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  • 1.
    Erixon, Lennart
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Johannesson, Louise
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Is the psychology of high profits detrimental to industrial renewal?: experimental evidence for the theory of transformation pressure2015In: Journal of evolutionary economics, ISSN 0936-9937, E-ISSN 1432-1386, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 475-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The theory of transformation pressure maintains, by reference to cognitive and emotional factors, that productivity and innovation are stimulated by a decline in actual profits. In periods of increasing profits, firms governed by historical relativism, the peak-end rule and overconfidence will opt for the status quo. In the following profit recession, actors become more alert, calculating and creative, favoring a transformation, especially if they fear that the survival of the firm is at stake. The theory of transformation pressure was tested by a within-subjects experiment where undergraduate students in macroeconomics acted as managers for an established company. The role play sheds light on the students' investment strategy choices and underlying psychological perceptions under varying profit conditions. The theory was only partly confirmed by the experiment. There are arguments in industrial economics, psychology and neuroscience for a qualified theory of transformation pressure. Productivity is enhanced by moderate pressure or by periodic shifts between hard pressure and good opportunity.

  • 2.
    Horn, Henrik
    et al.
    Centre for Economic Policy Research, London, United Kingdom; Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Louise
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mavroidis, Petros C.
    Centre for Economic Policy Research, London, United Kingdom; Columbia Law School, New York, United States; Faculty of Law, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
    The WTO Dispute Settlement System 1995-2010: Some Descriptive Statistics2011In: Journal of World Trade, ISSN 1011-6702, E-ISSN 2210-2795, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 1107-1138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the busiest state to state court nowadays. It is a rarity in international relations since it includes compulsory third-party adjudication and a permanent second instance court. This paper aims to shed light on the actual use of the system by WTO Members. We divide WTO Members into five distinct groups and evaluate their participation in terms of which agreements they invoke as legal benchmark to challenge practices by other WTO Members, the identity of panelists chosen, their percentage of wins and defeats, etc. The time span for our statistical observations extends from the advent of the WTO 1995 to end of 2010.

  • 3.
    Johannesson, Louise
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm.
    Are WTO disputes public goods?: Dispute effects for the membershipManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Johannesson, Louise
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm.
    Efficiency gains and time-savings of permanent panels in the WTO dispute settlementManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Johannesson, Louise
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Settling disputes at the World Trade Organization2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This cumulative dissertation consists of five self-contained essays, all of which are closely focused around issues that concern the WTO dispute settlement mechanism (DSM). In Essay 1, we describe salient features of the DSM using a unique data set. We observe a spike in new disputes in 2012, which in turn led to an increasing number of panels and appeals. This put the WTO under a heavy workload and delays soon became an issue. In Essay 2, we show that the DSM often appoint institutional insiders to serve as judges. Although the DSM was reformed under the WTO, the judges are similar to those found in the GATT. Furthermore, there is an incentive structure in place that encourage the WTO Secretariat to assume a larger role in writing panel reports and for panelists to let them. Essay 3 examines the role of Special and Differential Treatment (SDT) provision Art. 8.10 of the Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) in helping developing countries win disputes against richer countries. We observe that developing countries lose more claims when this provision is applied. I formulate a model and show that this observation can be consistent with the presumed benefit of Art. 8.10. Essay 4 addresses the problem of delays by asking ourselves whether we can lessen the problem with a permanent panel. I study features such as the panelists’ experience and prior working relationships in explaining the time it takes to issue panel reports and efficiency in examining claims. We find that prior collaboration can decrease duration. Lastly, in Essay 5, we assess the impact on trade for members that are not involved in disputes. There is evidence of positive trade effects after a dispute for noncomplainants, but the effects are limited to disputes that did not escalate to adjudication. We found no external dispute effects for adjudicated disputes.

    List of papers
    1. The WTO dispute settlement system 1995-2016: A data set and its descriptive statistics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The WTO dispute settlement system 1995-2016: A data set and its descriptive statistics
    2017 (English)In: Journal of World Trade, ISSN 1011-6702, E-ISSN 2210-2795, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 357-408Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we provide some descriptive statistics of the first twenty years of the WTO (World Trade Organization) dispute settlement., that we have extracted from the data set that we have put together, and made publicly available (http://globalgovernancepro gramme.eui.eu/wto-case-law-project/). The statistical information that we present here is divided into three thematic units: the statutory and de facto duration of each stage of the process, paying particular attention to the eventual conclusion of litigation; the identity and participation in the process of the various institutional players, that is, not only complainants and defendants, but also third parties, as well as the WTO judges (panellists and Appellate Body members); and, finally, information regarding the subjectmatter of various disputes, regarding the frequency with which claims regarding consistency of measures with the covered agreements (but also, at a more disaggregate level, e.g. specific provisions) have been raised. We call our work ‘descriptive statistics’, because, in an effort to provide raw material that will help researchers to conduct their research as they see fit, we have consciously refrained from systematically interpreting the data that we have assembled.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Kluwer Law International, 2017
    National Category
    Law and Society Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65321 (URN)000426481000001 ()2-s2.0-85021457188 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    European University Institute (EUI), Florence (Italy)

