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  • 1.
    Ahonen, Lia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Degner, Jürgen
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Moral development as a crucial treatment goal for young people in institutional care: a critical comparison between milieu therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy2012In: Therapeutic Communities: International Journal for Therapeutic and Supportive Organizations, ISSN 0964-1866, E-ISSN 2052-4730, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 4-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This article aims to analyze and discuss the role of moral development in treatment of behavior problems and, further, to describe differences and similarities between two different methods – Milieu Therapy (MT) and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) – in terms of addressing criminogenic needs and promoting moral development.

    Design: By performing a literature review, the study shows that even though there are both pros and cons using MT and CBT in institutional care, relationships strong enough to restructure a young person’s moral reasoning require time, and involves not only the young person’s parents and social network members, but also a genuine therapeutic alliance with clinical staff at the institution.

    Findings:These are central factors articulated in both CBT and MT, but are more explicitly expressed in MT. The results of this article highlight some important practical implications: In order to redevelop moral self and societal values, an overly narrow focus on criminogenic needs might exclude other components or processes of treatment and behavioral change. Together with a treatment program that view close staffresident interactions as of secondary importance, this could impair the possibility to obtain positive and long-lasting treatment results.

    Implications: In practice, moral development itself should be considered as an overall treatment goal, integrated into the daily life at the institution, twenty-four hours a day. Finally, the possibility to work with moral development in institutional settings is discussed.

  • 2.
    Ahonen, Lia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Degner, Jürgen
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Negative peer cultures in juvenile institutional settings: staff as couch coaches or couch slouches2012In: Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, ISSN 1050-9674, E-ISSN 1540-8558, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 316-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Juveniles in institutional treatment lack the skills to cope with societal expectations, rules, and moral values. If not prevented by staff, bonds are established with other deviant youth and the placement serves as a perfect "school of crime." This article aims to explore staff strategies to prevent negative peer cultures, as well as their theoretical foundations and relation to staff academic level and professional experience. Data were collected at eight Swedish institutions, using the Correctional Program Assessment Inventory 2000, questionnaires, observations, and interviews with clinical staff. Results show that most facilities lack negative-peer-culture strategies, but this is not related to academic level or experience. The importance, in terms of influencing the residents, of theoretical knowledge concerning psychological group-processes, peer culture, and moral development, as these relate to staff-supervised or unsupervised time, is discussed.

  • 3.
    Ahonen, Lia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Degner, Jürgen
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Staff group unanimity in care of juveniles in institutional treatment: routines, rituals, and relationshipsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To promote behavioral change processes in young people in institutional care, it is important that staff groups have common therapeutic goals, a unified view on how to achieve change, and similar attitudes towards the use of theory and methods. This article examines the level of Staff Group Unanimity at 8 treatment wards, by using the Correctional Program Assessment Inventory 2000 (CPAI), a questionnaire, additional interviews with key staff, and observations. Results show that most staff members have different views of the theory and methods used, low common therapeutic goals, and low agreement on how treatment should be performed, accompanied by low to modest confidence in management overall, and management’s ability to promote staff unity. The complexity of promoting positive interactions in the staff group without also creating distance to the residents is discussed.

  • 4.
    Ahonen, Lia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Degner, Jürgen
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Staff Group Unanimity in the Care of Juveniles in Institutional Treatment: Routines, Rituals, and Relationships2013In: Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, ISSN 1050-9674, E-ISSN 1540-8558, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 119-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One prerequisite for effective institutional care is that staff agree on how to deliver treatment and have a unified view of how to achieve change—in other words, to have staff group unanimity (SGU). This study used the Correctional Program Assessment Inventory (CPAI) 2000, interviews with key staff, and observations of daily activities to examine the levels of SGU on eight treatment wards in Sweden. Results show that staff members had differing views of the theory and methods, low common therapeutic goals, low to modest confidence in management, and low agreement about how treatment should be delivered. At institutions displaying low and medium levels of SGU, observations revealed significantly less interactions between staff and residents, and the residents spend a lot less time in staff supervised activities than at institutions with a high level of SGU. This article also considers the complexity of promoting positive interactions among the staff while maintaining close relationships between the staff and residents.

  • 5.
    Ahonen, Lia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. The Life History Research Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PA, USA.
    Degner, Jürgen
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Working with complex problem behaviors in juvenile institutional care: staff’s competence, organizational conditions and public value2014In: International Journal of Prisoner Health, ISSN 1744-9200, E-ISSN 1744-9219, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 239-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Institutional staff encounter juveniles with complex problems (externalizing and internalizing)which calls for adequate formal education/training and professional experience to deliver quality treatment, contributing to an effective organization and increasing public value. The purpose of this paper is to investigate staff’s formal education, professional experience and the institutions’ organizational strategies providing knowledge and clinical training to staff.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The study includes staff questionnaires from eight wards (n¼102). In addition, 39 in-depth interviews were conducted with management and staff members.

