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  • 1.
    Bjerstedt, Sven
    et al.
    Musikhögskolan i Malmö, Lunds universitet, Malmö, Sweden.
    Hanne, Fossum
    Norges musikkhøgskole, Oslo, Norge.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Lonnert, Lia
    Musikhögskolan i Malmö, Lunds universitet, Malmö, Sweden.
    The playing now: A philosophical investigation of present time in music2015In: Nordiskt nätverk för musikpedagogisk forskning (NNMPF), 2015, Helsingfors: Sibelius Academy, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Music, such as the duration of a musical piec e or length of a concert, can b e measured by metronomes and clocks in objective time ( chronos ). However, playing an instrument, singing, attending a concert, listening to a record or reading a musical score are musical activities also experienced as subjective time ( kairos) . Music has an intrinsic temporal dimension of experienced time , often including an intensification of the present moment, coexisting intertwined with its measurable dimensions. This makes music a fasc inating object for philosophical exploration. Musical practice em bodie s temporal phenomena like pulse, tempo, timing, ad lib, accelerando and fermata. The musical present can be viewed as a moment of sem antic fullness , a meaningful moment . Music can carry narrative, which is a related phenomenon, also containing intrinsic temporality. Furthermore, music can be improvised in the present moment. The tonal texture of music is experienced as a context, a coherency with an intrinsic temporality. This symposium is set to investigate how music can be experienced, philosophically speaking, in the present moment. In order to do this, we introduce a number of prominent Western philosophers who have taken an interest in the phenomenon of time by using the phenomenon o f music as a lens: Saint Augustine, Husserl, Bakhtin and Ricoeur.

  • 2.
    Ferm Thorgersen, Cecilia
    et al.
    Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Musikhögskolan Ingesund, Karlstads Universitet, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Being – is it possible in a space offered by Music Education?: A philosophical investigation of how Music Education can embrace the space of Being presented as the Origin of the Work of Art2012In: Ontology, music, education: Symposium / [ed] Øivind Varkøy and Frederik Pio, Reykjavik: Reykjavik University , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This abstract presents a contribution to a symposium concerning the book Ontology, music, education edited by Øivind Varkøy and Frederik Pio.  More specifically, our contribution to the symposium focuses on Martin Heidegger claims that a Work of Art contains an intrinsic power to open the space of Being. If a Work of Art can be a musical Work of Art, then music posses the power to strike us and hence throw us into Being. The presentation will communicate an investigation of the philosophical thinking in Heidegger’s book The Origin of the Work of Art and what consequences that thinking could generate for music educational practice. More specifically the contribution to the theme of the symposium will be an examination of Heidegger’s thinking in relation to the new Swedish syllabus for the subject music. This theoretical study is animated by a living example of a young boy who is about to conquer music. Further, Art, as Heidegger describes it, is being focused and discussed in relation to how it can exist within music education. How is it possible to relate to Music as a Work of Art with the same distinctions as Heidegger presents for us, by looking upon Art as a Thing as well as a Tool but also as an as an opener to the space that constitutes the gap between Earth and World? To structure the philosophical investigation the presentation follows two main lines; one investigating Art as an opener to Being and the other focusing the equivalence between how the Artist makes the Work of Art in the same time as the Work of Art makes the Artist. According to Heidegger, this equivalence is the very Origin of Art. We argue, that the educator has an unquestionable role in this creational space of Origin seen as an educational practice. To be able to understand, draw parallels and exemplify Heidegger’s thinking, we choose to relate the investigation of those two main line issues to the Swedish national syllabus for the subject Music. The disposition of the presentation in the symposium starts with a narrative that describes how a musical Work of Art has changed history for a young boy. A section follows where Heidegger’s concepts The Origin of the Work of Art, and The space of Being between World and Earth are presented and explored. Heidegger’s thinking is then related to the new Swedish governing documents, an investigation aiming to explore how the syllabus embrace and perform Heidegger’s thinking in music educational practise. The presentation will be ended by a discussion about how music education can offer students a place in Being, and music educators’ roles as being parts of the creational Origin process of a Work of Art.                

