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  • 1.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Sweden.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Transitions from Physical Education Teacher Education to teaching practices in Physical Education2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research display mixed results regarding the impact that teacher education have on teaching practices in schools. While some studies indicate weak influence of teacher education, others display that some content and perspectives in teacher education seem to find their expressions in school practice. Despite the lack of research about the impact of physical education teacher education (PETE), a few existing studies display the same twofold result as for teacher education in general. In this study, we have chosen a certain content, assessment of learning (AFL) in order to investigate the influence that PETE can have for newly qualified teachers (NQT) in physical education (PE). The aim of the project is twofold. Firstly, inspired by Bernstein’s theory of the pedagogic device, the aim is to investigate how AFL is constructed in university courses, re-contextualised in practicum courses, and realised in teaching practice in school PE. Secondly, and inspired by Ball’s theory of performativity, the aim is to analyse fabrications of AFL in the transitions from PETE to PE teaching practice. The design of the project is to follow a total of 10 PETE students recruited from two different PETE universities in Sweden to study how their understanding and teaching practice of AFL is transformed from PETE to PE. Empirical material will be gathered from recordings of seminars, observations for teaching, stimulated-recall-interviews, and participation in social media.

  • 2.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    School of Health and Welfare, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Department of Primary and Secondary Teacher Education, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Public Health and Sport Sciences, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; School of Education and Learning, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Peer assessment in physical education teacher education: a complex process making social and physical capital visible2023In: Curriculum Studies in Health and Physical Education, ISSN 2574-2981, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peer assessment has been proven to improve learning for both the observer and the observed. One dimension of peer assessment that has been given little attention in the context of physical education teacher education (PETE) is the tension that exists when peers give feedback on each other’s work. In this paper, we report on Swedish preservice teachers’ (PST) views on peer assessment used in PETE school placements. Our findings reveal four mechanisms of peer assessment assigned value in PETE: (i) building social relations, (ii)making ‘what to learn’ visible, (iii) giving correct feedback, and(iv) handling sensitive and gendered comments. Inspired by Bourdieu, we discuss learning potentials and complex challenges with peer assessment, where the combination of social capital and physical capital decides what is possible to say and to whom when peer assessment is used in the PETE school placement and in school physical education (PE).

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  • 3.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, Sweden .
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    How does physical education teacher education matter?: A methodological approach to understand transitions of content areas from PETE to PE2021In: Book of Abstracts: 2021 AIESEP Scientific Conference, University of Alberta, McGill University, 2021, p. 193-193Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we will address the question of how physical education teacher education (PETE) matters and suggest one way to explore the potential impact of PETE. A distinguishing feature of the studies of PETE’s impact on physical education is that they either include perspectives from preservice teachers involved in PETE courses or perspectives from physical education teachers in schools looking back at their education. Longitudinal attempts to follow preservice teachers’ journey from education to workplace, in order to grasp how they perceive the relation between teacher education and teaching practice in schools, and transitionsbetween these contexts, are few and far between. This gap of knowledge is a missing piece of the puzzle to further develop PETE, and to inform courses or life-long professional development for teachers. The purpose of this paper is to present a methodological approach for investigating transitions of content areas from courses in PETE into teaching practice in school physical education. This will be done trough combining the theoretical perspectives of Bernstein and Ball with a longitudinal study design. The theory of Bernstein enables us to say something about howpedagogic discourses are constructed, recontextualised and realised in PETE and in school physical education. The theory of Ball enables us to say something about about whatcontent areas become, in terms of fabrications, in the transition between these contexts. The longitudinal design will provide us with answers to how and what pedagogic discourses regarding content areas are transformed into in and between PETE and school physical education. The suggested methodology involves Stimulated Recall (SR) interviews, observations and communication with groups through social media. SR-interviews provides an immediateness in the reflection on teaching practice and content areas. Using social media groups is an effective strategy for maintaining contact with examined preservice teachers when they leave university.

  • 4.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    School of Health and Welfare, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    School of Education and Learning, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    How does physical education teacher education matter?: A methodological approach to understanding transitions from PETE to school physical education2023In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 411-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In this paper, we will address the question of how physical education teacher education (PETE) matters and suggest one way to explore the potential impact of PETE. A distinguishing feature of the studies of PETE's impact on physical education is that they either include perspectives from preservice teachers involved in PETE courses or perspectives from physical education teachers in schools looking back at their education. Longitudinal attempts to follow preservice teachers’ journey from education to workplace, in order to grasp how they perceive the relation between teacher education and teaching practice in schools, and the transition between these contexts, are few and far between. This gap of knowledge is a missing piece of the puzzle to further develop PETE, and to inform life-long professional development for teachers.

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we develop and present a methodological approach for investigating the transition of content areas from courses in PETE into teaching practice in school physical education. Second, we will illustrate the potential utility of this methodological approach in longitudinal studies by showing how one particular content area, Assessment for Learning (AfL), was investigated through the use of methods and theories described in the first part of this paper.