    Findings

    Results show that institutions lack clearly defined target groups, 70 percent of staff members lack college education, 30 percent has never been offered education within the organization, and the vast majority of staff does not feel competent in performing their daily work.

    Practical implications

    The results from this study shed light on an overlooked area in institutions, detention centers and prison settings, and are important to policy makers and governmental organizations responsible for coercive care of juveniles.

    Originality/value

    Unlike previous studies, treatment and detention organizations are emphasized as similar to manufacturing industry and profit organizations, and the results are discussed with departure in organizational theory.

  • 6.
    Degner, Jürgen
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Ledarskap och aktivitet: – om förutsättningar för relationsarbete på SiS särskilda ungdomshem2018In: Relationer i socialt arbete: i gränslandet mellan profession och person / [ed] Anders Bruhn och Åsa Källström, Stockholm: Liber, 2018, 1, p. 184-201Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Degner, Jürgen
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Henriksen, Anna
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Placerad utanför sitt sammanhang: en uppföljningsstudie av 46 institutionsplacerade ungdomars privata och formella relationer2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When young people are placed in residential treatment centres (RTCs), it is important that facility staff involve parents and other social network members (PSMs) (private relations) in the residential treatment program. This involvement process depends on both PSMs’ willingness and capability to take part in the youths’ treatment, as well as the residential staffs’ attitude towards promoting this process. The overall aim of the dissertation is to explore obstacles to and opportunities for involving PSMs in the youths’ treatment process. One key question is to investigate how the youths describe their parents’ emotional attitude, and support from other significant members of their network. At times of tension between youth and family, other formal relations with professional and non-professional support persons could serve as mediators between the youth and his or her family of origin. Accordingly, the aim is to investigate whether, and if so how, these support persons are included in the treatment process. Further, a positive treatment alliance between residential staff and the youth (resident) is important for the treatment outcome. Two further issues are to explore how the residents view the staffs’ personal involvement with the resident, and, from a gender perspective, to investigate the residents’ descriptions of the treatment received at the facility. Semi structured interviews, including a social network map and a Feeling word checklist, were conducted with 46 youths (23 girls/23 boys) placed at 10 different state RTCs run by the Swedish National Board of Institutional Care (SiS). The residents were interviewed three times, at approximately one-year intervals. This thesis is based on material from the first and second interview with the residents. Interviews were also conducted on one occasion with 23 support persons. Paper I deals with the PSMs’ involvement in the residents’ treatment process. Paper II explores obstacles to and opportunities for establishing a therapeutic alliance between key staff members and residents in a one year perspective. Papers III and IV investigate the residents’ (paper III) and support persons’ (paper IV) views of possibilities for the support persons to take part in the treatment program. Finally, Paper V aims, from a gender perspective, to study the residents’ descriptions of their psychosocial problems, their need for help, and their experiences of the help received from the staff at the facility. The main results show that the majority of the youths describe their parents as having a negative emotional attitude, with a desolate or family-oriented social network system. At the first interview the residents described the key staff members as mainly having little personal involvement, but this staff involvement had increased, according to the residents, by the one-year follow-up. Obstacles to and possibilities for involving PSMs as well as support persons is mainly related to staffs’ encouraging, or not encouraging attitude, attitudes of social welfare agency personnel (regarding support persons), and PSMs’ capability and willingness to participate in the program. With regard to gender, data indicate that there is reason to nuance the proposition of girls being more relationship oriented, and boys autonomous – at least in treatment settings – since, for example, the boys in the study to the same extent as the girls desired more trustful conversations with the staff. The importance of making an inventory of the youths’ social network and focusing on support persons’ involvement in the treatment program is discussed.

    List of papers
    1. Youths in coercive residential care: Perception of parents and social network involvement in treatment programs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Youths in coercive residential care: Perception of parents and social network involvement in treatment programs
    2007 (English)In: Therapeutic Communities, ISSN 0964-1866, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 416-432Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Involvement by parents and other significant social work members (PSMs) in the treatment program is important for positive treatment effects when youths are placed in residential treatment centres (RTC). The staffs of the RTCs  play a key role by either supporting or not supporting such involvement. By interviewing 23 boys and 23 girls in ten different RTCs using a milieu-therapeutic method, the present study explores obstacles to, and opportunities for the involvement of PSMs in the treatment program. The majority of the youths report non-involvement strategies from staff, a negative emotional attitude from parents, and desolate, non-supportive social networks. A small group of youths report encouraging staff and PSMs. Explanations such as staff turnover, facility rules, staff attitudes, and deficiencies in significant individuals' involvement are discussed.

