible to efficiently find competitive solutions: the results of our experiments confirm that SafeDroid v2.0 can reach very good performances, even with highly unbalanced dataset inputs and always with a very limited overhead.

  • 2.
    Argyriou, Marios
    et al.
    DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Spognardi, Angelo
    DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark; Dipartimento Informatica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome, Italy.
    Security Flows in OAuth 2.0 Framework: A Case Study2017In: Computer safety, reliability, and security: SAFECOMP 2017 Workshops, ASSURE, DECSoS, SASSUR, TELERISE, and TIPS, Trento, Italy, September 12, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Tonetta S., Schoitsch E., Bitsch F., Springer, 2017, Vol. 10489, p. 396-406Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The burst in smartphone use, handy design in laptops and tablets as well as other smart products, like cars with the ability to drive you around, manifests the exponential growth of network usage and the demand of accessing remote data on a large variety of services. However, users notoriously struggle to maintain distinct accounts for every single service that they use. The solution to this problem is the use of a Single Sign On (SSO) framework, with a unified single account to authenticate user’s identity throughout the different services. In April 2007, AOL introduced OpenAuth framework. After several revisions and despite its wide adoption, OpenAuth 2.0 has still several flaws that need to be fixed in several implementations. In this paper, we present a thorough review about both benefits of this single token authentication mechanism and its open flaws.

  • 3.
    Bucchiarone, Antonio
    et al.
    Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Trento, Italy.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. DTU Compute, Distributed Syst & Secur, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Dustdar, Schahram
    TU Wien, Vienna, Austria.
    Larsen, Stephan T.
    Danske Bank, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mazzara, Manuel
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    From Monolithic to Microservices An Experience Report from the Banking Domain2018In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 50-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microservices have seen their popularity blossoming with an explosion of concrete applications in real-life software. Several companies are currently involved in a major refactoring of their back-end systems in order to improve scalability. This article presents an experience report of a real-world case study, from the banking domain, in order to demonstrate how scalability is positively affected by reimplementing a monolithic architecture into microservices. The case study is based on the FX Core system for converting from one currency to another. FX Core is a mission-critical system of Danske Bank, the largest bank in Denmark and one of the leading financial institutions in Northern Europe.

  • 4.
    Conti, Mauro
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Lesyk, Viktor
    DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark; Centre for Applied Autonomous Sensor Systems (AASS), Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    A Survey of Man In The Middle Attacks2016In: IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, ISSN 1553-877X, E-ISSN 1553-877X, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 2027-2051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) attack is one of the most well known attacks in computer security, representing one of the biggest concerns for security professionals. MITM targets the actual data that flows between endpoints, and the confidentiality and integrity of the data itself. In this paper, we extensively review the literature on MITM to analyse and categorize the scope of MITM attacks, considering both a reference model, such as the open systems interconnection (OSI) model, as well as two specific widely used network technologies, i.e., GSM and UMTS. In particular, we classify MITM attacks based on several parameters, like location of an attacker in the network, nature of a communication channel, and impersonation techniques. Based on an impersonation techniques classification, we then provide execution steps for each MITM class. We survey existing countermeasures and discuss the comparison among them. Finally, based on our analysis, we propose a categorisation of MITM prevention mechanisms, and we identify some possible directions for future research.

  • 5.
    De Donno, Michele
    et al.
    DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Lyngby, Denmark.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Lyngby, Denmark.
    Combining ANTIBIOTIC with Fog Computing: ANTIBIOTIC 2.02019In: 2019 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Fog and Edge Computing, ICFEC 2019 - Proceedings, IEEE , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has been one of the key disruptive technologies over the last few years, with its promise of optimizing and automating current manual tasks and evolving existing services. From the security perspective, the increasing adoption of IoT devices in all aspects of our society has exposed businesses and consumers to a number of threats, such as Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. To tackle this IoT security problem, we proposed ANTIBIOTIC 1.0 In However, this solution has some limitations that make it difficult (when not impossible) to be implemented in a legal and controlled manner. Along the way, Fog computing was born: a novel paradigm that aims at bridging the gap between IoT and Cloud computing, providing a number of benefits, including security. As a result, in this paper, we present ANTIBIOTIC 2.0, an anti-malware that relies upon Fog computing to secure IoT devices and to overcome the main issues of its predecessor (ANTIBIOTIC 1.0). First, we present ANTIBIOTIC 1.0 and its main problem. Then, after introducing Fog computing, we present ANTIBIOTIC 2.0, showing how it overcomes the main issues of its predecessor by including Fog computing in its design.