    Available from: 2018-02-28 Created: 2018-02-28 Last updated: 2018-09-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Black Cat, White Cat: The Identity of the WTO Judges
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Black Cat, White Cat: The Identity of the WTO Judges
    2015 (English)In: Journal of World Trade, ISSN 1011-6702, E-ISSN 2210-2795, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 685-698Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    World Trade Organization (WTO) judges are proposed by the WTO Secretariat and elected to act as 'judges' if either approved by the parties to a dispute, or, by the WTO Director-General in case no agreement between the parties has been possible. They are typically 'Geneva crowd', that is, they are either current or former delegates representing their country before the WTO. This observation holds for both first as well as second instance WTO judges (e.g., Panellists and members of the Appellate Body). In that, the WTO evidences an attitude strikingly similar to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Whereas the legal regime has been heavily 'legalized', the people called to enforce it remain the same.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Kluwer Law International, 2015
    National Category
    Economics Law and Society
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65322 (URN)000369123500006 ()2-s2.0-84939546487 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-02-28 Created: 2018-02-28 Last updated: 2018-02-28Bibliographically approved
    3. The Effect of Panel Composition on Developing Countries’ Success Rate in the WTO Dispute Settlement
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of Panel Composition on Developing Countries’ Success Rate in the WTO Dispute Settlement
    2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
    Publisher
    p. 30
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65323 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-02-28 Created: 2018-02-28 Last updated: 2018-07-24Bibliographically approved
    4. Efficiency gains and time-savings of permanent panels in the WTO dispute settlement
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficiency gains and time-savings of permanent panels in the WTO dispute settlement
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65326 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-02-28 Created: 2018-02-28 Last updated: 2019-05-14Bibliographically approved
    5. Are WTO disputes public goods?: Dispute effects for the membership
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are WTO disputes public goods?: Dispute effects for the membership
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65327 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-02-28 Created: 2018-02-28 Last updated: 2018-02-28Bibliographically approved
  • 6.
    Johannesson, Louise
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Effect of Panel Composition on Developing Countries’ Success Rate in the WTO Dispute Settlement2016Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Johannesson, Louise
    et al.
    IFN, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mavroidis, Petros C.
    Columbia & Neuchatel Orebro Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.;IFN Inst Ind Econ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Black Cat, White Cat: The Identity of the WTO Judges2015In: Journal of World Trade, ISSN 1011-6702, E-ISSN 2210-2795, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 685-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    World Trade Organization (WTO) judges are proposed by the WTO Secretariat and elected to act as 'judges' if either approved by the parties to a dispute, or, by the WTO Director-General in case no agreement between the parties has been possible. They are typically 'Geneva crowd', that is, they are either current or former delegates representing their country before the WTO. This observation holds for both first as well as second instance WTO judges (e.g., Panellists and members of the Appellate Body). In that, the WTO evidences an attitude strikingly similar to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Whereas the legal regime has been heavily 'legalized', the people called to enforce it remain the same.

  • 8.
    Johannesson, Louise
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mavroidis, Petros C.
    Columbia Law School, New York City, US; University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
    The WTO dispute settlement system 1995-2016: A data set and its descriptive statistics2017In: Journal of World Trade, ISSN 1011-6702, E-ISSN 2210-2795, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 357-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we provide some descriptive statistics of the first twenty years of the WTO (World Trade Organization) dispute settlement., that we have extracted from the data set that we have put together, and made publicly available (http://globalgovernancepro gramme.eui.eu/wto-case-law-project/). The statistical information that we present here is divided into three thematic units: the statutory and de facto duration of each stage of the process, paying particular attention to the eventual conclusion of litigation; the identity and participation in the process of the various institutional players, that is, not only complainants and defendants, but also third parties, as well as the WTO judges (panellists and Appellate Body members); and, finally, information regarding the subjectmatter of various disputes, regarding the frequency with which claims regarding consistency of measures with the covered agreements (but also, at a more disaggregate level, e.g. specific provisions) have been raised. We call our work ‘descriptive statistics’, because, in an effort to provide raw material that will help researchers to conduct their research as they see fit, we have consciously refrained from systematically interpreting the data that we have assembled.

