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  • 1.
    Larsson, Matz
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Faculty of Health, The Heart and Lung Clinic, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Did heart asymmetry play a role in the evolution of human handedness?2017In: Journal of Cultural Cognitive Science, ISSN 2520-100X, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 65-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Almost 90% of humans are right handed, but why is unclear. It has been suggested that right handedness evolved in the context of escalating motor and cognitive demands related to tool use. Literature indicates that homicide may have been common in early hominins. Since, in combat with sharp implements, handedness may influence the relative level of exposure of left and right thorax, the hypothesis presented here is that thoracic anatomic asymmetry resulted in a survival advantage for right handed individuals. While fighting with sharp tools, a left hand unilateral grip will rotate the left hemi-thorax towards an opponent. The aims of this study were to quantify the degree of thoracic/cardiac asymmetry in humans and to estimate any difference in risk of injury from a sharp implement attack to the left and the right human thorax. CT-scans of 37 men showed a mean of 73% (SD 7%) of the heart volume to be situated in the left hemi-thorax. Nineteen physicians unaware of the hypothesis estimated the outcome of weapons penetrating the left and right thorax/abdomen at random points. The difference in estimated mortality for left and right thorax was significant, p\0.001 (Wilcoxon- signed-ranks-test for two related samples). These results suggest greater vulnerability of the left side of the body in combat, and, accordingly, an adaptive value of right-handedness. Thoracic asymmetry may have contributed to the development of right hand preference in humans.

  • 2.
    Larsson, Matz
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    How did 3D vision develop?2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Larsson, Matz
    Örebro University Hospital. The Cardiology Clinic, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Incidental sounds of locomotion in animal cognition2012In: Animal Cognition, ISSN 1435-9448, E-ISSN 1435-9456, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 1-13Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The highly synchronized formations that characterize schooling in fish and the flight of certain bird groups have frequently been explained as reducing energy expenditure. I present an alternative, or complimentary, hypothesis that synchronization of group movements may improve hearing perception. Although incidental sounds produced as a by-product of locomotion (ISOL) will be an almost constant presence to most animals, the impact on perception and cognition has been little discussed. A consequence of ISOL may be masking of critical sound signals in the surroundings. Birds in flight may generate significant noise; some produce wing beats that are readily heard on the ground at some distance from the source. Synchronization of group movements might reduce auditory masking through periods of relative silence and facilitate auditory grouping processes. Respiratory locomotor coupling and intermittent flight may be other means of reducing masking and improving hearing perception. A distinct border between ISOL and communicative signals is difficult to delineate. ISOL seems to be used by schooling fish as an aid to staying in formation and avoiding collisions. Bird and bat flocks may use ISOL in an analogous way. ISOL and interaction with animal perception, cognition, and synchronized behavior provide an interesting area for future study.

  • 4.
    Larsson, Matz
    Lungkliniken/tobakspreventiva enheten, kardiologiska kliniken, Universitetssjukhuset, Örebro, Sweden.
    Läkare första länken i rökavvänjningskedjan [Physician is the first link in the smoking cessation chain]2012In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 109, no 11, p. 558-561Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Larsson, Matz
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    Samtal om tobak och kvalificerad rökavvänjning: sjukdomsförebyggande arbete i klinisk praxis2017In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 94, no 2, p. 147-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoking-cessation support and anti-tobacco-legislation have the potential to generate substantial health improvements, and reduce socioeconomic differences. It is exceedingly cost-effective. Current smoking is an important risk-indicator, influencing prognosis and treatment e.g. in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, heart disease, air-way diseases, and before elective surgery.  Raising the question timely, empathy and professional support are crucial factors. It is essential to ask and document tobacco habits of all patients, including ex-smokers and never users. Behavioral counseling and pharmacotherapy, given in combination, significantly increase long-term abstinence rates. First-line pharmacotherapy to support quit attempts are nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline. Health-care professionals are trusted and have unique possibilities to raise the tobacco issue in meetings with patients and in the society debate.

  • 6.
    Larsson, Matz
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Secondary exposure to inhaled tobacco products2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Secondary exposure to inhaled tobacco products can influence the human body in a variety of ways. The aim of this thesis was to investigate a variety of health effects of secondary exposure to inhaled tobacco products. The research encompassed both airborne and in utero exposures. Specific investigations included:

    · Childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and associations with respiratory symptoms and allergic sensitization.

