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  • 1.
    Fouhy, Fiona
    et al.
    Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; Microbiology Department, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland .
    Guinane, Caitriona M.
    Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland.
    Hussey, Seamus
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Wall, Rebecca
    Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland.
    Ryan, C. Anthony
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland .
    Dempsey, Eugene M.
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Neonatology, Cork University Maternity Hospital, Cork, Ireland.
    Murphy, Brendan
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland .
    Ross, R. Paul
    Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, Gerald F
    Microbiology Department, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland.
    Stanton, Catherine
    Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland.
    Cotter, Paul D.
    Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland.
    High-throughput sequencing reveals the incomplete, short-term recovery of infant gut microbiota following parenteral antibiotic treatment with ampicillin and gentamicin2012Inngår i: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 56, nr 11, s. 5811-5820Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The infant gut microbiota undergoes dramatic changes during the first 2 years of life. The acquisition and development of this population can be influenced by numerous factors, and antibiotic treatment has been suggested as one of the most significant. Despite this, however, there have been relatively few studies which have investigated the short-term recovery of the infant gut microbiota following antibiotic treatment. The aim of this study was to use high-throughput sequencing (employing both 16S rRNA and rpoB-specific primers) and quantitative PCR to compare the gut microbiota of nine infants who underwent parenteral antibiotic treatment with ampicillin and gentamicin (within 48 h of birth), 4 and 8 weeks after the conclusion of treatment, relative to that of nine matched healthy controls. The investigation revealed that the gut microbiota of the antibiotic-treated infants had significantly higher proportions of Proteobacteria (P = 0.0049) and significantly lower proportions of Actinobacteria (P = 0.00001) (and the associated genus Bifidobacterium [P = 0.0132]) as well as the genus Lactobacillus (P = 0.0182) than the untreated controls 4 weeks after the cessation of treatment. By week 8, the Proteobacteria levels remained significantly higher in the treated infants (P = 0.0049), but the Actinobacteria, Bifidobacterium, and Lactobacillus levels had recovered and were similar to those in the control samples. Despite this recovery of total Bifidobacterium numbers, rpoB-targeted pyrosequencing revealed that the number of different Bifidobacterium species present in the antibiotic-treated infants was reduced. It is thus apparent that the combined use of ampicillin and gentamicin in early life can have significant effects on the evolution of the infant gut microbiota, the long-term health implications of which remain unknown.

  • 2.
    Gorreja, Frida
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Rangel, Ignacio
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Rush, Stephen
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Wall, Rebecca
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    De Vos, Willem M.
    Wageningen University & Research Centre, Wageningen, Netherlands; Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Brummer, Robert Jan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Double-blind cross-over trial reveals human mucosal transcriptome responses to variants of LGG administration in vivo2018Inngår i: Targeting microbiota: 6th World congress on targeting microbiota towards clinical revolution / [ed] Peter Konturek, Porto, Portugal: ISM , 2018, Vol. 5, artikkel-id 978-2-35609-010-2Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Gorreja, Frida
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Rush, Stephen
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Marques, Tatiana M.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Repsilber, Dirk
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Baker, Adam
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Head of Discovery, Microbiome and Human Health, Christian Hansen, Danimark.
    Wall, Rebecca
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Brummer, Robert Jan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    The impacts of probiotics and prebiotics on the gut mucosa and immune system through targeting inflammation and intestinal barrier function2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Hussey, Séamus
    et al.
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Wall, Rebecca
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland.
    Gruffman, Emma
    Department of Biotechnology, Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    O'Sullivan, Lisa
    Department of Biotechnology, Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Ryan, C. Anthony
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Murphy, Brendan
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, Gerald
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Stanton, Catherine
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland; Department of Biotechnology, Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Ross, R. Paul
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland; Department of Biotechnology, Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Parenteral antibiotics reduce bifidobacteria colonization and diversity in neonates2011Inngår i: International Journal of Microbiology, ISSN 1687-918X, E-ISSN 1687-9198, Vol. 2011, artikkel-id 130574Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the impact of parenteral antibiotic treatment in the early neonatal period on the evolution of bifidobacteria in the newborn. Nine babies treated with intravenous ampicillin/gentamicin in the first week of life and nine controls (no antibiotic treatment) were studied. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the composition of Bifidobacterium in stool samples taken at four and eight weeks. Bifidobacteria were detected in all control infants at both four and eight weeks, while only six of nine antibiotic-treated infants had detectable bifidobacteria at four weeks and eight of nine at eight weeks. Moreover, stool samples of controls showed greater diversity of Bifidobacterium spp. compared with antibiotic-treated infants. In conclusion, short-term parenteral antibiotic treatment of neonates causes a disturbance in the expected colonization pattern of bifidobacteria in the first months of life. Further studies are required to probiotic determine if supplementation is necessary in this patient group.