  • 6.
    De Donno, Michele
    et al.
    DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Giaretta, Alberto
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mazzara, Manuel
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russian Federation.
    AntibIoTic: Protecting IoT Devices Against DDoS Attacks2018In: Proceedings of 5th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications: SEDA 2016 / [ed] Ciancarini, P.; Litvinov, S.; Messina, A.; Sillitti, A.; Succi, G., Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 59-72Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2016 is remembered as the year that showed to the world how dangerous Distributed Denial of Service attacks can be. Gauge of the disruptiveness of DDoS attacks is the number of bots involved: the bigger the botnet, the more powerful the attack. This character, along with the increasing availability of connected and insecure IoT devices, makes DDoS and IoT the perfect pair for the malware industry. In this paper we present the main idea behind AntibIoTic, a palliative solution to prevent DDoS attacks perpetrated through IoT devices.

  • 7.
    De Donno, Michele
    et al.
    DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Giaretta, Alberto
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Spognardi, Angelo
    DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Analysis of DDoS-Capable IoT Malwares2017In: Proceedings of the 2017 Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems / [ed] M. Ganzha, L. Maciaszek, M. Paprzycki, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 807-816Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) revolution promises to make our lives easier by providing cheap and always connected smart embedded devices, which can interact on the Internet and create added values for human needs. But all that glitters is not gold. Indeed, the other side of the coin is that, from a security perspective, this IoT revolution represents a potential disaster. This plethora of IoT devices that flooded the market were very badly protected, thus an easy prey for several families of malwares that can enslave and incorporate them in very large botnets. This, eventually, brought back to the top Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, making them more powerful and easier to achieve than ever. This paper aims at provide an up-to-date picture of DDoS attacks in the specific subject of the IoT, studying how these attacks work and considering the most common families in the IoT context, in terms of their nature and evolution through the years. It also explores the additional offensive capabilities that this arsenal of IoT malwares has available, to mine the security of Internet users and systems. We think that this up-to-date picture will be a valuable reference to the scientific community in order to take a first crucial step to tackle this urgent security issue.

  • 8.
    De Donno, Michele
    et al.
    DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Giaretta, Alberto
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Spognardi, Angelo
    Computer Science Department, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    DDoS-Capable IoT Malwares: Comparative Analysis and Mirai Investigation2018In: Security and Communication Networks, ISSN 1939-0114, E-ISSN 1939-0122, article id 7178164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) revolution has not only carried the astonishing promise to interconnect a whole generation of traditionally “dumb” devices, but also brought to the Internet the menace of billions of badly protected and easily hackable objects. Not surprisingly, this sudden flooding of fresh and insecure devices fueled older threats, such as Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. In this paper, we first propose an updated and comprehensive taxonomy of DDoS attacks, together with a number of examples on how this classification maps to real-world attacks. Then, we outline the current situation of DDoS-enabled malwares in IoT networks, highlighting how recent data support our concerns about the growing in popularity of these malwares. Finally, we give a detailed analysis of the general framework and the operating principles of Mirai, the most disruptive DDoS-capable IoT malware seen so far.