  • 3.
    Ferm Thorgersen, Cecilia
    et al.
    Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Institutionen för Utbildningsvetenskap med inriktning mot teknik (UTEP), Stockholms Universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ontology, Music, Education Heideggerian Inspirations: Panel contribution2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    A phenomenological investigation of the phenomenon of singing2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper will present the results from my licentiate thesis where the phenomenon of Singing Experience from a first-person perspective is treated. The purpose of the thesis was to reveal the content that constitutes the phenomenon of singing from the singers’ point of view. Singing should be understood as a unique vocal expression carried by tones in a form that is sonorous, alive and fluid. The singing is a singing in a context with others who also experiences them selves as singing. The point of departure of the investigation is a natural attitude which develops into a philosophical attitude towards the experience where given experiences are examined upon their content and then bracketed in favour for further experiences of the phenomenon to be revealed. The study uses a phenomenological approach from a first-person perspective based on Edmund Husserl’s transcendent phenomenology. These methods provide cogitations to stretch the particular situated momentary experience into the sphere of the possible experience. In the thesis the result of the eidetic study is described with its general essence a “musical vocal confirmation of my existence in the world” as well as a description of the constitution of the phenomenon of singing.

     

    The presentation will initially briefly describe the entry to the study as well as the background and the method of gathering experiences and analysis of ditto. The main part of the presentation will focus on the results of the thesis i.e. a model of a constitution of the phenomenon of singing presented as a mind map where the relationship between essences is visualized. The main topic of the presentation will focus on three major findings. First of all the thoughts about the phenomenological body by Maurice Merleau-Ponty where the phenomenological body of the singer is an acoustic body spread out in time and space is presented. Second the findings of different aspects of experience and listening to one’s own voice is discussed. This finding suggests a possibility to tune in to an inner listening, an outer listening, an immanent listening or a combination of those three different listening modes. This particular result will explicit highlight Husserl’s thinking of pluralistic intentionality. Third, and final, the presentation will discuss the possibility for an extended version of the phenomenon of singing where transcendent dimension of experience emerges. These are dimensions stretched out into a trio of essences; love and humanity, music and thirdly, something divine. These essences, in existence, are experienced as subjects with have the power to act intersubjective with the singing subject of living body. The extension into the transcendent parts enriches and enlarges the phenomenon from a narrow into a widen phenomenon, which covers the possibility of different life-worlds within different singers.

     

  • 5.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Experience of Singing – a musically vocal confirmation of my existence in the world: A phenomenological investigation from a first-person perspective2014In: / [ed] Jens Knigge & Anne Niessen, Neuwied-Engers, Germany, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experience of Singing - a musically vocal confirmation of my existence in the world

    A phenomenological investigation from a first-person perspective

    Susanna Leijonhufvud, Fil.Lic.PhD-student in Musicology at Örebro university,Sweden

    susanna.leijonhufvud@oru.se

    The phenomenon of singing, in music education, is primarily understood through the research of acoustics (Sundberg 1999). This research has formed the base for our understanding of the singing apparatus and hence how singing education should be postulated considering these results. During recent years we have also learned about the psychological and social aspects of singing and different types of health effects that can be added to our previous understanding of the phenomenon (Sloboda 2005, Theorell 2009). I claim that these disciplines have not yet fully described the holistic phenomenon of singing from the perspective of the singer. In this paper presentation I suggest an additional approach towards an understanding of singing – the philosophical phenomenological perspective (Ihde 2007).

    The results from my licentiate thesis where the phenomenon of Singing Experience (Erlebnis) is treated will be presented. The purpose of the thesis was to reveal the general essence and the essences that constitute the phenomenon of singing from the singers’ point of view. Singing should, in this context, be understood as a unique human vocal expression carried by tones in a form that is sonorous, alive and fluid (Smith 1979). The first-person perspective experiences the singing whilst singing with others. To reveal essences, content within the phenomenon, the study uses a transcendental phenomenological approach from a first-person perspective (Husserl 1995). The phenomenological methods provide cogitations to stretch the particular situated momentary experience into the sphere of the possible experience (Husserl 2004). In that way, the result point towards the possible and are not, in this sense limited to the situational and particular. In the thesis the result of this eidetic study is described with its general essence a “musical vocal confirmation of my existence in the world” as well as a theoretical model of the constitution of the phenomenon of singing (Leijonhufvud 2011).