  • 5.
    London, Lis E. E.
    et al.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Kumar, Arun H. S.
    Centre for Research in Vascular Biology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Wall, Rebecca
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Casey, Pat G.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    O'Sullivan, Orla
    Teagasc Food Research Centre Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland .
    Shanahan, Fergus
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Hill, Colin
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Cotter, Paul D.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, Gerald F.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Ross, R. Paul
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Caplice, Noel M.
    Centre for Research in Vascular Biology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Stanton, Catherine
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Exopolysaccharide-producing probiotic Lactobacilli reduce serum cholesterol and modify enteric microbiota in ApoE-deficient mice2014Inngår i: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 144, nr 12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Probiotic bacteria have been associated with a reduction in cardiovascular disease risk, a leading cause of death and disability.

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of dietary administration of exopolysaccharide-producing probiotic Lactobacillus cultures on lipid metabolism and gut microbiota in apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice.

    Methods: First, we examined lipid metabolism in response to dietary supplementation with recombinant β-glucan-producing Lactobacillus paracasei National Food Biotechnology Centre (NFBC) 338 expressing the glycosyltransferase (Gtf) gene from Pediococcus parvulus 2.6 (GTF), and naturally exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus mucosae Dairy Product Culture Collection (DPC) 6426 (DPC 6426) compared with the non-β-glucan-producing isogenic control strain Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 (PNZ) and placebo (15% wt:vol trehalose). Second, we examined the effects on the gut microbiota of dietary administration of DPC 6426 compared with placebo. Probiotic Lactobacillus strains at 1 × 10(9) colony-forming units/d per animal were administered to apoE(-/-) mice fed a high-fat (60% fat)/high-cholesterol (2% wt:wt) diet for 12 wk. At the end of the study, aortic plaque development and serum, liver, and fecal variables involved in lipid metabolism were analyzed, and culture-independent microbial analyses of cecal content were performed.

    Results: Total cholesterol was reduced in serum (P < 0.001; ∼33-50%) and liver (P < 0.05; ∼30%) and serum triglyceride concentrations were reduced (P < 0.05; ∼15-25%) in mice supplemented with GTF or DPC 6426 compared with the PNZ or placebo group, respectively. In addition, dietary intervention with GTF led to increased amounts of fecal cholesterol excretion (P < 0.05) compared with all other groups. Compositional sequencing of the gut microbiota revealed a greater prevalence of Porphyromonadaceae (P = 0.001) and Prevotellaceae (P = 0.001) in the DPC 6426 group and lower proportions of Clostridiaceae (P < 0.05), Peptococcaceae (P < 0.001), and Staphylococcaceae (P < 0.01) compared with the placebo group.

    Conclusion: Ingestion of exopolysaccharide-producing lactobacilli resulted in seemingly favorable improvements in lipid metabolism, which were associated with changes in the gut microbiota of mice.

  • 6.
    Marques, Tatiana M.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Holster, Savanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Wall, Rebecca
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    König, Julia
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Brummer, Robert Jan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Correlating the gut microbiome to health and disease2016Inngår i: The Gut-Brain Axis: Dietary, Probiotic, and Prebiotic Interventions on the Microbiota / [ed] Niall Hyland, Catherine Stanton, Elsevier, 2016, s. 261-291Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem consisting of a diverse population of prokaryotes that has a symbiotic relationship with its host; thus it plays a vital role for the host’s health. Our understanding of the effect of the gut microbiome in health and disease has grown substantially over the past 2 decades, mostly because of recent advances in sequencing and other high-throughput technologies. Given its high metabolic potential, close proximity to the intestinal mucosa, and interaction with the immune system, it is not surprising that the gut microbiome is an important partaker in human health. Evidence to the importance of the gut microbiome in human health and disease is the growing number of conditions now linked to changes in the resident gut microbiota, including recurrent Clostridium difficile infections, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, colorectal cancer, allergies, neurological diseases, and metabolic diseases. Research into this field of the association of the gut microbiome with health and disease continues to expand at a rapid pace as we come to accept the gut microbiome as our “second genome.” Targeting the gut microbiome to restore/modulate its composition with the use of antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, and even fecal microbiota transplantation is considered a promising future strategy for the development of new solutions in the treatment of various diseases associated with an imbalance in microbiota composition and functioning.