  • 9.
    De Donno, Michele
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, DTU Compute, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Felipe, Juan Manuel Donaire
    Technical University of Denmark, DTU Compute, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Technical University of Denmark, DTU Compute, Lyngby, Denmark.
    ANTIBIOTIC 2.0: A Fog-based Anti-Malware for Internet of Things2019In: 4th IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops, EUROS and PW 2019: Proceedings, IEEE , 2019, p. 11-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has been one of the key disruptive technologies over the last few years, with its promise of optimizing and automating current manual tasks and evolving existing services. However, the increasing adoption of IoT devices both in industries and personal environments has exposed businesses and consumers to a number of security threats, such as Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. Along the way, Fog computing was born. A novel paradigm that aims at bridging the gap between IoT and Cloud computing, providing a number of benefits, including security. In this paper, we present ANTIBIOTIC 2.0, an anti-malware that relies upon Fog computing to secure IoT devices and to overcome the main issues of its predecessor (ANTIBIOTIC 1.0). In particular, we discuss the design and implementation of the system, including possible models for deployment, security assumptions, interaction among system components, and possible modes of operation.

  • 10.
    De Donno, Michele
    et al.
    DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Giaretta, Alberto
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Bucchiarone, Antonio
    Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Trento, Italy.
    Mazzara, Manuel
    Institute of Software Development and Engineering, Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russian Federation.
    Cyber-Storms Come from Clouds: Security of Cloud Computing in the IoT Era2019In: Future Internet, ISSN 1999-5903, E-ISSN 1999-5903, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly changing our society to a world where every thing is connected to the Internet, making computing pervasive like never before. This tsunami of connectivity and data collection relies more and more on the Cloud, where data analytics and intelligence actually reside. Cloud computing has indeed revolutionized the way computational resources and services can be used and accessed, implementing the concept of utility computing whose advantages are undeniable for every business. However, despite the benefits in terms of flexibility, economic savings, and support of new services, its widespread adoption is hindered by the security issues arising with its usage. From a security perspective, the technological revolution introduced by IoT and Cloud computing can represent a disaster, as each object might become inherently remotely hackable and, as a consequence, controllable by malicious actors. While the literature mostly focuses on the security of IoT and Cloud computing as separate entities, in this article we provide an up-to-date and well-structured survey of the security issues of cloud computing in the IoT era. We give a clear picture of where security issues occur and what their potential impact is. As a result, we claim that it is not enough to secure IoT devices, as cyber-storms come from Clouds.

  • 11.
    De Donno, Michele
    et al.
    DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Giaretta, Alberto
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Spognardi, Angelo
    DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark; Dipartimento Informatica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome, Italy.
    A Taxonomy of Distributed Denial of Service Attacks2017In: i-Society 2017: Proceedings / [ed] Charles A. Shoniregun, Galyna A. Akmayeva, Infonomics Society, 2017, p. 99-106Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Di Mauro, Alessio
    et al.
    DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Adaptive Multipath Key Reinforcement for Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks2015In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 63, p. 48-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy Harvesting - Wireless Sensor Networks (EH-WSNs) constitute systems of networked sensing nodes that are capable of extracting energy from the environment and that use the harvested energy to operate in a sustainable state. Sustainability, seen as design goal, has a significant impact on the design of the security protocols for such networks, as the nodes have to adapt and optimize their behaviour accordingto the available energy. Traditional key management schemes do not take energy into account, making them not suitable for EH-WSNs. In this paper we propose a new multipath key reinforcement scheme specifically designed for EH-WSNs. The proposed scheme allows each node to take into consideration and adapt to the amount of energy available in the system.In particular, we present two approaches, one static and one fully dynamic, and we discuss some experimental results.

  • 13.
    Di Mauro, Alessio
    et al.
    DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark .
    Fafoutis, Xenofon
    Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Adaptive security in ODMAC for multihop energy harvesting wireless sensor networks2015In: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-1329, E-ISSN 1550-1477, article id 760302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks (EH-WSNs) represent an interesting new paradigm where individual nodes forming a network are powered by energy sources scavenged from the surrounding environment. This technique provides numerous advantages, but also new design challenges. Securing the communications under energy constraints represents one of these key challenges. The amount of energy available is theoretically infinite in the long run but highly variable over short periods of time, and managing it is a crucial aspect. In this paper we present an adaptive approach for security in multihop EH-WSNs which allows different nodes to dynamically choose the most appropriate energy-affecting parameters such as encryption algorithm and key size, providing in this way energy savings. In order to provide evidence of the approach's feasibility in a real-world network, we have designed and implemented it as extension of on-demand medium access control (ODMAC), a receiver-initiated (RI) MAC protocol specifically designed and developed to address the foundational energy-related needs of Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks.