    · Adult exposure to ETS and exacerbation of respiratory symptoms

    · Workplace exposure to ETS and associations with respiratory symptoms

    · The influence of smoke-free workplace legislation on respiratory symptoms

    · In utero exposure and associations with physical control and coordination at age 11 years

    Environmental tobacco smoke during childhood was shown to be associated with an increased risk of asthma and allergic sensitization. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure in adult non-smokers was associated with a dose-dependent increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms. The frequency of respiratory and sensory symptoms in hospitality workers declined substantially in non-smokers following the introduction of smoke-free legislation. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with poorer physical control and coordination among offspring, particularly in the left – usually non-dominant- hand and most pronounced in boys, consistent with an adverse influence on neurological development.

    These findings help to characterize several adverse outcomes associated with secondary exposure to inhaled tobacco products and emphasise the importance of preventing such exposures.

    List of papers
    1. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure during childhood is associated with increased prevalence of asthma in adults
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental tobacco smoke exposure during childhood is associated with increased prevalence of asthma in adults
    Show others...
    2001 (English)In: Chest, ISSN 0012-3692, E-ISSN 1931-3543, Vol. 120, no 3, p. 711-717Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) during childhood has an impact on asthma prevalence in adults, and to identify the amount of nuisance from ETS and other lower airway irritants (LAWIs) in a city population.

    DESIGN: A postal survey.

    SETTING: The municipality of Orebro, Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: A total of 8,008 randomly selected inhabitants aged 15 to 69 years.

    MEASUREMENTS: Exposures, airway symptoms, and respiratory history were assessed using a questionnaire.

    RESULTS: The response rate was 84%. In never-smokers with childhood ETS exposure, the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was 7.6% vs 5.9% in nonexposed subjects (p = 0.036). In never-smokers without a family history of asthma, the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma in subjects reporting childhood ETS exposure was 6.8% vs 3.8% in nonexposed subjects (p < 0.001). Subjects with childhood ETS exposure were more likely to start smoking in adulthood. The prevalence of ever-smokers was 54.5% vs 33.8% (p < 0.0001) in nonexposed subjects. ETS was the most commonly reported LAWI in the total sample (21%), followed by exercise in cold air (20%), dust (19%), exercise (16%), perfume (15%), cold air (12%), pollen (10%), and pets (8%). All LAWIs were more frequently reported by women.

    CONCLUSIONS: Childhood exposure to ETS is associated with an increased prevalence of asthma among adult never-smokers, especially in nonatopic subjects. Children exposed to ETS are also more likely to become smokers. ETS is as a major LAWI.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15588 (URN)10.1378/chest.120.3.711 (DOI)
    Available from: 2011-05-17 Created: 2011-05-17 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Parental smoking and allergic sensitization in offspring defined by skin prick testing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parental smoking and allergic sensitization in offspring defined by skin prick testing
    2005 (English)In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 449-452Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations of parental smoking during childhood and allergic sensitization have produced contradictory results, but this may be because of variations in the definition of allergy and other influences. We investigated associations of parental smoking with an objective measure of allergy, skin prick testing (SPT), and considered associations with maternal and paternal smoking, independently of each other. A stratified random sample, aged 22-74 yr, of 720 Swedish FinEsS-study members were skin prick tested for 15 allergens. Subjects with at least one positive SPT were defined as atopic. Data on childhood exposures, including parental smoking, were collected by structured interview. Logistic regression used atopy as the dependent variable. After adjustment, paternal smoking was statistically significantly associated with an increased risk and maternal smoking a non-statistically significant decreased risk in offspring, with odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) of 1.48 (1.04-2.10) and 0.73 (0.48-1.12), respectively. Analysis of families with a non-smoking mother produced an odds ratio for paternal smoking of 1.61 (1.09-2.37). The negative association between maternal smoking and atopy may not operate through passive smoke exposure and could conceal a significant increased risk associated with passive exposure to tobacco smoke in childhood.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15589 (URN)10.1111/j.1399-3038.2005.00247.x (DOI)16101940 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2011-05-17 Created: 2011-05-17 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Passive smoking and respiratory symptoms in the FinEsS Study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Passive smoking and respiratory symptoms in the FinEsS Study
    Show others...
    2003 (English)In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 672-676Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between reported environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and respiratory symptoms. In 1996, a postal questionnaire was randomly distributed in three areas of Estonia to a population-based sample, of which 4,995 females and 1,822 males had never smoked. The main outcome measures were current respiratory symptoms and the amount of reported ETS exposure outside the home. ETS exposure at home was more common in females (31% versus 19%), while exposure outside of the home was more common in males (53% versus 7%). Females reported more symptoms from tobacco smoke than males (37.7% versus 21.6%). If ETS exposure outside of the home exceeded 5 h daily, the risk for wheeze (odds ratio (OR) 2.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.98-3.61) and physician-diagnosed asthma (OR 1.79, 1.02-3.16) were increased. ETS exposure outside of the home was shown to be strongly related to almost all respiratory symptoms in a dose/response manner. ETS exposure at home did not show significantly elevated ORs for any respiratory symptoms. This study shows that females seem to be more troubled by environmental smoke exposure than males and provides further evidence of the serious health hazards associated with environmental smoke exposure. Indeed, the findings of this study support a ban on smoking in the workplace and public areas.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15590 (URN)10.1183/​09031936.03.00033702 (DOI)12762355 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2011-05-17 Created: 2011-05-17 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    4. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and health effects among hospitality workers in Sweden: before and after the implementation of a smoke-free law
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and health effects among hospitality workers in Sweden: before and after the implementation of a smoke-free law
    2008 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 267-277Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This study attempted to identify changes in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, as well as symptoms and attitudes among hospitality workers after the introduction of extended smoke-free workplace legislation.