  • 7.
    Marques, Tatiana M.
    et al.
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Moorepark, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Patterson, E.
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Moorepark, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Wall, Rebecca
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    O'Sullivan, O.
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, G. F.
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Cotter, P. D.
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Dinan, T. G.
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Cryan, J. F.
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Ross, R. P.
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Stanton, C.
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Influence of GABA and GABA-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 on the development of diabetes in a streptozotocin rat model2016Inngår i: Beneficial Microbes, ISSN 1876-2883, E-ISSN 1876-2891, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 409-420Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate if dietary administration of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 and pure GABA exert protective effects against the development of diabetes in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Sprague Dawley rats. In a first experiment, healthy rats were divided in 3 groups (n=10/group) receiving placebo, 2.6 mg/kg body weight (bw) pure GABA or L. brevis DPC 6108 (~10(9)microorganisms). In a second experiment, rats (n=15/group) were randomised to five groups and four of these received an injection of STZ to induce type 1 diabetes. Diabetic and non-diabetic controls received placebo [4% (w/v) yeast extract in dH2O], while the other three diabetic groups received one of the following dietary supplements: 2.6 mg/kg bw GABA (low GABA), 200 mg/kg bw GABA (high GABA) or ~10(9) L. brevis DPC 6108. L. brevis DPC 6108 supplementation was associated with increased serum insulin levels (P<0.05), but did not alter other metabolic markers in healthy rats. Diabetes induced by STZ injection decreased body weight (P<0.05), increased intestinal length (P<0.05) and stimulated water and food intake. Insulin was decreased (P<0.05), whereas glucose was increased (P<0.001) in all diabetic groups, compared with non-diabetic controls. A decrease (P<0.01) in glucose levels was observed in diabetic rats receiving L. brevis DPC 6108, compared with diabetic-controls. Both the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota were affected by diabetes. Microbial diversity in diabetic rats supplemented with low GABA was not reduced (P>0.05), compared with non-diabetic controls while all other diabetic groups displayed reduced diversity (P<0.05). L. brevis DPC 6108 attenuated hyperglycaemia induced by diabetes but additional studies are needed to understand the mechanisms involved in this reduction.

  • 8.
    Marques, Tatiana M.
    et al.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Wall, Rebecca
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland.
    O'Sullivan, Orla
    Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, Gerald F.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Shanahan, Fergus
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Quigley, Eamonn M.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Cotter, Paul D.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Cryan, John F.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Dinan, Timothy G.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Psychiatry, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Ross, R. Paul
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Stanton, Catherine
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Dietary trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid alters fatty acid metabolism and microbiota composition in mice2015Inngår i: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 113, nr 5, s. 728-738Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12-CLA) on intestinal microbiota composition and SCFA production. C57BL/6 mice (n 8 per group) were fed a standard diet either supplemented with t10c12-CLA (0·5 %, w/w) (intervention) or with no supplementation (control), daily for 8 weeks. Metabolic markers (serum glucose, leptin, insulin and TAG, and liver TAG) were assessed by ELISA commercial kits, tissue long-chain fatty acids and caecal SCFA by GC, and microbial composition by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Dietary t10c12-CLA significantly decreased visceral fat mass (P< 0·001), but did not affect body weight (intervention), when compared with no supplementation (control). Additionally, lipid mass and composition were affected by t10c12-CLA intake. Caecal acetate, propionate and isobutyrate concentrations were higher (P< 0·05) in the t10c12-CLA-supplemented group than in the control group. The analysis of the microbiota composition following 8 weeks of t10c12-CLA supplementation revealed lower proportions of Firmicutes (P= 0·003) and higher proportions of Bacteroidetes (P= 0·027) compared with no supplementation. Furthermore, t10c12-CLA supplementation for 8 weeks significantly altered the gut microbiota composition, harbouring higher proportions of Bacteroidetes, including Porphyromonadaceae bacteria previously linked with negative effects on lipid metabolism and induction of hepatic steatosis. These results indicate that the mechanism of dietary t10c12-CLA on lipid metabolism in mice may be, at least, partially mediated by alterations in gut microbiota composition and functionality.

  • 9.
    Marques, Tatiana Milena
    et al.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Moorepark Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Wall, Rebecca
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), Cork, Ireland.
    Ross, R. Paul
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), Cork, Ireland; Moorepark Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, Gerald F.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Ryan, C. Anthony
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Stanton, Catherine
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), University College, Cork, Ireland; Moorepark Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Programming infant gut microbiota: influence of dietary and environmental factors2010Inngår i: Current Opinion in Biotechnology, ISSN 0958-1669, E-ISSN 1879-0429, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 149-156Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The neonatal period is crucial for intestinal colonisation, and the composition of this ecosystem in early life is influenced by such factors as mode of birth, environment, diet and antibiotics. The intestinal microbiota contributes to protection against pathogens, maturation of the immune system and metabolic welfare of the host, but under some circumstances can contribute to the pathogenesis of certain diseases. Because colonisation with non-pathogenic microbiota is important for infant health and may affect health in later life, it is important to understand how the composition of this microbial organ is established and by which dietary means (e.g. supplementation with prebiotics/probiotics/food ingredients) it can be programmed in order to achieve an ecosystem that is valuable for the host.