  • 14.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Giallorenzo, Saverio
    Lluch-Lafuente, Alberto
    Mazzara, Manuel
    Montesi, Fabrizio
    Mustafin, Ruslan
    Safina, Larisa
    Microservices: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow2017In: Present and Ulterior Software Engineering / [ed] M. Mazzara and B. Meyer, Springer, 2017, p. 195-216Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microservices is an architectural style inspired by service-oriented computing that has recently started gaining popularity. Before presenting the current state of the art in the field, this chapter reviews the history of software architecture, the reasons that led to the diffusion of objects and services first, and microservices later. Finally, open problems and future challenges are introduced. This survey primarily addresses newcomers to the discipline, while offering an academic viewpoint on the topic. In addition, we investigate some practical issues and point out a few potential solutions.

  • 15.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Giaretta, Alberto
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mazzara, Manuel
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russian Federation.
    The Internet of Hackable Things2018In: Proceedings of 5th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications: SEDA 2016 / [ed] Ciancarini, P.; Litvinov, S.; Messina, A.; Sillitti, A.; Succi, G., Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 129-140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things makes possible to connect each everyday object to the Internet, making computing pervasive like never before. From a security and privacy perspective, this tsunami of connectivity represents a disaster, which makes each object remotely hackable. We claim that, in order to tackle this issue, we need to address a new challenge in security: education.

  • 16.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Lanese, Ivan
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Thordal Larsen, Stephan
    Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Mazzara, Manuel
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russian Federation.
    Mustafin, Ruslan
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russian Federation.
    Safina, Larisa
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russian Federation; University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Microservices: How To Make Your Application Scale2018In: Perspectives of System Informatics: 11th International Andrei P. Ershov Informatics Conference, PSI 2017, Moscow, Russia, June 27-29, 2017, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Alexander K. Petrenko, Andrei Voronkov, Springer, 2018, Vol. 10742, p. 95-104Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The microservice architecture is a style inspired by service-oriented computing that has recently started gaining popularity and that promises to change the way in which software is perceived, conceived and designed. In this paper, we describe the main features of microservices and highlight how these features improve scalability.

  • 17.
    Enemark, Hans-Jacob
    et al.
    DTU COMPUTE, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Zhang, Yue
    Shanghai Key Lab for Trustworthy Computing, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. DTU COMPUTE, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Orfanidis, Charalampos
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Energy-Efficient Fault-Tolerant Dynamic Event Region Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks2015In: 2015 IEEE 81st Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring): proceedings, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fault-tolerant event detection is fundamental to wireless sensor network applications. Existing approaches usually adopt neighborhood collaboration for better detection accuracy, while need more energy consumption due to communication. Focusing on energy efficiency, this paper makes an improvement to a hybrid algorithm for dynamic event region detection, such as real-time tracking of chemical leakage regions. Considering the characteristics of the moving away dynamic events, we propose a return back condition for the hybrid algorithm from distributed neighborhood collaboration, in which a node makes its detection decision based on decisions received from its spatial and temporal neighbors, to local non-communicative decision making. The simulation results demonstrate that the improved algorithm does not degrade the detection accuracy of the original algorithm, while it has better energy efficiency with the number of messages exchanged in the network decreased.

