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  • 1.
    Engdahl, Emma
    et al.
    Department of Sociology and Work Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gelang, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The changing ethos and personae of shop-window mannequins within consumer culture: Expressions of gendered embodiment2019In: Journal of Consumer Culture, ISSN 1469-5405, E-ISSN 1741-2900, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 21-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the invention of new forms of desire that target the gendered body in consumer culture is examined through the lens of the visual rhetoric of shop-window mannequins. The article is a result of cross-disciplinary research combining rhetorical and sociological theories and methods. Inspired by nonverbal methods and theories of embodiment, successive modernities and gender, the changing ethos and personae of mannequins from the 1930s until today are decoded. The shop window could be seen as a microcosm of consumer culture and is, therefore, interesting to study over time to unveil its shifting ideals. The empirical data consist of over 1000 pictures of window displays. Questions that are asked in analysing the empirical material are the following: (1) What ethos and personae do the shop-window mannequins nonverbally express? (2) How do the ethos and personae they nonverbally express change during the transformation of modernity? and (3) Are there any differences between the ethos and personae nonverbally expressed by the male and female mannequins, as well as within each gender? In the two first sections, a theoretical understanding of the concepts of ethos and persona as forms of embodiment that emerge through the interaction between the shop-window mannequins and the consumer is developed. In the third section, the empirical technique that has been used to capture the ethos and personae expressed by the shop-window mannequins is treated. In the fourth section, the notion of successive modernities is introduced, as the study aims to observe the transformation of the ethos and personae of male and female shop-window mannequins during the course of modernity. Also a gender perspective is added as the observation shows differences between and within each gender category. In the fifth section, the result of the analysis of the empirical materials is presented.

     

  • 2.
    Engdahl, Emma
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Gelang, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    O'Brien, Alyssa
    Program in Writing and Rhetoric, Stanford University, Stanford CA, USA.
    The visual rhetoric of store-window mannequins2011In: Argumentation: cognition & community / [ed] Frank Zenker, 2011, p. 6-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This collaborative paper examines the visual rhetoric of mannequins: the embodied media representation of the future consumer. Citing material evidence from Sweden, the USA, Egypt, Singapore, and China, the paper explores the visual arguments of mannequins as they embody female and male con-structions of identity, position, and power, both reflecting and shaping social doxa with regard to gender norms, sexuality, religious behavior, end even nationality.

  • 3.
    Gelang, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Actio Capital: The Non-verbal Resources of Rhetoric2013In: Verbal and Visual Rhetoric in a Media World: Rhetoric in Society / [ed] Hilde van Belle, Paul Gillaerts, Baldwin van Gorp, Dorien van de Mieroop, Kris Rutten, Amsterdam, Netherland: Leiden University Press , 2013, p. 165-177Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the article a new concept, “Actio Capital” is introduced. Actio refers to how a speech is delivered in a public setting. The concept is intended to provide an overall description and understanding of a speaker’s resources with regard to actio. Actio Capital is a theoretical model that describes the development of a speaker’s actio from actio resource, to asset, and finally to Actio Capital. The model is inspired by Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and symbolic capital along with the analysis of both classical and modern handbooks and recent research about actio, as well as an empirical study of university lecturers.

  • 4.
    Gelang, Marie
    Örebro University, Department of Humanities.
    Actiokapitalet: retorikens ickeverbala resurser2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to deepen the understanding of actio. Actio refers to how a speech is performed in a public setting. Actio differs from nonverbal communication in general in that actio is performed in a rhetorical situation with the intention to be persuasive.

    The primary interest is to find theories to define actio and find out how actio affects the interpretation of a speaker’s delivery. Therefore, the goal of the research is to try to find interpretive concepts for actio that can be used in the theory and analysis of actio in different rhetorical materials, as well as to find out what recipients perceive regarding a speaker’s actio, and in what way actio influences their interpretation of the speaker.

    In order to do so two different sources of material have been used. One is classical and modern handbooks and recent research about actio as well as nonverbal communication in a wider sense. This literature has been analysed and interpreted. The other is observations and recordings of four university lecturers who were observed by student focus groups. After each lecture, the members of the groups discussed the teacher’s actio, and the conversations were recorded. The lectures and conversations were both transcribed and analysed.

    In the study of literature and research, the following features have emerged as important aspects of actio. Actio is perceived as an activity that informs the recipient/audience about the speaker’s character, including his emotional state. Actio is also an activity that finds its meaning and interpretation in relation to the context. Actio is performed within society, where traditions, rituals, manuals and so on influence people’s understanding of what is appropriate in different situations. Actio is accordingly a personal activity as well as a part of a human social order. It is deeply rooted in history and its context. As a result of this study some rhetorical concepts are suggested that are intended to describe, explain and define actio, namely: ethos (character), pathos (feelings), decorum (propriety) and kairos (“the right moment”). These concepts can make clear and explain some of the processes that are ascribed to actio throughout history. In order for the concepts to define actio some specific aspects of the concepts are more closely examined and presented Accordingly ethos, pathos, decorum and kairos are concepts that can provide theoretical frameworks and analytic dimensions to research about actio.