  • 10.
    Neumann, Gunter
    et al.
    School of Medical Health (MV), Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Wall, Rebecca
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Rangel, Ignacio
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Marques, Tatiana M.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Repsilber, Dirk
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Qualitative modelling of the interplay of inflammatory status and butyrate in the human gut: a hypotheses about robust bi-stability2018Inngår i: BMC Systems Biology, ISSN 1752-0509, E-ISSN 1752-0509, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikkel-id 144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota interacts with the human gut in multiple ways. Microbiota composition is altered in inflamed gut conditions. Likewise, certain microbial fermentation products as well as the lipopolysaccharides of the outer membrane are examples of microbial products with opposing influences on gut epithelium inflammation status. This system of intricate interactions is known to play a core role in human gut inflammatory diseases. Here, we present and analyse a simplified model of bidirectional interaction between the microbiota and the host: in focus is butyrate as an example for a bacterial fermentation product with anti-inflammatory properties.

    RESULTS: We build a dynamical model based on an existing model of inflammatory regulation in gut epithelial cells. Our model introduces both butyrate as a bacterial product which counteracts inflammation, as well as bacterial LPS as a pro-inflammatory bacterial product. Moreover, we propose an extension of this model that also includes a feedback interaction towards bacterial composition. The analysis of these dynamical models shows robust bi-stability driven by butyrate concentrations in the gut. The extended model hints towards a further possible enforcement of the observed bi-stability via alteration of gut bacterial composition. A theoretical perspective on the stability of the described switch-like character is discussed.

    CONCLUSIONS: Interpreting the results of this qualitative model allows formulating hypotheses about the switch-like character of inflammatory regulation in the gut epithelium, involving bacterial products as constitutive parts of the system. We also speculate about possible explanations for observed bimodal distributions in bacterial compositions in the human gut. The switch-like behaviour of the system proved to be mostly independent of parameter choices. Further implications of the qualitative character of our modeling approach for the robustness of the proposed hypotheses are discussed, as well as the pronounced role of butyrate compared to other inflammatory regulators, especially LPS, NF- κB and cytokines.

  • 11.
    Patterson, E.
    et al.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Biosciences Department Moorepark, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Wall, Rebecca
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Biosciences Department Moorepark, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, G. F.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Ross, R. P.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Biosciences Department Moorepark, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Stanton, C
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Biosciences Department Moorepark, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Health implications of high dietary omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids2012Inngår i: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 2090-0724, E-ISSN 2090-0732, Vol. 2012, artikkel-id 539426Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (e.g., arachidonic acid (AA)) and omega-3 (n-3) PUFA (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are precursors to potent lipid mediator signalling molecules, termed "eicosanoids," which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation. In general, eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFA are proinflammatory while eicosanoids derived from n-3 PUFA are anti-inflammatory. Dietary changes over the past few decades in the intake of n-6 and n-3 PUFA show striking increases in the (n-6) to (n-3) ratio (~15 : 1), which are associated with greater metabolism of the n-6 PUFA compared with n-3 PUFA. Coinciding with this increase in the ratio of (n-6) : (n-3) PUFA are increases in chronic inflammatory diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular disease, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). By increasing the ratio of (n-3) : (n-6) PUFA in the Western diet, reductions may be achieved in the incidence of these chronic inflammatory diseases.

  • 12.
    Patterson, Elaine
    et al.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, Cork, Republic of Ireland; Biosciences Department, Moorepark, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Republic of Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Republic of Ireland.
    O' Doherty, Robert M.
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh PA, USA.
    Murphy, Eileen F.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, Cork, Republic of Ireland; Alimentary Health Limited, Kinsale Road, Cork, Ireland.
    Wall, Rebecca
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, Cork, Republic of Ireland; Biosciences Department, Moorepark, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Republic of Ireland.
    O' Sullivan, Orla
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, Cork, Republic of Ireland; Biosciences Department, Moorepark, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Republic of Ireland.
    Nilaweera, Kanishka
    Biosciences Department, Moorepark, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Republic of Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, Gerald F.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, Cork, Republic of Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Republic of Ireland.
    Cotter, Paul D.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, Cork, Republic of Ireland; Biosciences Department, Moorepark, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Republic of Ireland.
    Ross, R. Paul
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, Cork, Republic of Ireland; Biosciences Department, Moorepark, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Republic of Ireland.
    Stanton, Catherine
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, Cork, Republic of Ireland; Biosciences Department, Moorepark, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Republic of Ireland.
    Impact of dietary fatty acids on metabolic activity and host intestinal microbiota composition in C57BL/6J mice2014Inngår i: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 111, nr 11, s. 1905-1917Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Different dietary fat and energy subtypes have an impact on both the metabolic health and the intestinal microbiota population of the host. The present study assessed the impact of dietary fat quality, with a focus on dietary fatty acid compositions of varying saturation, on the metabolic health status and the intestinal microbiota composition of the host. C57BL/6J mice (n 9-10 mice per group) were fed high-fat (HF) diets containing either (1) palm oil, (2) olive oil, (3) safflower oil or (4) flaxseed/fish oil for 16 weeks and compared with mice fed low-fat (LF) diets supplemented with either high maize starch or high sucrose. Tissue fatty acid compositions were assessed by GLC, and the impact of the diet on host intestinal microbiota populations was investigated using high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing. Compositional sequencing analysis revealed that dietary palm oil supplementation resulted in significantly lower populations of Bacteroidetes at the phylum level compared with dietary olive oil supplementation (P< 0·05). Dietary supplementation with olive oil was associated with an increase in the population of the family Bacteroidaceae compared with dietary supplementation of palm oil, flaxseed/fish oil and high sucrose (P< 0·05). Ingestion of the HF-flaxseed/fish oil diet for 16 weeks led to significantly increased tissue concentrations of EPA, docosapentaenoic acid and DHA compared with ingestion of all the other diets (P< 0·05); furthermore, the diet significantly increased the intestinal population of Bifidobacterium at the genus level compared with the LF-high-maize starch diet (P< 0·05). These data indicate that both the quantity and quality of fat have an impact on host physiology with further downstream alterations to the intestinal microbiota population, with a HF diet supplemented with flaxseed/fish oil positively shaping the host microbial ecosystem.

