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  • 1.
    Israelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Social Work, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Gerdner, Arne
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    European laws on compulsory commitment to care of persons suffering from substance use disorders or misuse problems: a comparative review from a human and civil rights perspective2015In: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, ISSN 1747-597X, E-ISSN 1747-597X, Vol. 10, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Laws on compulsory commitment to care (CCC) in mental health, social and criminal legislation for adult persons with alcohol and/or drug dependence or misuse problems are constructed to address different scenarios related to substance use disorders. This study examines how such CCC laws in European states vary in terms of legal rights, formal orders of decision and criteria for involuntary admission, and assesses whether threelegal frameworks (criminal, mental and social law) equally well ensure human and civil rights.

    Methods: Thirty-nine laws, from 38 countries, were analysed. Respondents replied in web-based questionnaires concerning a) legal rights afforded the persons with substance use problems during commitment proceedings, b) sources of formal application, c) instances for decision on admission, and d) whether or not 36 different criteria could function as grounds for decisions on CCC according to the law in question. Analysis of a-c were conducted in bivariate cross-tabulations. The 36 criteria for admission were sorted in criteria groups based on principal component analysis (PCA). To investigate whether legal rights, decision-making authorities or legal criteria may discriminate between types of law on CCC, discriminant analyses (DA) were conducted.

    Results: There are few differences between the three types of law on CCC concerning legal rights afforded the individual. However, proper safeguards of the rights against unlawful detention seem still to be lacking in some CCC laws, regardless type of law. Courts are the decision-making body in 80 % of the laws, but this varies clearly between law types. Criteria for CCC also differ between types of law, i.e. concerning who should be treated: dependent offenders, persons with substance use problems with acting out or aggressive behaviors, or other vulnerable persons with alcohol or drug problems.

    Conclusion: The study raises questions concerning whether various European CCC laws in relation to substance use disorder or misuse problems comply with international ratified conventions concerning human and civil rights. This, however, applies to all three types of law, i.e. social, mental health and criminal legislation. The main differences between law types concern legal criteria, reflecting different national priorities on implicit ambitions of CCC – for correction, for prevention, or for support to those in greatest need of care.

  • 2. Malekian, Farhad
    et al.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Confessing the international rights of children: the basic documents with analysis2012Book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Malekian, Farhad
    et al.
    The Institute of International Criminal Law, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    International Legal Status of Children2014In: Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice / [ed] Gerben Bruinsma, David Weisburd, Springer, 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    National, regional, and international criminal legislation and procedures for quite a long time struggled with the recognition of the legal status of children, but the position has slowly changed in recent decades. The aim has been to support persons aged under 18, whether perpetrators, victims, witnesses, or applicants under criminal justice proceedings. Thus, when children have committed crimes, the procedure of arrest, detention, or imprisonment has to be in conformity with the provisions of international law, and they should promptly receive legal assistance. Capital punishment has been abolished, and corporal penalties have broadly been reduced. The tendency today is that juveniles should be sentenced to measures such as care, supervision orders, community service orders, correctional, educational, and vocational training programs. Consequently, many rules of criminal justice have been formulated for the purpose of protection of children's rights, which are considered an integral part of international jus cogens.

  • 4. Malekian, Farhad
    et al.
    Nordlöf, KerstinÖrebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The sovereignty of children in law2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Argumentation i nordisk straffrätt2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund, Sweden.
    Barn och ungdomar i polisarrester och häkten1990In: Apropå, Brottsförebyggande rådets tidskrift, ISSN 0283-3352, no 4, p. 12-16Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Children in Law2012In: The sovereignty of children in law / [ed] Farhad Malekian and Kerstin Nordlöf, Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2012, p. 56-68Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Children witnesses of domestic violence2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden there is often controversy over the place of child victims, especially children victimized by witnessing domestic violence. In part, the confusion is due from the difficulties children have in expressing themselves and presenting evidence. It is also due to the fact that there is confusion regarding the medical and psychological effects of witnessing instances of domestic violence. Consequently, such children, although they are recognized as victims and are entitled compensation from the state, are not eligible to be awarded damages from the abuser. In fact, in one important Supreme Court case, the prosecutor argued that children that had seen and heard their father beat their mother should be considered an injured and molested party and thus entitled to qualify for the superior status of plaintiffs. The Court, however, ruled otherwise and dismissed the case. This presentation will present psychological findings to the effect that a child seeing or hearing a parent being beaten by the other parent has the same effect on the child as if the child himself or herself had been beaten. Additionally, it will present findings that early-age trauma may lead, later in life, to suffering from pains that cannot be verified by traditional medical means. With this body of psychological knowledge, the legal system should be better equipped to recognize children not only as victims but as full-fledged plaintiffs, and thus in the position to receive damages from the accused.