    Keywords
    parents emotional attitudes, family involvement, residential care, social network
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5875 (URN)2-s2.0-38849173170 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2009-02-27 Created: 2009-02-27 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Youths in coercive residential care: attitudes towards key staff members' personal involvement, from a therapeutic alliance perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Youths in coercive residential care: attitudes towards key staff members' personal involvement, from a therapeutic alliance perspective
    2008 (English)In: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664, European Journal of Social Work, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 145-159Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A strong therapeutic alliance between staff and juveniles (residents) in institutional settings is considered to be important for a positive treatment outcome. The article focuses on residents placed in coercive care in Swedish residential treatment centres (RTCs), and the aim is to explore obstacles and opportunities for establishing a therapeutic alliance between key staff members (KSMs) and residents in a one-year perspective. The key question is how residents view their KSMs' personal involvement and active participation in their treatment process. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-thre girls and twenty-three boys placed in ten different RTCs, and follow-up interviews were conducted after one year. In accordance with the theoretical approach, it is hypothesized that the residents' view of KSM involvement will be more positive in the one-year follow-up. Results from the first data collection show that more than half of the adolescents perceived their KSMs' personal involvement as mainly negative. Between the two interviews, several had developed a more positive view of the KSMs' personal involvement, while a large group did not display any change in attitude. Positive and negative institutional conditions and processes affecting the prospects for the development of a therapeutic alliance between residents and KSMs are discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Routledge, 2008
    Keywords
    key staff; residential care; treatment alliance; youths
    National Category
    Social Work Social Work Social Sciences Social Sciences
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5849 (URN)10.1080/13691450701531976 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-02-27 Created: 2009-02-26 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Youths in residential care: their view of support persons' involvment in the program, a 1-year follow-up study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Youths in residential care: their view of support persons' involvment in the program, a 1-year follow-up study
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15617 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-05-19 Created: 2011-05-19 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Investing in a formal relationship: support persons' view of treatment involvment regarding young persons in residential care
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investing in a formal relationship: support persons' view of treatment involvment regarding young persons in residential care
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Social Work
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15619 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-05-19 Created: 2011-05-19 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 8.
    Degner, Jürgen
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Henriksen, Anna
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Ahonen, Lia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. The Life History Research Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PA, USA.
    Oscarsson, Lars
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Young residents’ view of support persons’ involvement in the institutional treatment programme: a one-year follow-up2015In: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588, Vol. 5, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many youths placed in residential treatment centres (RTCs) have prior to placement had contact with professional and non-professional support persons (SPs). By interviewing 46 youths (residents) from 10 Swedish RTCs, the present study aims to investigate the residents' view of their relationship with SPs, and, in a one-year follow-up, explore obstacles to or possibilities for maintaining the relationship during the stay at the facility. Results show that 20 residents consider the SPs to be significant adults with an emotional involvement component; seven residents describe their SP as having an instrumental involvement attitude, while 19 residents did not report any significant SP at all. Several obstacles and a few possibilities for involving the SPs were found in the one-year follow-up. Both obstacles and possibilities mainly concerned the willingness of facility staff, and in some cases the social welfare agency staff, to encourage SP involvement. A more systematic SP involvement procedure is needed at the RTC, as well as on the part of the handling officer in the social service agency. Further, it is important that when new residents arrive, staff should make an inventory of important

  • 9.
    Degner, Jürgen
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Henriksen, Anna
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Oscarsson, Lars
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Investing in a formal relationship: support persons' view of treatment involvment regarding young persons in residential careManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Degner, Jürgen
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences. The Swedish National Board of Institutional Care (SIS), Sweden.
    Henriksen, Anna
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences. The Swedish National Board of Institutional Care (SIS), Sweden .
    Oscarsson, Lars
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Youths in coercive residential care: Perception of parents and social network involvement in treatment programs2007In: Therapeutic Communities, ISSN 0964-1866, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 416-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Involvement by parents and other significant social work members (PSMs) in the treatment program is important for positive treatment effects when youths are placed in residential treatment centres (RTC). The staffs of the RTCs  play a key role by either supporting or not supporting such involvement. By interviewing 23 boys and 23 girls in ten different RTCs using a milieu-therapeutic method, the present study explores obstacles to, and opportunities for the involvement of PSMs in the treatment program. The majority of the youths report non-involvement strategies from staff, a negative emotional attitude from parents, and desolate, non-supportive social networks. A small group of youths report encouraging staff and PSMs. Explanations such as staff turnover, facility rules, staff attitudes, and deficiencies in significant individuals' involvement are discussed.