  • 18.
    Fafoutis, Xenofon
    et al.
    University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Di Mauro, Alessio
    Yubico, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Orfanidis, Charalampos
    University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Energy-efficient medium access control for energy harvesting communications2015In: IEEE transactions on consumer electronics, ISSN 0098-3063, E-ISSN 1558-4127, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 402-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While energy consumption is widely considered the primary challenge of wireless networked devices, energy harvesting emerges as a promising way of powering the Internet of Things (IoT). In the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer of the communication stack, energy harvesting introduces spatial and temporal uncertainty in the availability of energy. In this context, this paper focuses on the design and implementation of the MAC layer of wireless embedded systems that are powered by energy harvesting; providing novel protocol features and practical experiences to designers of consumer electronics who opt for tailoring their own protocol solutions instead of using the standards.

  • 19.
    Fafoutis, Xenofon
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Di Mauro, Alessio
    Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Vithanage, Madava D.
    Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Receiver-Initiated Medium Access Control Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks2015In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 76, p. 55-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the fundamental building blocks of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is the Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol, that part of the system governing when and how two independent neighboring nodes activate their respective transceivers to directly interact. Historically, data exchange has always been initiated by the node willing to relay data, i.e. the sender. However, the Receiver-Initiated paradigm introduced by Lin et al. in 2004 with RICER and made popular by Sun et al. in 2008 with RI-MAC, has spawned a whole new stream of research, yielding tens of new MAC protocols. Within such paradigm, the receiver is the one in charge of starting a direct communication with an eligible sender. This allows for new useful properties to be satisfied, novel schemes to be introduced and new challenges to be tackled. In this paper, we present a survey comprising of all the MAC protocols released since the year 2004 that fall under the receiver-initiated category. In particular, keeping in mind the key challenges that receiver-initiated MAC protocols are meant to deal with, we analyze and discuss the different protocols according to common features and design goals. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive and self-contained introduction to the fundamentals of the receiver-initiated paradigm, providing newcomers with a quick-start guide on the state of the art of this field and a palette of options, essential for implementing applications or designing new protocols.

  • 20.
    Fafoutis, Xenofon
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Danmark.
    Orfanidis, Charalampos
    Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Danmark.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Altruistic Backoff: Collision Avoidance for Receiver-Initiated MAC Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks2014In: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-1329, E-ISSN 1550-1477, no Article ID 576401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In receiver-initiated medium access control (MAC) protocols for wireless sensor networks, communication is initiated by the receiver node which transmits beacons indicating its availability to receive data. In the case of multiple senders having traffic for a given receiver, such beacons form points where collisions are likely to happen. In this paper, we present altruistic backoff (AB), a novel collision avoidance mechanism that aims to avoid collisions before the transmission of a beacon. As a result of an early backoff, senders spend less time in idle listening waiting for a beacon, thus saving significant amounts of energy. We present an implementation of AB for Texas Instruments’ eZ430-rf2500 sensor nodes and we evaluate its performance with simulations and experiments.

  • 21.
    Giaretta, Alberto
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    De Donno, Michele
    DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Adding Salt to Pepper: A Structured Security Assessment over a Humanoid Robot2018In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, ACM , 2018, article id 22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of connectivity, digitalization, robotics, and artificial intelligence (AI) is rapidly changing our society and shaping its future development. During this technological and societal revolution, security has been persistently neglected, yet a hacked robot can act as an insider threat in organizations, industries, public spaces, and private homes. In this paper, we perform a structured security assessment of Pepper, a commercial humanoid robot. Our analysis, composed by an automated and a manual part, points out a relevant number of security flaws that can be used to take over and command the robot. Furthermore, we suggest how these issues could be fixed, thus, avoided in the future. The very final aim of this work is to push the rise of the security level of IoT products before they are sold on the public market.

  • 22.
    Giaretta, Alberto
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Community Targeted Phishing: A Middle Ground Between Massive and Spear Phishing through Natural Language Generation2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Looking at today spam and phishing panorama, we are able to identify two diametrically opposed approaches. On the one hand we have general spam, which targets as much as people as possible with generic and pre-formed texts; on the other hand we have very specific emails, handcrafted to target high-value targets. While nowadays these two worlds don't intersect at all, we envision a future where Natural Language Generation (NLG) techniques will enable attackers to target populous communities with machine-tailored emails. In this paper, we introduce what we call Community Targeted Spam (CTS), alongside with some workflows that exhibit how this all could be implemented. Furthermore, we suggest some preliminary directions that scientific community should consider to take, in order to address our concerns.