    Methodology: The suggested longitudinal approach involves Stimulated Recall (SR) interviews with pre- and postservice teachers, observations and communication with groups of students and teachers through social media. The construction, recontextualisation and realisation of pedagogic discourses regarding content areas are suggested to be analysed through a combination of Bernstein's concept of the pedagogic device and Ball's concept of fabrication.

    Results and Conclusions: The longitudinal design and the suggested methodology can provide answers to how content areas are transformed in and between PETE and school physical education. A combination of the theoretical perspectives of Bernstein and Ball enables us to say something not only about how pedagogic discourses regarding content areas are constructed, recontextualised and realised in PETE and school physical education, but also about what content areas become in terms of fabrications in the transition between these contexts. To conclude, we argue that the methodological research design can be used to explore different content areas in PETE and that this methodology can contribute to knowledge about how PETE matters for school physical education.

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    How does physical education teacher education matter?: A methodological approach to understanding transitions from PETE to school physical education
  • 5.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Bedömning för lärande - inifrån och ut: Ett manuskript till min Docenturföreläsning vid Örebro universitet, den 7/5-2024Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolundervisning ska vila på vetenskaplig grund och beprövad erfarenhet. Därmed har lärarutbildningen en viktig roll att fylla, genom att skapa förutsättningar för lärarstudenter att utveckla ett forskande arbetssätt inför yrkeslivet. Målsättningen med denna text är att visa hur det kan gå till i praktiken. Jag har länge forskat och undervisat inom samma kunskapsområde, bedömning för lärande i skolämnet idrott och hälsa och inom ämneslärarprogrammet. Dessutom har samverkan mellan bedömningskurserna på campus och övningsskolornas bedömningspraktik genererat en beprövad erfarenhet beträffande bedömning för lärande, som jag gärna delar med mig av i form av en berättelse. 

    Syftet med min berättelse är att återge hur forskning, undervisning och beprövad erfarenhet kan utvecklas i en sammanlänkad process och föra ett resonemang kring vad denna process har att erbjuda för studenters lärande inom ämneslärarprogrammet. 

    Idén att dela med mig av mina erfarenheter i form av en berättelse är inspirerad av en självbiografisk narrativ metodologi. Efter en redogörelse för vad bedömning för lärande blir och gör under olika omständigheter avslutas berättelsen med några förslag på arbetssätt som kan överbrygga glappet mellan teori och praktik inom lärarutbildningen. Dessutom skulle berättelsen kunna användas som ämnesdidaktiskt läromedel, som ett komplement till allmändidaktisk litteratur om bedömning för lärande. 

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  • 6.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Bedömning för lärande i ämnet idrott och hälsa: didaktiska konsekvenser av styrning2014Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of assessment for learning (AFL) in upper secondary PE, in terms of governance and its possible consequences for the subjects in the teaching and learning triangle (the teacher, the student) and the subject content. The study is conducted in three steps: i) How do a group of PE-teachers describe their ways of realizing assessment for learning in their teaching practice? ii) How can their reflections about AFL be understood from a governmentality perspective? iii) Depending on what forms of governance that are dominant in the teachers’ reflections about AFL, different consequences can be argued in the triadic relation between the teacher, the student and the subject content. The analysis highlights different roles of the teacher as a coach, an administrator or a moderator. These teacher roles have different expectations of the students, emphasizing the individual’s learning, accountability or group development. Consequently the subject content can be perceived as flexible, standardized or negotiable. Thus assessment for learning in PE can be described as:

    - An educational approach, promoting the individual’s selfrealization, through the right to choose her own way towards the goals and take responsibility for her own learning.

    - A control instrument in line with the accountability regime. Different assessment techniques are used in order to adapt the student to the standards and not the other way around; adapt the teaching and learning to meet student needs.

    - A systematic way of linking (group-) reflection to physical activities, which denotes a holistic approach to body/mind. The teaching practice is characterized by communication and negotiation about how to reach the goals in suitable ways for the group.

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    Avhandling
  • 7.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Bedömning för vilket lärande?: En studie av vad bedömning för lärande blir och gör i ämnet idrott och hälsa2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation deals with the didactic consequences of assessment for learning (AfL) in the subject of physical education and health (PEH) at three upper secondary schools in Sweden. The purpose of the study is to investigate how assessment for learning is realised in PEH and what triadic relations between the teacher, student and subject content are established in the formative assessment practice. The empirical material consists of group reflections within a Teacher Learning Community (TLC) as well as field studies, including lesson observations and semi structured interviews with both students and teachers. In the first step of the analysis the material is categorized by means of the five key strategies (Wiliam, 2010a), in order to identify different ways of working with AfL in upper secondary PEH. The second step is a combination of a governmentality (Foucault, 1978/1991b), a performativity (Ball, 2003) and a didactic (Hudson, 2002) analysis, which illuminates what triadic relations are established under different conditions of governance.