    Methods A total of 37 volunteers working in bingo halls and casinos (gaming workers) and 54 bars and restaurant employees (other workers) in nine Swedish communities participated in the study. Altogether 71 of 91 persons (14 daily smokers and 57 nonsmokers) participated in both the preban baseline survey and the follow-up 12 months after the ban. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, smoking habits, respiratory and sensory symptoms, and attitudes towards the ban were recorded, and spirometry was carried out.

    Results The frequency of reported respiratory and sensory symptoms was approximately halved among the nonsmokers in both occupational groups after the introduction of the ban. Initially 87% had exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that was over the nicotine cut-off level chosen to identify possible health risk (<0.5 µg/m3), while, after the ban, it was only 22%, a relative risk of 0.25 (95% confidence interval 0.15–0.41). The risk decreased in both occupational groups, but gaming workers experienced the highest preban exposure levels. Attitudes towards the legislation were largely positive, particularly after the ban. However, there was no notable change in lung function, and there was no notable reduction in the number of cigarettes consumed by smokers.

    Conclusions The introduction of smoke-free legislation was associated with a substantial reduction in respiratory and sensory symptoms, as well as reduced exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at work, particularly among gaming workers.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Helsingfors: Institutet för arbetshygien, 2008
    Keywords
    Attitude to Health, Cotinine/urine, Female, Gambling, Humans, Male, Occupational Exposure/adverse effects/analysis/*prevention & control, Public Policy, Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology/etiology, Restaurants, Smoking/*legislation & jurisprudence, Spirometry, Sweden/epidemiology, Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects/analysis/*prevention & control
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Occupational Health and Environmental Health
    Research subject
    Social Medicine; Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3755 (URN)18815714 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-01-05 Created: 2009-01-05 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    5. Does maternal smoking during pregnancy influence physical control and coordination among offspring?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does maternal smoking during pregnancy influence physical control and coordination among offspring?
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15591 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-05-17 Created: 2011-05-17 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 7.
    Larsson, Matz
    Örebro University Hospital. The Cardiology Clinic, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; The Respiratory Clinic, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Self-generated sounds of locomotion and ventilation and the evolution of human rhythmic abilities2014In: Animal Cognition, ISSN 1435-9448, E-ISSN 1435-9456, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 1-14Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that the basic building blocks of music mimic sounds of moving humans, and because the brain was primed to exploit such sounds, they eventually became incorporated in human culture. However, that raises further questions. Why do genetically close, culturally well-developed apes lack musical abilities? Did our switch to bipedalism influence the origins of music? Four hypotheses are raised: (1) Human locomotion and ventilation can mask critical sounds in the environment. (2) Synchronization of locomotion reduces that problem. (3) Predictable sounds of locomotion may stimulate the evolution of synchronized behavior. (4) Bipedal gait and the associated sounds of locomotion influenced the evolution of human rhythmic abilities. Theoretical models and research data suggest that noise of locomotion and ventilation may mask critical auditory information. People often synchronize steps subconsciously. Human locomotion is likely to produce more predictable sounds than those of non-human primates. Predictable locomotion sounds may have improved our capacity of entrainment to external rhythms and to feel the beat in music. A sense of rhythm could aid the brain in distinguishing among sounds arising from discrete sources and also help individuals to synchronize their movements with one another. Synchronization of group movement may improve perception by providing periods of relative silence and by facilitating auditory processing. The adaptive value of such skills to early ancestors may have been keener detection of prey or stalkers and enhanced communication. Bipedal walking may have influenced the development of entrainment in humans and thereby the evolution of rhythmic abilities.