  • 23.
    Giaretta, Alberto
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Massacci, Fabio
    Department of Information Science and Engineering, University of Trento, Trento, Italy.
    IoT Security Configurability with Security-by-Contract2019In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 19, article id E4121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cybersecurity is one of the biggest challenges in the Internet of Things (IoT) domain, as well as one of its most embarrassing failures. As a matter of fact, nowadays IoT devices still exhibit various shortcomings. For example, they lack secure default configurations and sufficient security configurability. They also lack rich behavioural descriptions, failing to list provided and required services. To answer this problem, we envision a future where IoT devices carry behavioural contracts and Fog nodes store network policies. One requirement is that contract consistency must be easy to prove. Moreover, contracts must be easy to verify against network policies. In this paper, we propose to combine the security-by-contract (S × C) paradigm with Fog computing to secure IoT devices. Following our previous work, first we formally define the pillars of our proposal. Then, by means of a running case study, we show that we can model communication flows and prevent information leaks. Last, we show that our contribution enables a holistic approach to IoT security, and that it can also prevent unexpected chains of events.

  • 24.
    Giaretta, Alberto
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Mazzara, Manuel
    Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russian Federation.
    Joining Jolie to Docker: Orchestration of Microservices on a Containers-as-a-Service Layer2018In: Proceedings of 5th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications: SEDA 2016 / [ed] Ciancarini, P.; Litvinov, S.; Messina, A.; Sillitti, A.; Succi, G., Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 167-175Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing is steadily growing and, as IaaS vendors have started to offer pay-as-you-go billing policies, it is fundamental to achieve as much elasticity as possible, avoiding over-provisioning that would imply higher costs. In this paper, we briefly analyse the orchestration characteristics of PaaSSOA, a proposed architecture already implemented for Jolie microservices, and Kubernetes, one of the various orchestration plugins for Docker; then, we outline similarities and differences of the two approaches, with respect to their own domain of application. Furthermore, we investigate some ideas to achieve a federation of the two technologies, proposing an architectural composition of Jolie microservices on Docker Container-as-a-Service layer.

  • 25.
    Goyal, Rohit
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Embedded Systems Engineering, Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Why Hackers Love eHealth Applications2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tsunami of Internet-of-Things and mobile applications for healthcare is giving hackers an easy way to burrow deeper into our lives as never before. In this paper we argue that this security disaster is mainly due to a lack of consideration by the healthcare IT industry in security and privacy issues. By means of a representative healthcare mobile app, we analyse the main vulnerabilities that eHealth applications should deal with in order to protect user data and related privacy.

  • 26.
    Goyal, Rohit
    et al.
    DTU Compute, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. DTU Compute, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Spognardi, Angelo
    DTU Compute, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Mind The Tracker You Wear: A Security Analysis of Wearable Health Trackers2016In: Proceedings of the 31st Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, p. 131-136Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wearable tracking devices have gained widespread usage and popularity because of the valuable services they offer, monitoring human's health parameters and, in general, assisting persons to take a better care of themselves. Nevertheless, the security risks associated with such devices can represent a concern among consumers, because of the sensitive information these devices deal with, like sleeping patterns, eating habits, heart rate and so on. In this paper, we analyse the key security and privacy features of two entry level health trackers from leading vendors (Jawbone and Fitbit), exploring possible attack vectors and vulnerabilities at several system levels. The results of the analysis show how these devices are vulnerable to several attacks (perpetrated with consumer-level devices equipped with just bluetooth and Wi-Fi) that can compromise users' data privacy and security, and eventually call the tracker vendors to raise the stakes against such attacks.