    The findings highlight five fabrications of AfL in PEH, named after their most prominent features or functions, AfL as: i) Empowerment, ii) Physical Activation, iii) Grade Generation, iv) Constructive Alignment, v) Negotiation. ”Among the products of discursive practices are the very persons who engage in them” (Davies & Harré, 2001, p. 263). Accordingly, different teacher and student subjects as well as characteristics of the subject content are constituted in each of these fabrications.

    Moreover, the so called ‘backwash effect’ (Torrance, 2012) implies that the contrasting versions of AfL promote different kinds of learning, such as: i) increased autonomy, ii) participation in a community of practice, iii) criteria compliance, iv) acquisition of prescribed abilities, v) group development. However, the big idea of AfL is to adapt the teaching to the students and not the students to the knowledge requirements. Hence, this dissertation could serve as a basis for discussion on possible didactic implications of AfL in PEH.

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    Bedömning för vilket lärande?: En studie av vad bedömning för lärande blir och gör i ämnet idrott och hälsa
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    Errata
  • 8.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Different versions of assessment for learning in the subject of physical education2018In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 311-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Assessment for learning (AfL) is now marketed across the Western world as a key to an improved goal attainment in most school subjects. The concept has also attracted increased interest in the international research field of physical education (PE) in recent years. According to (Chan, K., P. J. Hay, and R. Tinning. 2011. “Understandingthe Pedagogic Discourse of Assessment in Physical Education.” Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education 2 (1): 3–18) assessment both influences the teaching and learning process and defines its product, which is referred to as the ‘backwash effect’. Contrasting versions of AfL will therefore have different consequences, regarding the constitution of teacher and student subjectivities as wellas characteristics of the subject content. These consequences can be understood in terms of didactics, which in a European research tradition focuses on the relationship between teacher, student and subject content (Hudson, B., and M. A. Meyer, eds. 2011. Beyond Fragmentation:Didactics, Learning and Teaching in Europe. Opladen and FarmingtonHills: Barbara Budrich Publishers).

    Purpose and research question: The purpose of the study is to identify teacher and student subjectivities as well as subject content, constituted through different versions of AfL in school PE. The identification of the different versions of AfL and the relations established through each of them is facilitated by the research question: ‘What is performed and produced in the formative assessment practice of PE?’ The findings are then discussed on the basis of the question: ‘Assessment for what learning?’

    Methods: In order to answer the research question, a mixed method of lesson observations and semi-structured interviews was used (cf. Patton,M. Q. 2002. Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. 3rd ed.Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications Inc). Thirteen PE lessons were observed at two different upper secondary schools, involving four classes attaining both vocational and pre-university programmes. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 17 of the students and their two male PE teachers. The empirical material consisted of field notes and transcriptions of the interviews, with an emphasis on the latter. In the first step of the analysis the material was categorised by means of the five key strategies of AfL (Wiliam, D. 2011. “What is Assessment forLearning?” Studies in Educational Evaluation 37: 3–14. Elsevier), in order to identify different ways of realising the concept in the subject of PE. The second step was a combination of a performativity (Ball, S. J. 2003.“The Teacher’s Soul and the Terrors of Performativity.” Journal of Education Policy 18 (2): 215–228) and a didactic (Hudson, B. 2002.“Holding Complexity and Searching for Meaning: Teaching as Reflective Practice.” Journal of Curriculum Studies 34 (1): 43–57) analysis, which clarified the relations established under different circumstances in the formative assessment practice.

    Findings: The findings highlight five versions of AfL in PE, named after their most prominent features or functions, AfL as: (i) Empowerment, (ii)Physical Activation, (iii) Constructive Alignment, (iv) Grade Generation, (v) Negotiation. ‘Among the products of discursive practices are the very persons who engage in them’ (Davies, B., and R. Harré. 2001.“Positioning: The Discursive Production of Selves.” In Discourse Theoryand Practice, edited by M. Wetherell, S. Taylor, and S. J. Yates. London:Sage, 263). Accordingly, different teacher and student subjectivities as well as characteristics of the subject content are constituted in each of these fabrications.

    Conclusions: The so-called ‘backwash effect’ (Torrance, H. 2012.“Formative Assessment at the Crossroads: Conformative, Deformativeand Transformative Assessment.” Oxford Review of Education 38 (3): 323–342. London: Routledge) implies that the contrasting versions of AfL promote different kinds of learning, such as: (i) increased autonomy, (ii) participation in a community of practice, (iii) acquisition of prescribedabilities, (iv) criteria compliance, (v) group development. However, the big idea of AfL is to adapt the teaching to the students and not the students to the standards.