  • 8.
    Larsson, Matz
    Kardiologiska kliniken, tobaks-preventiva enheten, Universitetssjukhuset, Örebro, Sweden.
    Synnervskorset i ljuset av en ny öga: handhypotes [The optic chiasm in the light of a new hand-eye hypothesis]2012In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 109, no 23-24, p. 1174-1175Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Larsson, Matz
    Örebro University Hospital. Cardiol Clin, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Inst Environm Med, Karolinska Instute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The optic chiasm: a turning point in the evolution of eye/hand coordination2013In: Frontiers in Zoology, ISSN 1742-9994, E-ISSN 1742-9994, Vol. 10, article id UNSP 10Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primate visual system has a uniquely high proportion of ipsilateral retinal projections, retinal ganglial cells that do not cross the midline in the optic chiasm. The general assumption is that this developed due to the selective advantage of accurate depth perception through stereopsis. Here, the hypothesis that the need for accurate eye-forelimb coordination substantially influenced the evolution of the primate visual system is presented. Evolutionary processes may change the direction of retinal ganglial cells. Crossing, or non-crossing, in the optic chiasm determines which hemisphere receives visual feedback in reaching tasks. Each hemisphere receives little tactile and proprioceptive information about the ipsilateral hand. The eye-forelimb hypothesis proposes that abundant ipsilateral retinal projections developed in the primate brain to synthesize, in a single hemisphere, visual, tactile, proprioceptive, and motor information about a given hand, and that this improved eye-hand coordination and optimized the size of the brain. If accurate eye-hand coordination was a major factor in the evolution of stereopsis, stereopsis is likely to be highly developed for activity in the area where the hands most often operate. The primate visual system is ideally suited for tasks within arm's length and in the inferior visual field, where most manual activity takes place. Altering of ocular dominance in reaching tasks, reduced cross-modal cuing effects when arms are crossed, response of neurons in the primary motor cortex to viewed actions of a hand, multimodal neuron response to tactile as well as visual events, and extensive use of multimodal sensory information in reaching maneuvers support the premise that benefits of accurate limb control influenced the evolution of the primate visual system. The eye-forelimb hypothesis implies that evolutionary change toward hemidecussation in the optic chiasm provided parsimonious neural pathways in animals developing frontal vision and visually guided forelimbs, and also suggests a new perspective on vision convergence in prey and predatory animals.

  • 10.
    Larsson, Matz
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. The Cardiology-Lung Clinic, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tool-use-associated sound in the evolution of language2015In: Animal Cognition, ISSN 1435-9448, E-ISSN 1435-9456, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 993-1005Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proponents of the motor theory of language evolution have primarily focused on the visual domain and communication through observation of movements. In the present paper, it is hypothesized that the production and perception of sound, particularly of incidental sound of locomotion (ISOL) and tool-use sound (TUS), also contributed. Human bipedalism resulted in rhythmic and more predictable ISOL. It has been proposed that this stimulated the evolution of musical abilities, auditory working memory, and abilities to produce complex vocalizations and to mimic natural sounds. Since the human brain proficiently extracts information about objects and events from the sounds they produce, TUS, and mimicry of TUS, might have achieved an iconic function. The prevalence of sound symbolism in many extant languages supports this idea. Self-produced TUS activates multimodal brain processing (motor neurons, hearing, proprioception, touch, vision), and TUS stimulates primate audiovisual mirror neurons, which is likely to stimulate the development of association chains. Tool use and auditory gestures involve motor processing of the forelimbs, which is associated with the evolution of vertebrate vocal communication. The production, perception, and mimicry of TUS may have resulted in a limited number of vocalizations or protowords that were associated with tool use. A new way to communicate about tools, especially when out of sight, would have had selective advantage. A gradual change in acoustic properties and/or meaning could have resulted in arbitrariness and an expanded repertoire of words. Humans have been increasingly exposed to TUS over millions of years, coinciding with the period during which spoken language evolved. ISOL and tool-use-related sound are worth further exploration.