  • 27.
    Goyal, Rohit
    et al.
    DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Spognardi, Angelo
    DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Marios, Argyriou
    DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    SafeDroid: A Distributed Malware Detection Service for Android2016In: 2016 IEEE 9th International Conference on Service-Oriented Computing and Applications (SOCA), New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, p. 59-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Android platform has become a primary target for malware. In this paper we present SafeDroid, an open source distributed service to detect malicious apps on Android by combining static analysis and machine learning techniques. It is composed by three micro-services, working together, combining static analysis and machine learning techniques. SafeDroid has been designed as a user friendly service, providing detailed feedback in case of malware detection. The detection service is optimized to be lightweight and easily updated. The feature set on which the micro-service of detection relies on on has been selected and optimized in order to focus only on the most distinguishing characteristics of the Android apps. We present a prototype to show the effectiveness of the detection mechanism service and the feasibility of the approach.

  • 28.
    Mazzara, Manuel
    et al.
    Innopolis University, Innopolis University, Innopolis, Russia.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bucchiarone, Antonio
    DAS Research Unit, FBK-IRST, Trento, Italy.
    Giaretta, Alberto
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Larsen, Stephan T.
    Danske Bank A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Dustdar, Schahram
    Distributed Systems Group (DSG), Information Systems Institute, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria.
    Microservices: Migration of a Mission Critical System2018In: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing, ISSN 1939-1374, E-ISSN 1939-1374, p. 1-1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing interest is growing around the idea of microservices and the promise of improving scalability when compared to monolithic systems. Several companies are evaluating pros and cons of a complex migration. In particular, financial institutions are positioned in a difficult situation due to the economic climate and the appearance of agile competitors that can navigate in a more flexible legal framework and started their business since day one with more agile architectures and without being bounded to outdated technological standard. In this paper, we present a real world case study in order to demonstrate how scalability is positively affected by re-implementing a monolithic architecture (MA) into a microservices architecture (MSA). The case study is based on the FX Core system, a mission critical system of Danske Bank, the largest bank in Denmark and one of the leading financial institutions in Northern Europe. The technical problem that has been addressed and solved in this paper is the identification of a repeatable migration process that can be used to convert a real world Monolithic architecture into a Microservices architecture in the specific setting of financial domain, typically characterized by legacy systems and batch-based processing on heterogeneous data sources.

  • 29.
    Orfanidis, Charalampos
    et al.
    DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Zhang, Yue
    Shanghai Key Lab for Trustworthy Computing, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fault Detection in WSNs - An Energy Efficiency Perspective Towards Human-Centric WSNs2015In: Agent and Multi-Agent Systems: Technologies and Applications / [ed] Gordan Jezic, Robert J. Howlett, Lakhmi C. Jain, 2015, Vol. 38, p. 285-300Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency is a key factor to prolong the lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This is particularly true in the design of human-centric wireless sensor networks (HCWSN) where sensors are more and more embedded and they have to work in resource-constraint settings. Resource limitation has a significant impact on the design of a WSN and the adopted fault detection method. This paper investigates a number of fault detection approaches and proposes a fault detection framework based on an energy efficiency perspective. The analysis and design guidelines given in this paper aims at representing a first step towards the design of energy-efficient detection approaches in resource-constraint WSN, like HCWSNs.

  • 30.
    Schougaard, Daniel
    et al.
    DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Spognardi, Angelo
    DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Evaluation of Professional Cloud Password Management Tools2016In: Current Trends in Web Engineering: ICWE 2016 International Workshops, 2016, p. 16-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strong passwords have been preached since decades. However, lot of the regular users of IT systems resort to simple and repetitive passwords, especially nowadays in the "service era". To help alleviate this problem, a new class of software grew popular: password managers. Since their introduction, password managers have slowly been migrating into the cloud. In this paper we review and analyze current professional password managers in the cloud. We discuss several functional and nonfunctional requirements to evaluate existing solutions and we sum up their strengths and weaknesses. The main conclusion is that a silver bullet solution is not available yet and that this type of tools still deserve a significant research effort from the privacy and security community.