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    Different versions of assessment for learning in the subject of physical education
  • 9.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Olika versioner av "bedömning för lärande" i ämnet idrott och hälsa2017In: Idrott & hälsa, ISSN 1653-1124, no 5&6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    Olika versioner av "bedömning för lärande" i ämnet idrott och hälsa
  • 10.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. IHM.
    Promoting integration through Physical Education2019In: Promoting integration through Physical Education, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose: Due to migratory movements, many advanced liberal democracies of today are characterised by cultural heterogeneity. A common problem in these societies is segregation, which is also reflected in schools. In Sweden, this challenge is currently tackled through ‘bussing projects’ in order to promote integration and improve performances results. The research interest is directed at one of the schools where ‘the bus for inclusion’ stops every morning. According to Bunar (2015), physical education (PE) is regarded as a school subject of particular importance for integration. However, Barker and Lundvall (2016) note that PE is ‘unprepared for changing societies’. Based on the (high or low) expectations of PE as an integration subject, the study focuses on the promotion of integration through PE.

    The purpose of the study is to explore how the promotion of integration is carried out through the PE teacher’s pedagogical actions and the pupils’ ways of acting on them and also what the consequences of this ‘action upon action’ (Foucault, 1982/1994, p. 340) in the PE practice are likely to be.

    Methods: The study focused on a PE teacher (a forty-year-old white male) and a heterogeneous class of pupils. The purposive sampling strategy was to ask the PE teacher which of his classes he would recommend for the study, based on a broad spectrum of cultural identities. The teacher recommended a class in school year seven, with pupils aged 13. The field work involved observing a total of eighteen lessons throughout the autumn term in 2018. The observations were complemented by two semi-structured interviews with the PE teacher, at the beginning and at the end of the research project. The field notes and transcriptions were analysed from a governmentality perspective (Foucault,1978/1994).

    Results: The PE teacher’s pedagogical actions are promoting intercultural encounters, collaboration and mutual respect. Depending on the pupils’ compliance or resistance to the teacher’s guidance, the consequences are likely to differ. In the case of compliance, subjectivities with intercultural competences and interpersonal skills are constituted. Potentially, this subjectification process benefits integration in a neoliberal society like Sweden. In the case of resistance, a certain degree of segregation will remain as long as the pupils continue to solely identify themselves with those from similar cultural backgrounds and exclude others.

    Conclusion: The study connects the municipality’s ‘government at a distance’ with ‘the microphysics of power’ in the PE practice. As suggested by Walters (2012), the analysis then builds outwards again, which makes it possible to speculate on consequences at the macro level. Thus, this article shows how a PE teacher’s guidance can make a difference, not only in the gym, but in society as a whole. 

  • 11.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. IHM.
    Promoting integration through physical education (?)2020In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 20, no 9, p. 1029-1042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common problem in contemporary western societies is segregation,which is also reflected in schools. The point of departure for this study is apolitical initiative in Sweden, where pupils are being transported by busfrom a suburb to different schools in the city with the aim of promotingintegration and improved performance results. The study focuses on theteaching practice of Physical Education (PE) at one of the schools where‘the bus for inclusion’ stops every morning. The research questionconcerns how ‘the political action’ of the bussing project is ‘acted upon’in the subject of PE. The purpose is to explore what becomes of thisparticular PE practice, in terms of rationalities encompassing a PEteacher’s pedagogical actions and the pupils’ ways of acting on them. Thedata, gathered through extensive fieldwork, including lesson observationsand interviews, is analysed from a governmentality perspective [Foucault,1978/1994. Governmentality. In Power (pp. 201–222). New York: The NewPress]. The findings highlight three underlying rationalities in regards tointegration, aiming at promoting intercultural encounters, collaborationand mutual respect. These rationalities, manifested through the PEteacher’s pedagogical actions, offer guidance for the pupil seen as ‘asubject seeking to construct himself or herself’ [Wieviorka 2014. A critiqueof integration. Identities, 21(6), 633–641, 636–637]. In case of compliance,the notion of ‘us and them’ is countered and a shared experience ofbelonging is achieved through teamwork and self-regulation. In case ofresistance, segregation is maintained in the school community as well asin society as a whole. This study does not contribute any incontestableevidence of social inclusion through PE [cf. Bailey, 2005. Evaluating therelationship between physical education, sport and social inclusion.Educational Review, 57(1), 71–90; Dagkas, 2018. Is social inclusion throughPE, sport and PA still a rhetoric? Evaluating the relationship betweenphysical education, sport and social inclusion. Educational Review, 70(1),67–74]. However, the findings indicate that ‘action upon action’ in aculturally heterogeneous PE practice makes a difference insofar asintegration is understood as a process of subjectivation [Wieviorka 2014.A critique of integration. Identities, 21(6), 633–641]. Depending on thedirection of the PE teacher’s guidance, the process might tend towardseither cultural assimilation or pluralistic integration [Grimminger, 2008.Promoting intercultural competence in the continuing education ofphysical education teachers. Sport-Integration-Europe, 310–320].