  • 9.
    Thelin, Eric
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Louise
    Department of Economics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bellander, Bo-Michael
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The sensitivity and role of protein S100B in detecting secondary injuries after traumatic brain injury in humans2011In: Journal of Neurotrauma, ISSN 0897-7151, E-ISSN 1557-9042, Vol. 28, no 6, p. A55-A55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) are often treated in specialized neuro-intensive care units (NICU) using multi-modal monitoring to detect harmful secondary insults such as increased intra cranial pressure. In addition to different monitoring devices. serum biomarkers have been shown to provide additional important information regarding the patient. Elevated serum levels of S100B have been detected following TBI. cerebral ischemia. spontaneous intra-cerebral hematomas and edema formation. S100B is known to correlate to outcome. Severe secondary cerebral injuries have been shown to correlate to secondary peaks in serum levels of S100B. Increases of more than 0.1mug/L are considered pathological.

    METHOD: 267 patients treated in the NICU for TBI with S100B samples obtained every 12 hours during a minimum of a 96-hour time period were included. Secondary increases of S100B after 48 hours following trauma were noted. All patients had at least 2 CT-scans and/or MRI scans performed.

    RESULTS: 67 secondary injuries during the NICU stay were detected using MRI or CT-scans. The most common lesions were diffuse is- chemic injuries (29). edema (13). cerebral infarctions (11) and intracerebral hematoma (5). Looking at secondary peaks of S100B in detecting radiological verifiable cerebral lesions during the NICU stay. a cut-off level of more than 0.5mug/L the specificity was 100% and sensitivity 8.9%. Decreasing the cut-off level to 0.1mug/L a specificity of 95.9% and sensitivity of 64.2% was obtained. while a cut-off level of 0.05mug/L presented a specificity of 92.7% and sensitivity of 92.5%.

    CONCLUSIONS: S100B is a sensitive marker for secondary cerebral injuries occurring in the NICU after TBI. A low cut-off point for the secondary peak of S100B (0.05 mug/L) increases sensitivity without any major deficit of specificity in detecting secondary injuries during the NICU stay.

  • 10.
    Thelin, Eric
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Louise
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bellander, Bo-Michael
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The temporal profiles in serum concentrations of the biomarker S100B in the first 48 hours after traumatic brain injury correspond to outcome2011In: Journal of Neurotrauma, ISSN 0897-7151, E-ISSN 1557-9042, Vol. 28, no 5, p. A20-A20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability. An early and accurate assessment of the affected patient suffering from TBI is important to promptly decide upon treatment strategies. Serum levels of the protein S100B are elevated in patients suffering from TBI, and has been proposed as a good addition to other clinical variables when calculating outcome. Different temporal patterns of the serum levels of S100B have been shown. The aim of this study was to analyze the different patterns, with a focus on outcome and other factors related to co-morbidity in patients suffering from TBI.

    Methods: In all, 265 patients suffering from TBI admitted to the neuro-intensive care unit, having three consecutive serum samples of S100B within the first 72 h after trauma were included.

    Results: S100B AUC, S100 peak serum level, and increasing serum levels of S100B significantly presence of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, early cerebral ischemia and signs of increasing intracranial hematomas are statistically significant (p<0.05) to high and increasing levels of S100B. Using a multi-nomial logit regression analysis, increased age (p<0.01), early cerebral ischemia (p<0.05), and increased S100B AUC statistically significantly affected mortality (p<0.01).

    Conclusion: The temporal profile of S100B is unique for every patient after TBI, and statistically correlates with S100B AUC, one of the factors that correlates strongly with mortality and morbidity, and thereby may promptly provide the physician with an important tool in clinical decision-making.

  • 11.
    Thelin, Eric Peter
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section for Neurosurgery, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Louise
    Department of Economics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nelson, David
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Section of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bellander, Bo-Michael
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section for Neurosurgery, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    S100B Is an Important Outcome Predictor in Traumatic Brain Injury2013In: Journal of Neurotrauma, ISSN 0897-7151, E-ISSN 1557-9042, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 519-528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to examine how S100B, a biomarker of traumatic brain injury (TBI), contributes to outcome prediction after adjusting for known parameters, including age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), pupil reaction, and computed tomography (CT) variables; to examine which parameters have the best correlation to elevated serum levels of S100B; and to investigate when to sample S100B to achieve the strongest association to outcome. This retrospective study included 265 patients with TBI admitted to the neurointensive care unit, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm, Sweden. Univariate and multivariate proportional odds regressions were performed to determine parameters most closely related to outcome, and how S100B adds to prediction accuracy. Age (p < 0.0001), pupil reaction (p < 0.0001), and levels of S100B (p < 0.0001) had the strongest statistical correlation to outcome. The area under curve of S100B, the first 48 h after trauma, yielded an additional explained variance of 6.6% in excess of known outcome parameters, including age, GCS, pupil reaction, and CT variables, themselves exhibiting an explained variance of 29.3%. S100B adds substantial information regarding patient outcome, in excess of that provided by known parameters. Only CT variables were found to be significant predictors of increased levels of S100B in uni- and multivariate analysis. Early samples of S100B, within 12 h after trauma, appear to have little prognostic value, and S100B should likely be sampled 12-36 h following trauma to best enhance TBI outcome prediction.

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