  • 13.
    Rosberg-Cody, Eva
    et al.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland .
    Stanton, Catherine
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    O'Mahony, Liam
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), Cork, Ireland.
    Wall, Rebecca
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), Cork, Ireland.
    Shanahan, Fergus
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), Cork, Ireland.
    Quigley, Eamonn M.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), Cork, Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, Gerald F.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland .
    Ross, R. Paul
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Recombinant lactobacilli expressing linoleic acid isomerase can modulate the fatty acid composition of host adipose tissue in mice2011Inngår i: Microbiology, ISSN 1350-0872, E-ISSN 1465-2080, Vol. 157, nr 2, s. 609-615Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously demonstrated that oral administration of a metabolically active Bifidobacterium breve strain, with ability to form cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), resulted in modulation of the fatty acid composition of the host, including significantly elevated concentrations of c9, t11 CLA and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in liver and adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated whether a recombinant lactobacillus expressing linoleic acid isomerase (responsible for production of t10, c12 CLA) from Propionibacterium acnes (PAI) could influence the fatty acid composition of different tissues in a mouse model. Linoleic-acid-supplemented diets (2 %, w/w) were fed in combination with either a recombinant t10, c12 CLA-producing Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 (Lb338), or an isogenic (vector-containing) control strain, to BALB/c mice for 8 weeks. A third group of mice received linoleic acid alone (2 %, w/w). Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by GLC at the end of the trial. Ingestion of the strain expressing linoleic acid isomerase was associated with a 4-fold increase (P<0.001) in t10, c12 CLA in adipose tissues of the mice when compared with mice that received the isogenic non-CLA-producing strain. The livers of the mice that received the recombinant CLA-producing Lb338 also contained a 2.5-fold (albeit not significantly) higher concentration of t10, c12 CLA, compared to the control group. These data demonstrate that a single gene (encoding linoleic acid isomerase) expressed in an intestinal microbe can influence the fatty acid composition of host fat.

  • 14.
    Wall, Rebecca
    et al.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Cork, Ireland .
    Cryan, John F.
    Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Ross, R. Paul
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Cork, Ireland .
    Fitzgerald, Gerald F.
    Microbiology and Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland .
    Dinan, Timothy G.
    University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Stanton, Catherine
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Cork, Ireland .
    Bacterial neuroactive compounds produced by psychobiotics2014Inngår i: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0065-2598, E-ISSN 2214-8019, Vol. 817, s. 221-239Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We recently coined the phrase 'psychobiotics' to describe an emerging class of probiotics of relevance to psychiatry [Dinan et al., Biol Psychiatry 2013;74(10):720-726]. Such "mind-altering" probiotics may act via their ability to produce various biologically active compounds, such as peptides and mediators normally associated with mammalian neurotransmission. Several molecules with neuroactive functions such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin, catecholamines and acetylcholine have been reported to be microbially-derived, many of which have been isolated from bacteria within the human gut. Secreted neurotransmitters from bacteria in the intestinal lumen may induce epithelial cells to release molecules that in turn modulate neural signalling within the enteric nervous system and consequently signal brain function and behaviour of the host. Consequently, neurochemical containing/producing probiotic bacteria may be viewed as delivery vehicles for neuroactive compounds and as such, probiotic bacteria may possibly have the potential as a therapeutic strategy in the prevention and/or treatment of certain neurological and neurophysiological conditions.