    Focus in the study of teachers’ actio has been on the receivers’ interpretations. The statements presented in the analysis reveal which aspects of actio the members of the group had noticed, and how they interpret these aspects. The analysis shows that in order to interpret lecturers’ actio, members of the group refer to qualities of actio. It is not what the lecturers do, but how they do it, which makes a difference in the interpretation of the lecturer. Qualities of actio meaning those aspects of actio that create the nuances, and make actio appear with variation. The qualities that have appeared to be important for the interpretation of a speaker’s actio are energy, dynamism, and tempo. Energy relates mainly to the intensity of different bodily movements, dynamism relates to the variation of, e.g. gestures or postures, and tempo relates to speed, timing and rhythmic variations in actio. It is emphasised that these “actio qualities” open up a new perspective on actio for rhetorical research. Altogether the empirical body of material of university lecturers has shown that certain “qualities in actio”, the multimodal activity and the receivers’ preconceptions and expectations affect the interpretation of actio.

    Finally a new concept, “Actio Capital”, is introduced. Actio Capital is a theoretical model that describes the development of a speaker’s actio from actio resource, to asset, and finally to Actio Capital. The model is inspired by Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and symbolic capital along with the analysis of both the handbooks and research, as well as the empirical study. Actio Capital is intended to provide an overall description and understanding of a speaker’s resources with regard to actio. On the whole, all human beings – assuming they are healthy – have the same resources of actio, i.e. the same basic physical ability to use their bodies for gestures, variation of voice and so on. Which of these actio resources a person will use, which will become a person’s actio assets, depends on a variety of different things like personality, what kind of life she has lived etc. Depending on how these assets are used, for instance with the help of actio qualities, they can become Actio Capital. Which of a speaker’s actio assets that will be recognised and valued as capital varies from situation to situation according to the circumstances.

  • 5.
    Gelang, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Det konstfulla framförandet2011In: Forelesningens kunst / [ed] Arne Skodvin et al, Oslo: Unipub forlag, 2011, p. 51-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Gelang, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Kairos, the Rhythm of Timing2013In: Off Beat: Pluralizing Rhythm / [ed] Jan Hein Hoogstad, Birgitte Stougaard Pedersen, Amsterdam, Netherlands: Brill - Rodopi , 2013, p. 89-101Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within Rhetoric there is a wide and complex variety of concepts used to explore and discuss our societies´ different discursive phenomenon. When analysing speakers nonverbal communication, the concept of Kairos have distinguished it selves as more important than others. The concept is trying to make clear and explain some of the processes that at times can seem inconceivable with our nonverbal communication. Kairos and Kronos were the two Greek terms used to refer to time. Kronos was used when referring to measured time; like hours, minutes and so on. Kairos had a more qualitative, interpreting, cultural-based meaning. The concept of kairos captures the process that can be so difficult to comprehend when everything crystallizes to exactly the right moment for someone to act or speak, or both. The primary focus in the article is on explaining how the concept of kairos can help us to understand the sense of timing in our nonverbal communication. One of the aspects that are important for kairos is the sense of rhythm that develops in a situation. A speaker with a good sense of rhythm can come across as very persuasive. In order for kairos to happen someone has to know or believe that he knows that “now” is the time to act. It is an understanding that doesn’t come by itself but demands an active and aware speaker. The speaker has to be aware of the ongoing creativity in the situation, the creativity that charge the sequence with the tension between what is possible and what is not, and does this every time. So, whether kairos appears “now” depends on a range of reflections over a number of ongoing processes in the context, one of them, I mean, relates to rhythm.

  • 7.
    Gelang, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Sälj, min docka!2005In: Retorikmagasinet, ISSN 1403-9052, no 28Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Gelang, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Towards a political actio2013In: Multimodal Communication in Political Speech. Shaping Minds and Social Action: International Workshop, Political Speech 2010, Rome, Italy, November 10-12, 2010, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Isabella Poggi, Francesca D´Errico, Laura Vincze, Alessandro Vinciarelli, Springer Publishing Company, 2013, p. 30-38Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a rhetorical, cognitive and contextual view of nonverbal communication (cf. Kjeldsen 2007, e.g. nonverbal resources of rhetoric, Gelang 2008) I will examine the ethos of politicians and the argumentative dimensions of the nonverbal communication of Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton in their contest for the 2008 American Democratic presidential nomination.