  • 11.
    Larsson, Matz
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    Why do birds flock and fish shoal?2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Larsson, Matz
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. The Cardiology Clinic, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; The Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Why do fish school?2012In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 116-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchronized movements (schooling) emit complex and overlapping sound and pressure curves that might confuse the inner ear and lateral line organ (LLO) of a predator. Moreover, prey-fish moving close to each other may blur the electro-sensory perception of predators. The aim of this review is to explore mechanisms associated with synchronous swimming that may have contributed to increased adaptation and as a consequence may have influenced the evolution of schooling. The evolutionary development of the inner ear and the LLO increased the capacity to detect potential prey, possibly leading to an increased potential for cannibalism in the shoal, but also helped small fish to avoid joining larger fish, resulting in size homogeneity and, accordingly, an increased capacity for moving in synchrony. Water-movements and incidental sound produced as by-product of locomotion (ISOL) may provide fish with potentially useful information during swimming, such as neighbour body-size, speed, and location. When many fish move close to one another ISOL will be energetic and complex. Quiet intervals will be few. Fish moving in synchrony will have the capacity to discontinue movements simultaneously, providing relatively quiet intervals to allow the reception of potentially critical environmental signals. Besides, synchronized movements may facilitate auditory grouping of ISOL. Turning preference bias, well-functioning sense organs, good health, and skillful motor performance might be important to achieving an appropriate distance to school neighbors and aid the individual fish in reducing time spent in the comparatively less safe school periphery. Turning preferences in ancestral fish shoals might have helped fish to maintain groups and stay in formation, reinforcing aforementioned predator confusion mechanisms, which possibly played a role in the lateralization of the vertebrate brain.

  • 13.
    Larsson, Matz
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. The Heart, Lung and Physiology Clinic, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Plant and Wildlife Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, USA.
    Abbott, Benjamin W.
    Department of Plant and Wildlife Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, USA.
    Is the Capacity for Vocal Learning in Vertebrates Rooted in Fish Schooling Behavior?2018In: Evolutionary biology, ISSN 0071-3260, E-ISSN 1934-2845, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 359-373Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity to learn and reproduce vocal sounds has evolved in phylogenetically distant tetrapod lineages. Vocal learners in all these lineages express similar neural circuitry and genetic factors when perceiving, processing, and reproducing vocalization, suggesting that brain pathways for vocal learning evolved within strong constraints from a common ancestor, potentially fish. We hypothesize that the auditory-motor circuits and genes involved in entrainment have their origins in fish schooling behavior and respiratory-motor coupling. In this acoustic advantages hypothesis, aural costs and benefits played a key role in shaping a wide variety of traits, which could readily be exapted for entrainment and vocal learning, including social grouping, group movement, and respiratory-motor coupling. Specifically, incidental sounds of locomotion and respiration (ISLR) may have reinforced synchronization by communicating important spatial and temporal information between school-members and extending windows of silence to improve situational awareness. This process would be mutually reinforcing. Neurons in the telencephalon, which were initially involved in linking ISLR with forelimbs, could have switched functions to serve vocal machinery (e.g. mouth, beak, tongue, larynx, syrinx). While previous vocal learning hypotheses invoke transmission of neurons from visual tasks (gestures) to the auditory channel, this hypothesis involves the auditory channel from the onset. Acoustic benefits of locomotor-respiratory coordination in fish may have selected for genetic factors and brain circuitry capable of synchronizing respiratory and limb movements, predisposing tetrapod lines to synchronized movement, vocalization, and vocal learning. We discuss how the capacity to entrain is manifest in fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals, and propose predictions to test our acoustic advantages hypothesis.

  • 14.
    Larsson, Matz
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Boëthius, Göran
    Axelsson, Sara
    Montgomery, Scott M.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and health effects among hospitality workers in Sweden: before and after the implementation of a smoke-free law2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 267-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This study attempted to identify changes in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, as well as symptoms and attitudes among hospitality workers after the introduction of extended smoke-free workplace legislation.

    Methods A total of 37 volunteers working in bingo halls and casinos (gaming workers) and 54 bars and restaurant employees (other workers) in nine Swedish communities participated in the study. Altogether 71 of 91 persons (14 daily smokers and 57 nonsmokers) participated in both the preban baseline survey and the follow-up 12 months after the ban. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, smoking habits, respiratory and sensory symptoms, and attitudes towards the ban were recorded, and spirometry was carried out.

    Results The frequency of reported respiratory and sensory symptoms was approximately halved among the nonsmokers in both occupational groups after the introduction of the ban. Initially 87% had exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that was over the nicotine cut-off level chosen to identify possible health risk (<0.5 µg/m3), while, after the ban, it was only 22%, a relative risk of 0.25 (95% confidence interval 0.15–0.41). The risk decreased in both occupational groups, but gaming workers experienced the highest preban exposure levels. Attitudes towards the legislation were largely positive, particularly after the ban. However, there was no notable change in lung function, and there was no notable reduction in the number of cigarettes consumed by smokers.