  • 9.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Constitution, Judiciary & Political Power´s Structure: Judiciary as an Organ of Political Control2014In: Constitution and proceedings, 2014, p. 151-157Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Debt restructuring in Sweden2015In: Revista de Processo, ISSN 0100-1981, Vol. 40, no 242, p. 339-353Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Economic raison d'etre of trafficking in children2011In: Rätten i den ekonomiska krisen / [ed] Catharina Calleman, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2011, 1, p. 191-214Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    En kontraproduktiv brottmålsprocess2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    En rättsstridig presumtion om uppsåt vid allvarlig psykisk störning hos unga lagöverträdare2013In: Juridicums årsbok: 2011-2013 / [ed] Catharina Calleman, Örebro: Örebro University , 2013, 1, p. 349-364Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    En rättsstridig presumtion om uppsåt vid allvarlig psykisk störning hos unga lagöverträdare2012In: Rätt, social utsatthet och samhälleligt ansvar: festskrift till Anna Hollander / [ed] Lotti Ryberg-Welander, Katarina Alexius, Norstedts Juridik AB, 2012, p. 359-374Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Forms of Relief: Debt restructuring in Sweden2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Genus i kontexten unga lagöverträdare2014In: Festskrift till Catharina Calleman: i rättens utkanter / [ed] Annina H. Persson, Lotti Ryberg-Welander, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2014, 1, p. 261-274Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Genus som bevisvärde2015Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    International principles and rights of children in criminal cases2011In: Juridicums årsbok 2010 / [ed] Filippo Valguarnera, Örebro: Örebro university , 2011, p. 113-133Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Juvenile Jurisprudence2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Juvenile Jurisprudence in Sweden2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Juvenile Jurisprudence in Sweden2015In: Tsukuba Journal of Law and Politics, E-ISSN 2188-0751, Vol. 63, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Oskuldspresumtionen: en utopi för minderåriga barn misstänkta för brott2013In: Argumentation i nordisk straffrätt / [ed] Kerstin Nordlöf, Norstedts Juridik AB, 2013, 1, p. 168-199Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Profession, rights and rules2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Responsibility for Child Abuse within Foster Care in Sweden2015In: Horizons of Education, ISSN 1643-9171, Vol. 14, no 29, p. 20-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Social Board of each municipality in Sweden is responsible forproviding care for children in need of it. A child may be placed with a foster family or in an institution, with or without its own or its parents’ consent. Most such placements are consensual, in which cases the child’s consent as well as that of its parents is required if the child is 15 or older (adulthood is deemed to begin at 18); the child’s views must be taken into account regardless of its age. The majority of placements are with foster families being considered the best alternative for a child who for whatever reason cannot remain with its parents. Recent revelations of child abuse in foster care environments have resulted in Swedish legislation on the subject undergoing certain amendments. An investigation of standing legislation on the approval and supervision of foster families makes clear that more needs to be done to prevent child abuse. Improvements must be made in specifying the requirements that need to be met in choosing a foster family; present legislation fails to state these with sufficient clarity. It is also proposed that the Social Board have not only the right but the obligation to inquire into any relevant criminal records and to take the findings of such inquiry into account in arriving at its decisions. It is further proposed that an independent professional supervisor should be brought in to oversee the selection process to better assure that the child’s best interests are being served.