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    Promoting integration through physical education
  • 12.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Transformative assessment in physical education2019In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 1211-1225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on assessment processes in the school subject of physical education (PE). Inspired by Torrance, the overarching research question is: ‘What might assessment involve if it focuses on the development and identification of collective understanding, collaboratively produced through educational experiences?’ The purpose of the study is to illustrate what characterises transformative assessment and show how it can be addressed in PE practice. A combination of group interviews with teachers, lesson observations and individual interviews with students and teachers was used to gather the empirical material. The analysis was based on three aspects of transformative assessment: responsibilisation; subjectification; and collaboration. Three empirical illustrations show what transformative assessment might involve in relation to learning tasks such as: the training log; the group choreography; and the case of exercise physiology. The views presented in this article contribute to the knowledge about the field in the following ways. First, the illustrations show that the ‘whats’, ‘hows’, ‘whoms’ and ‘whys’ in the assessment practice are often negotiable, which prevents a simplified understanding of the four aspects of assessment literacy: comprehension; application; interpretation; and critical engagement. Second, the notion of transformative assessment could hinder a reductive use of assessment for learning and promote collaborative learning and social justice in today’s heterogeneous PE practices.

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    Transformative assessment in physical education
  • 13.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Transformative assessment in the subject of physical education.2018Conference paper (Refereed)
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    Transformative assessment in the subject of physical education.
  • 14.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Between ideal teaching and 'what works': The transmission and transformation of a content area from university to school placements within physical education teacher education2021In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 312-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore the recontextualisation of Assessment for Learning (AfL) as a particular content area in the transition between a university course and a school placement course within Swedish Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE). By combining Basil Bernstein’s (1996) pedagogic device and Stephen Ball’s (2000, 2003) performativity perspective, we alternately ask how AfL is constructed as a pedagogic discourse and what AfL becomes in different contexts within PETE. Nine students attending a Swedish PETE programme participated in the study. The empirical material was collected through one seminar and two group interviews at the university as well as through nine individual interviews based on lesson observations at different school placements. Our findings highlight five recontextualising rules, which indicate that: (1) the task of integrating assessment into teaching enables the use of AfL; (2) an exclusive focus on summative assessment and grading constrains the use of AfL; (3) a lack of critical engagement with physical education teaching traditions constrains the use of AfL; (4) knowing the pupils is crucial for the use of AfL; and (5) the framing of the school placements determines how AfL can be used. As a consequence of these rules, AfL was transformed into three different fabrications: (1) AfL as ideal teaching; (2) AfL as correction of shortcomings; and (3) AfL as ‘what works’. One conclusion from this study is that increased collaboration between teacher educators and cooperating teachers in schools can help strengthen PETE’s influence on school physical education.

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    Between ideal teaching and ‘what works’: The transmission and transformation of a content area from university to school placements within physical education teacher education
  • 15.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Sciences and School of Teacher Education, Falun, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Sciences and School of Teacher Education, Falun, Sweden.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Social and Health Sciences, Elverum, Norway.
    Exploring Movement Composition in the transition from physical education teacher education to school PE2022In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Scholars have suggested that students’ views of what is important for them to know as Physical Education (PE) teachers are a result of what is assessed in Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE). Thus, there is a risk that students will reproduce content areas such as sports and assess sport-techniques without much critical consideration. In this study, however, the risk of reproducing what is prioritised in PETE is seen as an opportunity regarding the potential reproduction of other content areas than sports. Based on the regulative principles of PE and PETE that privilege sport skills and hinder creative movement learning, we focus on a content area in PETE that provides opportunities for students to engage in creative collaboration and examine how this content area is realised in school PE. Hence, we have chosen to explore ‘Movement Composition’, a content area which has a long tradition at one of the PETE universities in Sweden. Based on an overarching interest in whether and how PETE matters, this exploratory study focuses on the potential transferability of Movement Composition as a particular content area in the transition from PETE to PE.

    Purpose and research question: The purpose of this study is to explore Movement Composition as a content area undergoing the transition from PETE to school PE. The research question is: How is the pedagogic discourse of Movement Composition constructed, recontextualised and realised in the transition from PETE to school PE?

    Methods: Data was generated through an interview with one of the initiators of Movement Composition. Stimulated Recall interviews and Zoom interviews were also conducted with a group of five PETE students and three experienced PE teachers. In addition, documents such as the study guide, course literature, and written assignments associated with Movement Composition in the PETE programme were included in the empirical material. In the analysis, the combination of Bernstein’s pedagogic device and the Swedish didactics of PE research tradition was used to identify the pedagogic discourse of Movement Composition in the transition from PETE to school PE.

    Findings: The findings show how the pedagogic discourse of Movement Composition as a content area is constructed, recontextualised and realised in the transition from PETE to school PE. The construction of Movement Composition as a pedagogic discourse in PETE is about how the content area (the what) is selected and organised for pedagogical purposes. The recontextualisation of Movement Composition is about how the pedagogic discourse is interpreted and translated in relation to the PE syllabus. The realisation of Movement Composition involves how the content area in PETE is implemented in PE practice.