    Conclusions The introduction of smoke-free legislation was associated with a substantial reduction in respiratory and sensory symptoms, as well as reduced exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at work, particularly among gaming workers.

  • 15.
    Larsson, Matz
    et al.
    Lung- och Kardiologiska klinikwn, Örebro universitetssjukhus, Örebro, Sverige.
    Boëthius, Göran
    Tobaksfakta - oberoende tankesmedja, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Bergstrand, Kristina
    Vårdcentral Kvarnsveden, Borlänge, Sverige.
    Thuresson, Marie
    Kardiologiska kliniken, Örebro universitetssjukhus, Örebro,Sverige.
    AT-läkare lär sig inte tillräckligt om livsstilsfaktorer och hälsa: de flesta får inte mer än 4 timmars undervisning, visarenkät2013In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 110, no 38, p. 1662-16663Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjukligheten hos var femtepatient bedöms betingad av livsstilsfaktorer.

    Socialstyrelsen presenterade inovember 2011 nationella riktlinjer för arbetet med att stödja hälsosamma levnadsvanor.

    I vilken omfattning får AT-läkare utbildning i hälsofrämjande arbete? För att besvara den frågan har en webbaserad enkät till landets AT-studierektorer genomförts.

    Enkäten visar stora variationer beträffande utbildning i hälsofrämjande arbete för AT-läkare.

    För såväl alkohol-, narkotika-,dopnings- och tobaksfrågor som frågor om kost och motion var utbildningstiden i de flesta fall inte mer än 4 timmar.

    Mindre än hälften angav att undervisning i strukturerad samtalsmetodik ingår i utbildningen

  • 16.
    Larsson, Matz
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Cardiology-Lung Clinic, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Damberg, Mattias
    Primärvård, psykiatri och habiliteringsverksamhet stab, Region Västmanland, Västerås, Sweden.
    Tobaksberoende2017In: Läkemedelsboken, Läkemedelsverket , 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Larsson, Matz
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Cardiology-Lung Clinic, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ekström, Seth Reino
    Audiological Research Center, Ahlsén's Research Institute, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ranjbar, Parivash
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Audiological Research Center, Ahlsén's Research Institute, Örebro, Sweden.
    Effects of sounds of locomotion on speech perception2015In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 17, no 77, p. 227-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human locomotion typically creates noise, a possible consequence of which is the masking of sound signals originating in the surroundings. When walking side by side, people often subconsciously synchronize their steps. The neurophysiological and evolutionary background of this behavior is unclear. The present study investigated the potential of sound created by walking to mask perception of speech and compared the masking produced by walking in step with that produced by unsynchronized walking. The masking sound (footsteps on gravel) and the target sound (speech) were presented through the same speaker to 15 normal-hearing subjects. The original recorded walking sound was modified to mimic the sound of two individuals walking in pace or walking out of synchrony. The participants were instructed to adjust the sound level of the target sound until they could just comprehend the speech signal ("just follow conversation" or JFC level) when presented simultaneously with synchronized or unsynchronized walking sound at 40 dBA, 50 dBA, 60 dBA, or 70 dBA. Synchronized walking sounds produced slightly less masking of speech than did unsynchronized sound. The median JFC threshold in the synchronized condition was 38.5 dBA, while the corresponding value for the unsynchronized condition was 41.2 dBA. Combined results at all sound pressure levels showed an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for synchronized footsteps; the median difference was 2.7 dB and the mean difference was 1.2 dB [P < 0.001, repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA)]. The difference was significant for masker levels of 50 dBA and 60 dBA, but not for 40 dBA or 70 dBA. This study provides evidence that synchronized walking may reduce the masking potential of footsteps.

  • 18.
    Larsson, Matz L.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Frisk, Margot
    Hallström, Jan
    Kiviloog, Jaak
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Environmental tobacco smoke exposure during childhood is associated with increased prevalence of asthma in adults2001In: Chest, ISSN 0012-3692, E-ISSN 1931-3543, Vol. 120, no 3, p. 711-717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) during childhood has an impact on asthma prevalence in adults, and to identify the amount of nuisance from ETS and other lower airway irritants (LAWIs) in a city population.

    DESIGN: A postal survey.

    SETTING: The municipality of Orebro, Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: A total of 8,008 randomly selected inhabitants aged 15 to 69 years.

    MEASUREMENTS: Exposures, airway symptoms, and respiratory history were assessed using a questionnaire.