  • 25.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Juridiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet, Sweden.
    Restriktioner vid gripande, anhållande och häktning1987In: Brottsutvecklingen: 1987, Stockholm: Brottsförebyggande rådet , 1987, p. 159-173Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Some concluding remarks: Roundtable discussion2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Juridiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet, Sweden.
    Straffprocessuella tvångsmedel: gripande, anhållande och häktning1987Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund, Sweden.
    Straffrättens processer för unga lagöverträdare1991 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Straffrättsteorins användbarhet2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Support system for abused children in Sweden2016Other (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The Autonomy of the Family as an Obstacle in Preventing and Identifying Assault of Children2017In: Horizons of Education, ISSN 1643-9171, Vol. 16, no 37, p. 45-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the protection of the child has been considered sufficiently compared with the interests of the autonomy of the family within Swedish legislation.

    THE RESEARCH PROBLEM AND METHODS: The autonomy of the family is well protected by the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms in Article 8, where the right to family life is stipulated. But the article also authorises the right of a public authority to interfere in family life in accordance with the law for the prevention of crime. One reason for such interference could be the suspicion of domestic violence, which for centuries was considered to be a private concern. Article 3 of the Convention also forbids exposing a person to torture, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. The rights of the family are also expressed in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (Article 16), but more specifically in its view of the child. In the case of domestic violence, the Convention in Article 19 clarifies the responsibility of signatory states to protect the child from all kinds of assault by measures such as prevention and identification.

    THE PROCESS OF ARGUMENTATION: Due to the fact that domestic violence exists to such an extent that it severely affects society in different ways, Swedish legislation has been modified on several occasions.

    RESEARCH RESULTS: Even if the aim of those changes has been to uphold the autonomy of the family while preventing and identifying assaults within the family – particularly where children are involved – the question remains whether the protection of the child has been considered sufficiently compared with the interests of the autonomy of the family.

    CONCLUSIONS, INNOVATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: In order to guarantee children a childhood and adolescence consisting of care, security and a good upbringing, further improvements – particularly within the Penal Code (1962:700) – are necessary to prevent and identify domestic violence against children.

  • 32.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund, Sweden.
    The comparative aspects of gender governing protected witnesses2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund, Sweden.
    The Legal Philosophy of Protecting a Suspect Child2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The organization and functions of the intermediate level of government between the county and municipalities in Sweden2012In: Il rilievo della provincianel diritto comparato: Casi nazionali a confronto : atti del convegno dell'Associazione di diritto pubblico comparato ed europeo, Milano, Università commerciale L. Bocconi, 12 ottobre 2012, Torino: G. Giappichelli Editore, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The right of an abused child to receive justice in a Swedish context2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The Sovereignty in Law2013In: Juridicums årsbok: 2011-2013 / [ed] Catharina Calleman, Örebro: Örebro University , 2013, 1, p. 366-378Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The sovereignty of children in law2012In: The sovereignty of children in law / [ed] Farhad Malekian and Kerstin Nordlöf, Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2012, p. 56-68Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The Sovereignty of Children´s Rights within the Legislation of the Nordic Countries2013In: Juridicums Årsbok: 2011-2013 / [ed] Catharina Calleman, Örebro: Örebro University , 2013, 1, p. 380-420Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The sovereignty of children’s rights within the legislation of the nordic countries2012In: The sovereignty of children in law / [ed] Farhad Malekian, Kerstin Nordlöf, Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2012, 1, p. 194-234Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Uncertainty of age from the view of gender and diversity2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1947 a system of personal number was introduced in Sweden. Each individual who is registered in Sweden will receive a number by the National Tax Agency. The personal number consists of the year, month and day the person was born and four more figures of which the third figure refers to the sex of the person, male or a female. The system of personal number has been modified several times. For example a person who was borne outside Sweden had to have a personal number which started on 93-99. This was in 1990 removed due to the risk of discrimination. Globally you may find different kind of similar systems, but you may also find the opposite, a person who due to different reasons do not know or for other reasons do not want to reveal her or his age. The last situation has become a not unusual situation in Sweden in connection with the wave of refugees in autumn 2015. The uncertainty of the age of the person seeking for asylum has caused discussions on what methods to use when deciding a person’s age.  The question has also been raised in connection with criminal proceedings where the age of the suspect is decisive when deciding the penalty for a person found guilty of a committed crime and at the use of means of compulsion to examine the suspect person in order to understand whether he or she is under or above the age of criminal liability. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate over which impact the uncertainty of age in the criminal procedure may have on gender and diversity with focus on the situation where the suspect claim to be under the age of criminal liability.