    Conclusions: This exploratory study has shown that what is articulated as a relevant content area and the way it is taught, learned, and assessed in PETE in many regards survives the transition to school PE. The transition from PETE to school PE does not only involve reproduction of sports and sport-techniques from one context to another. PETE also contributes to the use of creative, collaborative, and student-centred learning tasks in school PE.

  • 16.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Backman, Erik
    School of Health and Welfare, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Gunn, Nyberg
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    The 'Dream Picture' of Assessment for Learning is Hard to Realise in Practice2021Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    The glocalization of physical education assessment discourse2023In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational discourse is becoming increasingly globalized. This trend is particularly pronounced in the area of assessment, where notions of accountability, comparability, and competition have become prevalent in many countries. Scholars have critiqued this trend. They contend that global assessment discourse provides educators with decontextualized terms and concepts for teaching, which have little connection to the lives of learners. The specific purpose of the paper is to critically consider the encounter between global PE assessment discourse and local educational traditions. The International Association for Physical Education in Higher Education (AIESEP) position statement on physical education assessment is taken as a case of global assessment discourse and is considered in relation to Swedish physical education traditions. Robertson’s [(1995) notion of glocalization is employed as a theoretical perspective. We begin our consideration by outlining general tenets of the position statement and of Swedish physical education. We then examine areas of synergy and tension. This examination is structured according to six issues: (1) rationales for assessment; (2) underlying views of learning; (3) teachers’ role in teaching and assessment; (4) positioning of students;(5) understandings of subject content, and; (6) the ways in which contextual conditions are framed. Using a glocalization perspective, we raise three issues that have a strong bearing on the encounter between global discourse and local educational traditions and which provide insights into how assessment discourse within PE can be understood. These issues concern: (1) the risk of local educational traditions being appropriated by global assessment discourse; (2) the relation between assessment homogeneity and local diversity; and (3) meaningful PE practices. The paper is concluded with general reflections concerning implications for research and practice.

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    The glocalization of physical education assessment discourse
  • 18.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Primary and Secondary Teacher Education, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.
    Nyberg, G.
    Department of Sport and Health Science, University of Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Larsson, H.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Assessment for and of learning in nonlinear movement education practices2023In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Principles such as instructional alignment and step-by-step progression are often seen as crucial features of good assessment practices in school physical education (PE). These features are problematic from nonlinear educational perspectives, which are based on the idea that movement learning cannot be expected to take place in the same manner for all students. Without some resolution of the contradiction between nonlinear pedagogies and principles of good assessment, the likelihood of physical educators fully embracing any kind of nonlinear approach to movement education remains doubtful.

    Purpose and research question: Our purpose in this paper is to illustrate how assessment for and of learning (AfL and AoL) can look when implemented in nonlinear movement education practices.  

    Methods: Illustrations of AfL and AoL are drawn from an investigation in which one educator implements a nonlinear movement education module. The module focuses on juggling for students at high school (grade nine students aged approximately 15 years). The module provided students with 10 x 50-minute lessons to explore juggling. Data were generated through observations (film clips and field notes) and ethnographic-type interviews that were conducted with the students during the lessons.

    Findings: In the context of the nonlinear movement education module, AfL became: Interacting with students in joint exploration; Introducing learning strategies; Encouraging students to clarify and verbalize the object of learning; Helping students identify critical aspects of the movement activity, and; Inviting students to consider alternative learning trajectories. The educator then evaluates the students’ learning experiences in the context of a group performance at the end of the module. This performance can be seen as an instance of holistic assessment within a nonlinear movement education practice. 

    Conclusions: The suggested holistic perspective on PE assessment could help educators to: circumvent dichotomies such as mind-body and theory-practice; approach students as active meaning-makers; re-frame students’ actions as emergent and context-dependent; and replace direct instruction with explorative teaching and learning methods. The major contribution of this study is that it shows how assessment for and of learning can be implemented in nonlinear movement education practices within a linear, goal-related and criterion-referenced, education system.

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  • 19.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Larsson, Håkan
    Bedömning för och av lärande i en icke-linjär undervisningspraktik i ämnet idrott och hälsa2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion

    Linjära principer såsom ett instruktivt länkande mellan mål, undervisning och bedömning och ett främjande av en stegvis progression i olika rörelseaktiviteter betraktas ofta som avgörande aspekter av en legitim bedömningspraktik i skolämnet idrott och hälsa (idh). Dessa aspekter är problematiska från ett icke-linjärt perspektiv, som bygger på idén att lärande inte kan förväntas ske på samma sätt för alla elever, vilket även kan medföra konsekvenser beträffande bedömning. Utan en lösning på motsättningen mellan linjära principer för en legitim bedömningspraktik och ett icke-linjärt perspektiv på undervisning och lärande är det tveksamt om idrottslärare kommer att anamma ett icke-linjärt förhållningssätt i någon större utsträckning. Därför är motiverat att undersöka hur bedömning för och av lärande (formativ och summativ bedömning) skulle kunna hanteras i en icke-linjär undervisningspraktik. 