    RESULTS: The response rate was 84%. In never-smokers with childhood ETS exposure, the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was 7.6% vs 5.9% in nonexposed subjects (p = 0.036). In never-smokers without a family history of asthma, the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma in subjects reporting childhood ETS exposure was 6.8% vs 3.8% in nonexposed subjects (p < 0.001). Subjects with childhood ETS exposure were more likely to start smoking in adulthood. The prevalence of ever-smokers was 54.5% vs 33.8% (p < 0.0001) in nonexposed subjects. ETS was the most commonly reported LAWI in the total sample (21%), followed by exercise in cold air (20%), dust (19%), exercise (16%), perfume (15%), cold air (12%), pollen (10%), and pets (8%). All LAWIs were more frequently reported by women.

    CONCLUSIONS: Childhood exposure to ETS is associated with an increased prevalence of asthma among adult never-smokers, especially in nonatopic subjects. Children exposed to ETS are also more likely to become smokers. ETS is as a major LAWI.

  • 19.
    Larsson, Matz L.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Loit, H.-M.
    Meren, M.
    Pölluste, J.
    Magnusson, A.
    Larsson, K.
    Lundbäck, B.
    Passive smoking and respiratory symptoms in the FinEsS Study2003In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 672-676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between reported environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and respiratory symptoms. In 1996, a postal questionnaire was randomly distributed in three areas of Estonia to a population-based sample, of which 4,995 females and 1,822 males had never smoked. The main outcome measures were current respiratory symptoms and the amount of reported ETS exposure outside the home. ETS exposure at home was more common in females (31% versus 19%), while exposure outside of the home was more common in males (53% versus 7%). Females reported more symptoms from tobacco smoke than males (37.7% versus 21.6%). If ETS exposure outside of the home exceeded 5 h daily, the risk for wheeze (odds ratio (OR) 2.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.98-3.61) and physician-diagnosed asthma (OR 1.79, 1.02-3.16) were increased. ETS exposure outside of the home was shown to be strongly related to almost all respiratory symptoms in a dose/response manner. ETS exposure at home did not show significantly elevated ORs for any respiratory symptoms. This study shows that females seem to be more troubled by environmental smoke exposure than males and provides further evidence of the serious health hazards associated with environmental smoke exposure. Indeed, the findings of this study support a ban on smoking in the workplace and public areas.

  • 20.
    Larsson, Matz L.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Magnuson, Anders
    Montgomery, Scott M.
    Parental smoking and allergic sensitization in offspring defined by skin prick testing2005In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 449-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations of parental smoking during childhood and allergic sensitization have produced contradictory results, but this may be because of variations in the definition of allergy and other influences. We investigated associations of parental smoking with an objective measure of allergy, skin prick testing (SPT), and considered associations with maternal and paternal smoking, independently of each other. A stratified random sample, aged 22-74 yr, of 720 Swedish FinEsS-study members were skin prick tested for 15 allergens. Subjects with at least one positive SPT were defined as atopic. Data on childhood exposures, including parental smoking, were collected by structured interview. Logistic regression used atopy as the dependent variable. After adjustment, paternal smoking was statistically significantly associated with an increased risk and maternal smoking a non-statistically significant decreased risk in offspring, with odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) of 1.48 (1.04-2.10) and 0.73 (0.48-1.12), respectively. Analysis of families with a non-smoking mother produced an odds ratio for paternal smoking of 1.61 (1.09-2.37). The negative association between maternal smoking and atopy may not operate through passive smoke exposure and could conceal a significant increased risk associated with passive exposure to tobacco smoke in childhood.

  • 21.
    Larsson, Matz
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Montgomery, Scott M.
    Does maternal smoking during pregnancy influence physical control and coordination among offspring?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Larsson, Matz
    et al.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; The Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Montgomery, Scott M.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Maternal smoking during pregnancy and physical control and coordination among offspring2011In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 65, no 12, p. 1151-1158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background To examine if smoking during pregnancy is associated with poorer motor competence among offspring, indicating impaired neurological function. The measures may be less susceptible to socioeconomic confounding than cognition tests. Methods Data were from 13 207 members of the National Child Development Study, born in Great Britain in 1958. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was recorded prospectively. Tests of physical control and coordination administered by a school doctor at age 11 years were: time to pick up 20 matches (PUM), number of squares marked (NSM) and copying designs (CD). PUM and NSM were tested for left and right hand. Test scores were dependent variables in linear regression analysis, with adjustment for maternal smoking during pregnancy, sex, birth weight standardised for gestational age, breast-feeding, social class, parental education, mother's age, laterality and pubertal development. Results After adjustment, heavy smoking during pregnancy was statistically significantly associated with PUM (non-dominant hand) and CD, but not NSM; particularly among boys. The regression coefficients (and 95% CI) for PUM (non-dominant hand) are 1.474 (0.47 to 2.48, p=0.004) and 1.203 (0.15 to 2.26, p=0.026) for boys and girls, respectively: higher scores indicate poorer performance. The coefficients for CD are -0.185 (-0.32 to -0.05, p=0.006) for boys and 0.020 (-0.11 to 0.15, p=0.753) for girls: lower scores indicate poorer performance. Conclusions Smoking during pregnancy is associated with subtly reduced motor competence, particularly on the non-dominant side. Statistically significant effect modification by sex was observed for only one test, providing equivocal evidence of a sex difference.