  • 15.
    Wall, Rebecca
    et al.
    Teagasc, Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, Gerald
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology,.
    Hussey, Séamus
    Erinville Hospital and Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College, Cork, Ireland.
    Ryan, Tony
    Erinville Hospital and Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College, Cork, Ireland.
    Murphy, Brendan
    Erinville Hospital and Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College, Cork, Ireland.
    Ross, Paul
    Teagasc, Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland.
    Stanton, Catherine
    Teagasc, Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland.
    Genomic diversity of cultivable Lactobacillus populations residing in the neonatal and adult gastrointestinal tract2007Inngår i: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 59, nr 1, s. 127-137Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to investigate the cultivable Lactobacillus population in adult and infant faecal material to identify strains shared across a number of individuals. A range of lactobacilli isolated on Lactobacillus-selective agar from faeces of 16 infants and 11 adults were genetically fingerprinted and further characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The relatedness of all the Lactobacillus strains isolated to known species was also determined both genetically and phenotypically. This study revealed that the human intestine is initially colonized by only a few (1-2) different cultivable strains whereas in adults the pattern becomes more complex with a higher diversity of strains. The adult samples contained three genetically distinct Lactobacillus strains in some cases, while infant samples generally harboured only one dominant Lactobacillus strain. Moreover, the species in general appeared to differ with Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei/paracasei found mainly in adults, whereas Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus salivarius were more commonly isolated in infant samples. The data reaffirm the differences in Lactobacillus populations both between individual subjects and between the infant and adult, with an overall change in the diversity and complexity from early stages of life to adulthood.

  • 16.
    Wall, Rebecca
    et al.
    Department of Biotechnology, Teagasc, Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College, Cork, Ireland.
    Hussey, Seamus Gerard
    Erinville Hospital and Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College, Cork, Ireland; Department of Paediatrics, Mayo General Hospital, Castlebar, Mayo, Ireland.
    Ryan, C. Anthony
    Erinville Hospital and Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College, Cork, Ireland.
    O'Neill, Martin
    Department of Paediatrics, Mayo General Hospital, Castlebar, Mayo, Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, Gerald
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College, Cork, Ireland; Department of Biotechnology, Teagasc, Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland.
    Stanton, Catherine
    Department of Biotechnology, Teagasc, Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland.
    Ross, R. Paul
    Department of Biotechnology, Teagasc, Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland.
    Presence of two Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium probiotic strains in the neonatal ileum2008Inngår i: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 83-91Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this study was to examine the lactobacilli and bifidobacteria microbiota in the human ileum at a very early stage of life. Ileostomy effluents from two infants, taken at different time points, were plated on Lactobacillus selective agar and cys-MRS containing mupirocin to select for bifidobacteria. In one case, a stool sample following ileostomy reversal was subsequently analyzed microbiologically. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA sequencing was used to investigate the cultivable population of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to examine the non-cultivable population. The probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338, was recovered at both time points from one of the infants and dominated in the small intestine for a period of over 3 weeks. Moreover, the probiotic strain, B. animalis subsp. lactis Bb12, was obtained from the other infant. This study shows the presence of two known probiotic strains in the upper intestinal tract at an early stage of human life and thus provides some evidence for their ability to colonize the infant small intestine.

  • 17.
    Wall, Rebecca
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Marques, Tatiana
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Edebol-Carlman, Hanna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Sundin, J.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Vumma, R.
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Rangel, Ignacio
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Brummer, Robert Jan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Altered expression of membrane transporters in colonic mucosa of patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Post-infectious (PI)-IBS compared to healthy subjects2017Inngår i: Neurogastroenterology and Motility, ISSN 1350-1925, E-ISSN 1365-2982, Vol. 29, nr Suppl. 2, s. 107-108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects 5%- 15% of adults in the general population, and is characterized by chronic recurrent abdominal pain and discomfort and associated with altered bowel habits. The pathophysiology of IBS is complex and not fully under-stood. Hence, treatment is often based on symptomatology rather than underlying physiological aberrancies.

    Objective: To compare the expression of membrane transporters in mucosal biopsies of healthy subjects, IBS patients and post- infectious (PI)- IBS patients.

    Methods: Mucosal biopsies were obtained from the unprepared sigmoid colon in 18 IBS patients, 9 PI- IBS patients and 10 healthy subjects. Total RNA was isolated and prepared for gene expression analyses using quantitative reverse- transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT- PCR). We compared the expression of genes encoding membrane- spanning transporters, using GAPDH as a reference gene, and by using the comparative 2- ΔΔCt method.

    Results: Colonic expression of SCL7A5 and SLC3A2 (together com-prising the amino acid transporter LAT1+4F2hc) was significantly lower in IBS patients, but not in PI- IBS patients, compared to healthy controls (P<.001). The expression of SLC7A8 (LAT2) tended to be lower in IBS patients compared to controls (P=.06). Mucosal gene ex-pression of the short chain fatty acid transporter SMCT1 (SLC5A8) was lower in both IBS- patients and PI- IBS patients compared to healthy subjects (P<.01).