    Syfte och teoretisk ram

    Syftet med denna studie är att illustrera hur bedömning för och av lärande kan se ut när dessa bedömningsformer appliceras i en icke-linjär undervisningspraktik i ämnet idh. Det teoretiska ramverket består av tidigare forskning om icke-linjära perspektiv på undervisning och lärande (såsom Nyberg, Barker och Larsson 2021) och om bedömning i idrottsämnet (till exempel AIESEP, 2020; Tolgfors, 2019).

    Metod 

    Våra illustrationer av bedömning för och av lärande är hämtade från en empirisk studie av hur en idrottslärare implementerar icke-linjär pedagogik i ämnet idh på högstadiet. Eleverna (både pojkar och flickor) går i årskurs nio och är därmed i femtonårsåldern. Arbetsområdet fokuserar på jonglering under 10 lektioner (á 50 min). Data genererades genom lektionsobservationer (inklusive videofilmning och fältanteckningar) och samtalsliknande intervjuer med eleverna under lektionerna. 

    Analysen genomfördes genom att (1) de forskare som deltagit vid lektionsobservationerna gick igenom filmer och fältanteckningar för att välja ut sekvenser i vilka de uppfattade att det förekom situationer som kunde relateras till bedömning. (2) Två av forskarna författade provisoriska illustrationer av de valda sekvenserna, inklusive de bedömningskomponenter de identifierat. (3) I nästa steg fick förste-författaren möjlighet att tolka och översätta de provisoriska beskrivningarna till andra kategoriseringar som var kompatibla med de fem nyckelstrategierna i bedömning för lärande och Skolverkets nya riktlinjer för en sammantagen bedömning. (4) Avslutningsvis verifierades analysen av de tre medförfattarna.

    Resultat 

    I den icke-linjära undervisningspraktiken motsvaras de fem nyckelstrategierna i bedömning för lärande av att läraren: interagerar med eleverna vid ett gemensamt undersökande av rörelsekulturen; introducerar lärandestrategier, uppmuntrar eleverna att verbalisera vad de lär sig, hjälper eleverna identifiera kritiska aspekter av lärandeaktiviteten och uppmärksammar eleverna på att det kan finnas alternativa vägar mot sina uppsatta mål. Bedömning av lärande sker i slutet av perioden i form av en gruppuppvisning, då eleverna både får visa upp och sätta ord på vad de lärt sig. Denna redovisningsform erbjuder läraren en möjlighet att göra en holistisk bedömning av elevernas kunnande.

    Diskussion och slutsatser

    Det föreslagna holistiska perspektivet på bedömning i idh kan hjälpa idrottslärare att undvika dikotomier som kropp-medvetande och praktik-teori, betrakta elever som aktiva meningsskapare och därmed ersätta direkta instruktioner med undersökande arbetssätt. Studiens huvudsakliga bidrag är att den visar hur bedömning för och av lärande kan implementeras i en icke-linjär undervisningspraktik, vilket innebär att de konkurrerande perspektiven kan samexistera inom ett mål och kriteriestyrt utbildningssystem.

    Studien är publicerad i tidskriften Physical Education and Sports Pedagogy, 2023.

  • 20.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Backman, Erik
    Nyberg, Gunn
    A PE teacher's tale: Journeying from PETE to school PE2024Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of a longitudinal research project on the transition from physical education teacher education (PETE) to school physical education (PE) in Sweden, and exploring whether and how PETE matters, this paper ‘represents’ a PE teacher’s professional journey from PETE to the induction phase of PE teaching. The study focuses on the PE teacher’s use of, and reflections on, assessment for learning (AfL) (Wiliam, 2011) at different stages of the journey. The purpose of the study is to contribute knowledge about how positive experiences of AfL during PETE can enable the use of AfL in school PE for a newly qualified teacher. 

    Using narrative inquiry (Casey, et al., 2018), supported by occupational socialisation theory (Lawson, 1983), this study focuses on one male PE teacher’s professional journey from PETE to the induction phase of PE teaching. The PE teacher’s tale is represented in first person, as if it were told by ‘the traveller’ on the journey. 

    The underlying data consists of recordings of a campus-based PETE seminar, a stimulated recall interview with the participant during his school placement and two interviews with him in his role as a newly qualified PE teacher at two different schools.

    Through the PE teacher’s tale, we show how the course on assessment for and of learning in PETE and the student teacher’s positive experience of using AfL during his practicum seem to have inspired him in his later positions. On his professional journey, the traveller encounters barriers such as his colleagues’ contrasting beliefs, dominating PE teaching traditions, and pupils’ resistance. Still, AfL is not washed out from his teaching practice. Rather, the key strategies of AfL, such as sharing learning intentions, providing feedback, and activating pupils as learning resources for one another, are used to create conditions for progression. 