  • 11.
    Henriksen, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Degner, Jürgen
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Cederström, Anita
    Oscarsson, Lars
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Youths in residential care: their view of support persons' involvment in the program, a 1-year follow-up studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Henriksen, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Degner, Jürgen
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Kullberg, Christian
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Gender issues in Swedish residential treatment: young males' and females' experiences of problems, desire for treatment and views of treatment receivedManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Henriksen, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Degner, Jürgen
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Oscarsson, Lars
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Youths in coercive residential care: attitudes towards key staff members' personal involvement, from a therapeutic alliance perspective2008In: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664, European Journal of Social Work, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 145-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A strong therapeutic alliance between staff and juveniles (residents) in institutional settings is considered to be important for a positive treatment outcome. The article focuses on residents placed in coercive care in Swedish residential treatment centres (RTCs), and the aim is to explore obstacles and opportunities for establishing a therapeutic alliance between key staff members (KSMs) and residents in a one-year perspective. The key question is how residents view their KSMs' personal involvement and active participation in their treatment process. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-thre girls and twenty-three boys placed in ten different RTCs, and follow-up interviews were conducted after one year. In accordance with the theoretical approach, it is hypothesized that the residents' view of KSM involvement will be more positive in the one-year follow-up. Results from the first data collection show that more than half of the adolescents perceived their KSMs' personal involvement as mainly negative. Between the two interviews, several had developed a more positive view of the KSMs' personal involvement, while a large group did not display any change in attitude. Positive and negative institutional conditions and processes affecting the prospects for the development of a therapeutic alliance between residents and KSMs are discussed.

  • 14.
    Thunberg, Sara
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Ahonen, Lia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Degner, Jürgen
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Crime victims in limbo: the importance of collaboration between the municipal social services and victim support organisations2016In: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 53-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Becoming a victim of crime can be a traumatic experience, which calls for post-victimisation psychosocial support. In Sweden, this kind of support is offered by both governmental, for example, municipal social services (MSS), and nongovernmental organisations such as Victim Support (VS). The present study investigates (a) how many municipalities have a written agreement to collaborate with other organisations, and what kind of services they offer within their own organisation, (b) if there are differences between what support the MSS offer to victims depending on collaboration and (c) how do MSS staff, VS staff and crime victims describe the actual collaboration and support? Publicly available information from the National Board of Health and Welfare was analysed, in addition to a case study of three municipalities’ work with victims of crime. The case study consists of nine interviews with social workers from MSS, crime victim coordinators from VS and crime victims. The results from the survey indicate that collaboration between the MSS and VS is occurring in some municipalities to access missing competence or to outsource services from the MSS. However, results show that collaboration does not exist in every municipality, and one reason for this, according to interview information, is to protect the confidentiality of the clients. The challenges and advantages of collaboration between the MSS and VS are discussed together with practical implications for the crime victim field.

  • 15.
    Thunberg, Sara
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Ahonen, Lia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Degner, Jürgen
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Crime victims in limbo: when collaboration between the municipal social services and victim support fails 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Becoming a crime victim is a traumatic experience, and victims often need psychosocial support in the aftermath of the incident. In Sweden, the municipal social services (MSS) have a responsibility to ensure that victims receive post victimization support; however in reality, nongovernmental organizations such as Victim Support often execute the support services. The aim of the study was to investigate how the MSS fulfill their responsibility for psychosocial support to crime victims. Further, the aim was to explore to what extent and in what way they collaborate with Victim Support. In total, nine interviews were conducted with social workers from the MSS, crime victim coordinators from Victim Support, and crime victims; from three medium-sized municipalities. Results show that the MSS are not successful in fulfilling their responsibility; the main reason being that social workers do not see this service as their primary responsibility. As a result, victims are referred directly to Victim Support, as they are more experienced supporting crime victims. However, this distinct diversion is not as apparent in municipalities who, instead of just referring to, collaborate with Victim Support. Here, there is a clear, shared responsibility for the support, through collaboration and coordination of interventions, to ensure that the victims receive the best support. The results also show that social workers within the MSS lack knowledge about crime victims’ reactions and needs, which calls for extended collaboration with mental health experts, to ensure that victims receive adequate support. One of the difficulties with collaboration is the confidentiality issue. The victim themselves need to give active consent for collaboration if it takes place on an individual level. This issue is analyzed from a structural view point, and solutions and obstacles are discussed. This is of great importance to policy makers in their decisions regarding support to crime victim organizations.

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