    Conclusions: The amino acid transporters LAT1 and LAT2 appeared to be affected in IBS patients, but not in PI- IBS patients, compared to healthy subjects, suggesting a possible alteration in amino acids transport in this patient group. Furthermore, our results suggest a lower uptake of short chain fatty acids in both IBS- and PI- IBS pa-tients. Altered expression of these transporters may be involved in the pathophysiology of IBS as well as being a potential biomarker of this aberration, and therefore deserves further study in IBS.

  • 18.
    Wall, Rebecca
    et al.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland .
    Marques, Tatiana M.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, Cork, Ireland: Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland .
    O'Sullivan, Orla
    Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Ross, R. Paul
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland .
    Shanahan, Fergus
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, Cork, Ireland .
    Quigley, Eamonn M.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, Cork, Ireland .
    Dinan, Timothy G.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, Cork, Ireland .
    Kiely, Barry
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, Cork, Ireland .
    Fitzgerald, Gerald F.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland .
    Cotter, Paul D.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland .
    Fouhy, Fiona
    Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland .
    Stanton, Catherine
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland .
    Contrasting effects of Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702258 and Bifidobacterium breve DPC 6330 on the composition of murine brain fatty acids and gut microbiota2012Inngår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 95, nr 5, s. 1278-1287Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: We previously showed that microbial metabolism in the gut influences the composition of bioactive fatty acids in host adipose tissue.

    Objective: This study compared the effect of dietary supplementation for 8 wk with human-derived Bifidobacterium breve strains on fat distribution and composition and the composition of the gut microbiota in mice.

    Methods: C57BL/6 mice (n = 8 per group) received B. breve DPC 6330 or B. breve NCIMB 702258 (10(9) microorganisms) daily for 8 wk or no supplement (controls). Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography while 16S rRNA pyrosequencing was used to investigate microbiota composition.

    Results: Visceral fat mass and brain stearic acid, arachidonic acid, and DHA were higher in mice supplemented with B. breve NCIMB 702258 than in mice in the other 2 groups (P < 0.05). In addition, both B. breve DPC 6330 and B. breve NCIMB 702258 supplementation resulted in higher propionate concentrations in the cecum than did no supplementation (P < 0.05). Compositional sequencing of the gut microbiota showed a tendency for greater proportions of Clostridiaceae (25%, 12%, and 18%; P = 0.08) and lower proportions of Eubacteriaceae (3%, 12%, and 13%; P = 0.06) in mice supplemented with B. breve DPC 6330 than in mice supplemented with B. breve NCIMB 702258 and unsupplemented controls, respectively.

    Conclusion: The response of fatty acid metabolism to administration of bifidobacteria is strain-dependent, and strain-strain differences are important factors that influence modulation of the gut microbial community by ingested microorganisms.

  • 19.
    Wall, Rebecca
    et al.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), Co. Cork, Ireland; University College Cork, National University of Ireland, Ireland.
    Ross, R. P.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), Co. Cork, Ireland; Teagasc, Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland.
    Ryan, C. A.
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College Cork, Ireland.
    Hussey, S.
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College Cork, Ireland.
    Murphy, B.
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College Cork, Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, G. F.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), Co. Cork, Ireland; University College Cork, National University of Ireland, Ireland.
    Stanton, C.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), Co. Cork, Ireland; Teagasc, Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland.
    Role of gut microbiota in early infant development2009Inngår i: Clinical Medicine: Pediatrics, ISSN 1178-220X, Vol. 3, s. 45-54Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Early colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract is crucial for the overall health of the infant, and establishment and maintenance of non-pathogenic intestinal microbiota may reduce several neonatal inflammatory conditions. Much effort has therefore been devoted to manipulation of the composition of the microbiota through 1) the role of early infant nutrition, particularly breast milk, and supplementation of infant formula with prebiotics that positively influence the enteric microbiota by selectively promoting growth of beneficial bacteria and 2) oral administration of probiotic bacteria which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. While the complex microbiota of the adult is difficult to change in the long-term, there is greater impact of the diet on infant microbiota as this is not as stable as in adults. Decreasing excessive use of antibiotics and increasing the use of pre- and probiotics have shown to be beneficial in the prevention of several important infant diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis and atopic eczema as well as improvement of short and long-term health. This review addresses how the composition of the gut microbiota becomes established in early life, its relevance to infant health, and dietary means by which it can be manipulated.