  • 31. Sigurdsson, Gudmundur
    et al.
    Giaretta, Alberto
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Vulnerabilities and Security Breaches in Cryptocurrencies2020In: Proceedings of 6th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications / [ed] Ciancarini, P.; Mazzara, M.; Messina, A.; Sillitti, A.; Succi, G., Springer, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Tange, Koen
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    De Donno, Michele
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Fafoutis, Xenofon
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Towards a Systematic Survey of Industrial IoT Security Requirements: Research Method and Quantitative Analysis2019In: Proceedings of the 2019 Workshop on Fog Computing and the IoT (IOT-FOG '19) / [ed] Ramachandran, GS; Ortiz, J, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019, p. 56-63Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 and, in particular, Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) represent two of the major automation and data exchange trends of the 21st century, driving a steady increase in the number of smart embedded devices used by industrial applications. However, IoT devices suffer from numerous security flaws, resulting in a number of large scale cyber-attacks. In this light, Fog computing, a relatively new paradigm born from the necessity of bridging the gap between Cloud computing and IoT, can be used as a security solution for the IIoT. To achieve this, the first step is to clearly identify the security requirements of the IIoT that can be subsequently used to design security solutions based on Fog computing. With this in mind, our paper represents a preliminary work towards a systematic literature review of IIoT security requirements. We focus on two key steps of the review: (1) the research method that will be used in the systematic work and (2) a quantitative analysis of the results produced by the study selection process. This lays the necessary foundations to enable the use of Fog computing as a security solution for the IIoT.

  • 33.
    Tolboe Handler, Daniel
    et al.
    Danmarks Tekniske universitet (DTU) Compute, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Hauge, Lotte
    DTU Compute, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Angelo, Spognardi
    DTU Compute, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Security And Privacy Issues in Healthcare Monitoring Systems: A Case Study2017In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Health Informatics (HEALTHINF'17), SciTePress, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34. Wearing, Thomas
    et al.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Security and Privacy Issues in Health Monitoring Systems: eCare@Home Case Study2016In: Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Emerging eHealth through Internet of Things (EHIoT 2016), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated systems for monitoring elderly people in their home are becoming more and more common. Indeed, an increasing number of home sensor networks for healthcare can be found in the recent literature, indicating a clear research direction in smart homes for health-care. Although the huge amount of sensitive data these systems deal with and expose to the external world, security and privacy issues are surpris-ingly not taken into consideration. The aim of this paper is to raise some key security and privacy issues that home health monitor systems should face with. The analysis is based on a real world monitoring sensor network for healthcare built in the context of the eCare@Home project.

  • 35.
    Zhang, Yue
    et al.
    MoE Engineering Research Center for Software/Hardware Co-Design Technology and Application, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China; National Trusted Embedded Software Engineering Technology Research Center (No. 2012FU125X15), Shanghai, China.
    Dragoni, Nicola
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Richard Petersens Plads, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Wang, Jiangtao
    MoE Engineering Research Center for Software/Hardware Co-Design Technology and Application, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China; National Trusted Embedded Software Engineering Technology Research Center (No. 2012FU125X15), Shanghai, China.
    A Framework and Classification for Fault Detection Approaches in Wireless Sensor Networks with an Energy Efficiency Perspective2015In: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-1329, E-ISSN 1550-1477, article id 678029Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are more and more considered a key enabling technology for the realisation of the Internet of Things (IoT) vision. With the long term goal of designing fault-tolerant IoT systems, this paper proposes a fault detection framework for WSNs with the perspective of energy efficiency to facilitate the design of fault detection methods and the evaluation of their energy efficiency. Following the same design principle of the fault detection framework, the paper proposes a classification for fault detection approaches. The classification is applied to a number of fault detection approaches for the comparison of several characteristics, namely, energy efficiency, correlation model, evaluation method, and detection accuracy. The design guidelines given in this paper aim at providing an insight into better design of energy-efficient detection approaches in resource-constraint WSNs.

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