    In the discussion, we suggest that PETE can make a difference for student teachers who have gained positive experiences of AfL in authentic teaching situations and are able to navigate between the barriers to the use of AfL in the induction phase of PE teaching. The usefulness of this study is its potential to inspire teacher educators to implement AfL in different learning tasks during PETE and student teachers to practice AfL during their school placements. If this would occur more regularly, a content such as AfL would have a better chance of “surviving” the transition from PETE to school PE. 

    Casey, A., Fletcher, T., Schaefer, L., & Gleddie, D. (2018). Conducting practitioner research in physical education and youth sport. Reflecting on practice. London and New York: Routledge. 

    Lawson, H. A. (1983). Toward a model of teacher socialization in physical education: entry into schools, teachers' role orientations, and longevity in teaching (part 2). Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 3(1).

    Wiliam, D. (2011). What is assessment for learning?. Studies in educational evaluation, 37(1), 3-14.

  • 21.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden; Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway.
    Backman, Erik
    School of Health and Welfare, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Department of Primary and Secondary Teacher Education, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; School of Education and Learning, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    A PE teacher’s tale: journeying from teacher education to teaching practice in physical education2023In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of a longitudinal research project on the transition from physical education teacher education (PETE) to school physical education (PE) in Sweden and exploring whether and how PETE matters, this article uses narrative inquiry to ‘represent’ a PE teacher’s professional journey from PETE to the induction phase of PE teaching. The study focuses on his use of, and reflections on, ‘assessment for learning’ (AfL) at different stages of his teaching experience. The purpose of the study is to contribute knowledge about how positive experiences of AfL during PETE can enable the use of AfL in school PE for a newly qualified teacher. This is done by analysing one male PETE student’s reflections on AfL in the context of a campus-based course on PE assessment, his use of and reflections on AfL during his practicum, and in school PE as a newly qualified teacher. The data generation consisted of recordings of a PETE seminar, a stimulated recall interview with the participant during his final school placement, and two interviews with him in his role as a newly qualified PE teacher at two different schools. Through the PE teacher’s tale, we show how the campus-based course on PE assessment in PETE and the student teacher’s positive experience of using AfL during his practicum seem to have inspired him in his later positions. The results are discussed in relation to the perspective of occupational socialisation theory. This narrative inquiry suggests that PETE can make a difference for student teachers who are prepared to face the challenges of the induction phase of PE teaching and are able to navigate between the barriers that get in their way. We conclude the paper with some considerations regarding the study’s potential strength (trustworthiness), sharing (transferability) and service (usefulness).

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    fulltext
  • 22.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Enacting assessment for learning in the induction phase of physical education teaching2022In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 534-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries, assessment for learning (AfL) is recommended in both policy and research as a concept that should be integrated into the teaching of physical education (PE) in schools. AfL is also part of physical education teacher education (PETE) programs in several countries and, consequently, something future PE teachers are expected to practice in their teaching. In a previous study (Tolgfors et al., 2021), we showed how AfL was transmitted and transformed between a university course and a school placement course within Swedish PETE. In the current study, we have more closely followed three of the preservice teachers who took part in our initial study into their first year of PE teaching. The purpose of this follow-up study is thus to explore how AfL is enacted in the induction phase of PE teaching. The more specific research question is: how is AfL enacted in beginning teachers’ PE practices under the contextual conditions provided at the schools where they are employed? The data were generated through Stimulated Recall interviews and follow-up interviews via the online meeting software Zoom. The analysis was based on Braun et al.’s (2011) contextual dimensions of policy enactment and Bernstein’s (1996) pedagogic device. Our findings illustrate how AfL is generally enacted through (1) progression and (2) “rich tasks.” However, the contextual dimensions of each school provide different conditions that either support or hinder the use of AfL in PE. AfL is accordingly enacted in different ways in the induction phase of PE teaching.

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    Enacting assessment for learning in the induction phase of physical education teaching
  • 23.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    The implications of assessment for learning in physical education and health2016In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 150-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the implications of assessment for learning (AfL) in upper secondary physical education and health (PEH). Inspired by the research field that emanates from the concept of governmentality, the study is concerned with how AfL guides teachers’ and students’ actions in certain directions. Based on teachers’ descriptions of how they integrate formative assessment in their teaching practice, the purpose of this article is to investigate the possible consequences of AfL for the teacher, the student and the subject content. The findings highlight different implications of AfL when it is viewed as (i) governance through freedom, (ii) governance through control and (iii) a dialectic form of governance. These concepts constitute certain teacher and student subjects and imply specific conditions for the subject content. In their different roles, for example as coach, deliverer/administrator and moderator, teachers expect different things from their students. In the first instance, students are expected to reach the open goals by self-regulation, in terms of individual choice and personal responsibility. In the second instance, students are subjected to disciplinary normalisation through criteria compliance by means of conformative assessment. In the third instance, students are activated as learning resources for one another using physical activities followed by group reflection. The tension between freedom and control can be described as allowing students to make their own choices but ensuring that they do this in relation to a predetermined idea about what is correct.

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