    Actio was an essential part of rhetorical training from the classical period with Aristotle, Quintilian and Cicero setting the standard. Today nonverbal communication concerns a variety of modalities such as facial expressions, hand-gestures, movements, postures and the use of voice. In this articel, I will refer to these nonverbal modalities rhetorically performed in public speaking as actio.

    Unlike rhetoricians from ancient time, I am not only interested in what a speaker does (for instance nodding her head) but especially how she is doing it (nodding eagerly or hesitantly). The way a gesture is performed is at least as important for its rhetorical impact and argumentative dimensions as the gesture chosen. I refer to the performance as actio-qualities meaning the aspects of actio that create the nuances, and make actio appear with variation (Gelang 2008). In judging the how of actio, I distinguish between energy, dynamism and tempo in nonverbal communication. Energy concerns flow, intensity and focus; dynamism concerns variations, and tempo concerns flow, speed and timing (Gelang 2008). A wide range of studies suggests that nonverbal communication affects the audience in their liking or disliking of different debaters/leaders (Sullivan & Masters 1988, Atkinson 1988, Bucy 2000, 2003, Bucy & Bradley 2004). Some research points at energy as an especially important factor in nonverbal communication (McCroskey 2001, Mehrabaian 1972, Babad et al. 2004). One study of 37 television debates concludes that speakers winning the debates were characterized by modulated voice, energetic articulation, intense gaze, energetic posture, eager gesticulations and firm, directive gestures (Jørgensen et al 1994, 1998).

    I will relate what I have found concerning actio-qualities to two nonverbal rhetorical argumentative strategies: enacted actio and restrained actio.

  • 9.
    Gelang, Marie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Kjeldsen, Jens
    Bergens Universitet, Bergen, Norway; Södertörns högskola, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nonverbal communication as argumentation2011In: Proceedings of the 7th Conference of the International Society for the Study of Argumentation / [ed] F.H. van Eemeren et al, Amsterdam: Rozenberg Publishers, 2011, p. 567-576Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonverbal behaviour as argumentation in election campaign interviews

    Do politicians argue with their bodies? Normally argumentation is described as: 1) characterized by temporal and sequential representations, 2) based on unambiguous syntactic rules, 3) historically and methodologically linked to the verbal mode of expression and its conventional, semiotic character, 4) being about attitudes and opinions proposed through claim and datum, and hence, is confrontational in nature. It thus appears impossible for a person’s rhetorical actio to make arguments. The body – it seems – cannot create the verbal, explicit two-part structure of an argument.

                          However, arguments are not found in statements, but in people. It is a perspective we take (Brockreide 1992). As long as a message works as a stimulus evoking the receiver’s cognitively generated argument (cf. Hample 1980, 1992, Gronbeck 1995) the message has been used as argumentation.

                          This means that also non-verbal behaviour may function as argumentation. Based on a rhetorical, cognitive and contextual view of argumentation (cf. Kjeldsen 2007) and the theory of actio capital (e.g. nonverbal resources of rhetoric, Gelang 2008) this paper will examine the argumentative dimensions of the non-verbal behaviour of Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton in their contest for the 2008 American Democratic presidential nomination.

  • 10.
    Gelang, Marie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Petermann, Waldemar
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Actio som förkroppsligad attityd: En burkesk och multimodal metod för analys av ickeverbal kommunikation2017In: Rhetorica Scandinavica, ISSN 1397-0534, no 75, p. 7-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel presenterar en studie av attityder som visas i en medlingssituation i en svensk reality-teveserie om grannkonflikter. Syftet är att utveckla en teoretisk och metodologisk ram för retorisk analys av ickeverbala yttranden. I artikeln skisseras en teori baserad på retorikens actio och Kenneth Burkes syn på förkroppsligad attityd. Actio utforskas genom en multimodal analys, det vill säga genom hur olika mänskliga modaliteter– såsom gester, ansiktsuttryck, huvudrörelser, kroppshållning, röstnyanser etc. – samverkar och skapar mening åt den ickeverbala kommunikationen. Med hjälp av skillnader i actiokvaliteter identifierades två attityder vilka tydligt påverkade medlingen: nedlåtenhet och trots. Tillsammans bildar de en struktur som befäster konflikten. I artikeln dras slutsatsen att de teoretiska begreppen attityd och actio-kvaliteter tillsammans utgör en meningsfull modell för att analysera kroppsspråket i kommunikativa situationer och att tidiga iakttagelser av ickeverbala yttranden kan bidra till lyckad medling.

  • 11.
    Mral, Brigitte
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap), Karlstad, Sverige.
    Gelang, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Bröms, Emelie
    Kritisk retorikanalys: text, bild, actio2016Book (Other academic)
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