  • 20.
    Wall, Rebecca
    et al.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC) Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland .
    Ross, R. Paul
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC) Microbiome Ireland, Cork, Ireland; Biotechnology Centre, Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland .
    Fitzgerald, Gerald F.
    University College Cork, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland.
    Stanton, Catherine
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC) Microbiome Ireland, Cork, Ireland; Biotechnology Centre, Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland .
    Fatty acids from fish: the anti-inflammatory potential of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.2010Inngår i: Nutrition reviews, ISSN 0029-6643, E-ISSN 1753-4887, Vol. 68, nr 5, s. 280-289Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of potent lipid mediators, termed eicosanoids, which play an important role in the regulation of inflammation. Eicosanoids derived from n-6 PUFAs (e.g., arachidonic acid) have proinflammatory and immunoactive functions, whereas eicosanoids derived from n-3 PUFAs [e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] have anti-inflammatory properties, traditionally attributed to their ability to inhibit the formation of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. While the typical Western diet has a much greater ratio of n-6 PUFAs compared with n-3 PUFAs, research has shown that by increasing the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids in the diet, and consequently favoring the production of EPA in the body, or by increasing the dietary intake of EPA and DHA through consumption of fatty fish or fish-oil supplements, reductions may be achieved in the incidence of many chronic diseases that involve inflammatory processes; most notably, these include cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis, but psychiatric and neurodegenerative illnesses are other examples.

  • 21.
    Wall, Rebecca
    et al.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), University College, Cork, Ireland.
    Ross, R. Paul
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), University College, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Shanahan, Fergus
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), University College, Cork, Ireland, Ireland.
    O'Mahony, Liam
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), University College, Cork, Ireland, Ireland.
    Kiely, Barry
    Alimentary Health (AH), University College, Cork, Ireland.
    Quigley, Eamonn
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), University College, Cork, Ireland.
    Dinan, Timothy G.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), University College, Cork, Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, Gerald
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), University College, Cork, Ireland; University College Cork, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland.
    Stanton, Catherine
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), University College, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Impact of administered bifidobacterium on murine host fatty acid composition2010Inngår i: Lipids, ISSN 0024-4201, E-ISSN 1558-9307, Vol. 45, nr 5, s. 429-436Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, we reported that administration of Bifidobacteria resulted in increased concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in murine adipose tissue [1]. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of co-administration of Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702258 and the substrate for EPA, alpha-linolenic acid, on host fatty acid composition. alpha-Linolenic acid-supplemented diets (1%, wt/wt) were fed to mice (n = 8), with or without B. breve NCIMB 702258 (daily dose of 10(9) microorganisms) for 8 weeks. Two further groups received either supplement of B. breve alone or unsupplemented diet. Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by gas liquid chromatography. Dietary supplementation of alpha-linolenic acid resulted in higher (P < 0.05) alpha-linolenic acid and EPA concentrations in liver and adipose tissue and lower (P < 0.05) arachidonic acid in liver, adipose tissue and brain compared with mice that did not receive alpha-linolenic acid. Supplementation with B. breve NCIMB 702258 in combination with alpha-linolenic acid resulted in elevated (P < 0.05) liver EPA concentrations compared with alpha-linolenic acid supplementation alone. Furthermore, the former group had higher (P < 0.05) DHA in brain compared with the latter group. These results suggest a role for interactions between fatty acids and commensals in the gastrointestinal tract. This interaction between administered microbes and fatty acids could result in a highly effective nutritional approach to the therapy of a variety of inflammatory and neurodegenerative conditions.

  • 22.
    Wall, Rebecca
    et al.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc, Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, County Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland.
    Ross, R. Paul
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc, Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, County Cork, Ireland.
    Shanahan, Fergus
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland.
    O'Mahony, Liam
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland.
    O'Mahony, Caitlin
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland.
    Coakley, Mairead
    Teagasc, Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, County Cork, Ireland .
    Hart, Orla
    Teagasc, Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, County Cork, Ireland .
    Lawlor, Peadar
    Teagasc, Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, County Cork, Ireland .
    Quigley, Eamonn M.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland.
    Kiely, Barry
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, Gerald F.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland.
    Stanton, Catherine
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc, Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, County Cork, Ireland.
    Metabolic activity of the enteric microbiota influences the fatty acid composition of murine and porcine liver and adipose tissues2009Inngår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 89, nr 5, s. 1393-1401Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent reports suggest that the metabolic activity of the gut microbiota may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and hepatic steatosis.

    Objective: The objective was to determine whether the fat composition of host tissues might be influenced by oral administration of commensal bifidobacteria previously shown by us to produce bioactive isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).

    Design: Murine trials were conducted in which linoleic acid-supplemented diets were fed with or without Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702258 (daily dose of 10(9) microorganisms) to healthy BALB/c mice and to severe combined immunodeficient mice for 8-10 wk. To ensure that the observations were not peculiar to mice, a similar trial was conducted in weanling pigs over 21 d. Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography.

    Results: In comparison with controls, there was an increase in cis-9, trans-11 CLA in the livers of the mice and pigs after feeding with linoleic acid in combination with B. breve NCIMB 702258 (P < 0.05). In addition, an altered profile of polyunsaturated fatty acid composition was observed, including higher concentrations of the omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose tissue (P < 0.05). These changes were associated with reductions in the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma (P < 0.05).

    Conclusions: These results are consistent with the concept that the metabolome is a composite of host and microbe metabolic activity and that the influence of the microbiota on host fatty acid composition can be manipulated by oral administration of CLA-producing microorganisms.

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