  • 23.
    Meehan, Adrian David
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Abbott, Benjamin W.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA.
    Larsson, Matz
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Cardiology-Lung Clinic, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Movement Is the Song of the Body: Reflections on the Evolution of Rhythm and Music and Its Possible Significance for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease2017In: Evolutionary Studies in Imaginative Culture, ISSN 2472-9884, E-ISSN 2472-9876, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 73-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Schooling fish, swarms of starlings, plodding wildebeest, and musicians all display impressive synchronization. To what extent do they use acoustic cues to achieve these feats? Could the acoustic cues used in movement synchronization be relevant to the treatment of movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) in humans? In this paper, we build on the emerging view in evolutionary biology that the ability to synchronize movement evolved long before language, in part due to acoustic advantages. We use this insight to explore potential mechanisms explaining why music therapy has beneficial effects for PD patients. We hypothesize that rhythmic auditory cues, particularly music, can stimulate neuronal and behavioral processes that ease the symptoms and potentially the causes of PD because the neural circuits used in auditory entrainment at individual and group levels are associated with dopamine production. We summarize current treatment of PD and outline how new insights from an evolutionary perspective could improve understanding and eventual treatment of movement disorders in humans.

  • 24.
    Westerdahl, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Physiotherapy/CAMTÖ.
    Arne, Mats
    Department of Medical Sciences Respiratory, Allergy & Sleep Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Centre for clinical research, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Larsson, Matz
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. The Heart-Lung Clinic, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; The Tobacco preventive unit, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden.
    Engman, Kjell Ola
    Sörmland County Council, Nyköping, Sweden.
    Spirometry to motivate smoking cessation - a systematic review2018In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 52, no Suppl. 62, article id PA1734Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Westerdahl, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Centre for Assessment of Medical Technology in Örebro, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Physiotherapy, University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Engman, Kjell Ola
    Sörmland County Council, Medical Advisory Committee, Nyköping, Sweden.
    Arne, Mats
    Centre for Clinical Research, Region Värmland, Karlstad, Sweden; Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory, Allergy and Sleep Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Matz
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Clinical Health Promotion Centre, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; The Heart, Lung and Physiology Clinic, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Spirometry to increase smoking cessation rate: A systematic review2019In: Tobacco Induced Diseases, ISSN 1617-9625, E-ISSN 1617-9625, Vol. 17, article id 31Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Addressing tobacco use is an important issue in general health care. In order to improve smoking cessation advice, spirometry values can be displayed to the smoker to demonstrate possible lung function impairment. The estimate of so-called lung age may show a decrease in lung function associated with smoking. It has been suggested that performing spirometry on patients who smoke but are asymptomatic can be a useful way to show the adverse effects of smoking. The aim of this systematic review was to determine if providing spirometry results in combination with smoking cessation counselling can increase smoking cessation rates compared to what is achieved through counselling alone.

    METHODS: In this systematic review, we included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating smoking cessation interventions for adult smokers. The systematic search was performed in PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, Cinahl, Embase, Amed and PsycInfo.

    RESULTS: The literature search resulted in 946 studies, which, after reading by two independent reviewers, were reduced to seven trials that matched the inclusion criteria. Two RCTs showed significant improvement in smoking cessation when giving patients feedback on spirometry results in combination with smoking cessation counselling, compared to patients who received only smoking cessation counselling. In both studies, the spirometry results were expressed as lung age. In the other five studies no difference was found. Five further published study protocols for ongoing RCT studies in the field have been found, and therefore this systematic overview will likely need to be updated within a few years.

    CONCLUSIONS: Few studies have been undertaken to examine the efficacy of spirometry in increasing smoking quit rates. Studies conducted to date have shown mixed results, and there is currently limited evidence in the literature that smoking cessation counselling that includes feedback from spirometry and a demonstration of lung age promotes quit rates.

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