  • 41.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund, Sweden.
    Unga lagöverträdare i social-, straff- och processrätt2005 (ed. Ny, rev. utg.)Book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Unga lagöverträdare i social-, straff- och processrätt2012 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Monografin behandlar det omfattande och innehållsmässigt variationsrika rättsvetenskapliga forskningsområdet gällande misstanke om brott av ett barn eller en ung person. I boken diskuteras om kravet avseende rättssäkerhet i dess traditionella bemärkelse, d.v.s. legalitet, objektivitet och förutsebarhet samt proportionalitet, kan anses tillgodosedda inom området.

    I boken behandlas fyra delar av rättsvetenskapen i förhållande till unga lagöverträdare: socialrätt, förvaltningsprocessrätt, straffrätt och straffprocessrätt. Syftet med att samla relevanta rättsvetenskapliga områden är att skapa en rättsdogmatisk ram och därmed bidra till förståelsen av ämnet. Frågeställningarna kring unga lagöverträdare är ett rättsvetenskapligt område av dynamisk karaktär och med avgörande effekt på juridikens konstruktion och framtid. Framställningen är relevant inom flera områden av vårt samhälle och riktar sig till såväl studenter på jurist-, rättsvetar-, förvaltnings-, socionom-, kriminologi- och polisutbildningar som till forskare och praktiker inom ämnet.

    Utvecklingen har gått mot ökade utredningsmöjligheter, och därmed användningen av straffprocessuella tvångsmedel, där den misstänkte är under 15 år, dvs. då hon eller han ännu inte uppnått straffbarhetsåldern. Medling vid brott används också i störst utsträckning för denna grupp. Även om en förstärkning skett i form av tillgång till juridiskt biträde kan utvecklingen på flera punkter ifrågasättas med hänvisning till FN:s Barnkonvention. Andra lagändringar inklusive utvecklingen på det internationella planet inom området uppmärksammas också i denna upplaga.

  • 43.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Varför anses inte övergrepp mellan tonåringar lika skyddsvärda som mellan vuxna?2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Barn anses ha ett högt skyddsvärde, men inte alltid. Flertal fall från domstolarna visar att fysiska eller psykiska kränkningar mellan vuxna kan resultera i en fällande dom om misshandel, ofredande eller olaga hot. I en motsvarande situation mellan tonåringar är det inte säkert att utslaget i domstol blir detsamma. Är förklaringen att det bland vuxna trots allt finns en acceptans av våld och hot mellan tonåringar och framförallt bland pojkar?

  • 44.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Malekian, Farhad
    Institute of International Criminal Law, Uppsala, sweden.
    Prohibition of Sexual Exploitation of Children Constituting Obligation Erga Omnes2013 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whilst the value of human integrity within the laws of individual states and the documents of international human rights is being increasingly consolidated and will become, sooner or later, the primary concern of the law, severe breaches of this value are indeed still widespread. In particular the sexual exploitation of children constitutes one of the most serious questions of national, regional, transnational and international law. According to international records, every fifteen seconds a child is raped in Africa alone. Almost half of the cases heard by the ICTY concern the sexual exploitation of women and children during armed conflict. More or less similar conclusions may be reached regarding the ICTR or the SCSL. In Rwanda alone, 500,000 females were raped. Almost 200,000 females and children have been the victims of cruel forms of sexual violence during the conflicts in Congo. Sexual abuse of children by priests cannot any longer be concealed in Australia, Belgium, Canada, Germany, France, Ireland, Mexico, the United Kingdom, and the United States, although it is ignored in most Islamic countries. The sexual exploitation of children is also widely practised in many other countries. Regrettably, 79% of all world trafficking is for sexual exploitation.

    The principal subject matter of this book is the legal etymology of sexual exploitation governing minors. The aim is to identify and analyse jus cogens and obligation erga omnes in relation to the sexual exploitation of children and to evaluate the international responsibility of states in relation to the elimination or prevention of the crime, and the prosecution and punishment of offenders.

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