    Initially the presentation will briefly describe the entry to the study as well as the background and the method of gathering experiences and analysis of ditto. The main part of the presentation will focus on the results of the thesis, a theory of singing, i.e. a model of a constitution of the phenomenon of singing. The model shows immanent and transcendent essences of singing as well as bodily and emotive essences. The theoretical model also shows the essence of cogito, humanity, time and space, music, love and the divine. At the end of the presentation of the result, I will briefly guide trough the phenomenological reduction that the phenomenon undergoes, through use of the theory, in order to suspend the belief in the existence of the phenomenon itself (Spiegelberg 1994). That means that even if the phenomenon in itself is non-existing, the experience of it must exist if it survives this appraisal of reduction. As we cannot investigate the phenomenon in itself, this epistemology provides a possibility to investigate the intentionality between the phenomenon and the cogito within the living body. Therefore, as Husserl claims, the existence of the intentionality is the closest we can get to the phenomenon itself (Husserl 2004).

    The results highlights the findings of the acoustic extension of the phenomenological body of the singer, the different aspects of listening to one's own voice as well as the tight connection the phenomenon of singing has with the very existence of what I experience as me. The result also reveals essences of transcendence. This last finding might be provoking in music educational settings. If the transcendent, hence transcendent knowledge is knowledge that lacks a priori knowledge, how then can a music educator play a part in the developing of such transcendent skills in singing? How shall we treat such aspects of singing whilst singing together or teach singing? The final discussion will invite further questions regarding the study of a musical phenomenon from a first-person and a third-person perspective. The target of such a problematization is how we, as music educators, can work with the other who only has access to her/his own experience of her/his singing voice, tone and timbre when we make music together? How is it at all possible to tune in into an inter-subjective experience of singing considering these issues?

    ReferencesHusserl, E. (2004). Idéer till en ren fenomenologi och fenomenologisk filosofi. Stockholm: Thales. Original title: Ideen zu einer reinen Phänomenologie und phänomenologischen Philosophie. Erste Buch, 1913. Translation: Jim Jakobsson.

    Husserl, E. (1995). Fenomenologins idé. Göteborg: Daidalos. Original title: Die Ideen der Phenomenologie, 1907. Published 1950. Translation: Jan Bengtsson.

    Ihde, D. (2007). Listening and Voice: Phenomenologies of Sound. State University of New York Press, 1976.

    Leijonhufvud, S. (2011). Sångupplevelse - en klingande bekrä¤ftelse på min existens i världen: en fenomenologisk undersökning ur första-person perspektiv. (Licentiate dissertation). Stockholm: KMH-förlaget. http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:446147/FULLTEXT01.pdf

    Theorell, T. (2009). Noter om musik och hälsa. Stockholm: Karolinska Institutet University Press.

    Sloboda, J. A. (2005). Exploring the musical mind: cognition, emotion, ability, function. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

    Smith, J. F. (1979). The Experience of Musical Sound. Gordon and Breach Science Pub. Inc.

    Spiegelberg, H. (1994). The Phenomenological Movement. The Netherlands: The Kluwer Academic Publisher. (Part V: The Essentials of the Phenomenological Method, s. 677-719).

    Sundberg, J. (1999). Perception of singing. In: The Psychology of Music. Second Edition. Academic Press Series in Cognition and perception. California: San Diego (ed.) Diana Deutsch, p. 171-214.

  • 6.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art. Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Experience of singing: A musically vocal confirmation of my existence in the world. A phenomenological investigation from a first person perspective2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Fenomenologi: avtryck i tre musikpedagogiska avhandlingar2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 8.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art. Kungl Musikhögskolan i Stockholm, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Filosofiskt perspektiv på sångupplevelsen som fenomen2013In: Perspektiv på praktiknära musikpedagogisk forskning: utkomster av en forskarskola / [ed] Cecilia Ferm Thorgersen, Luleå: Luleå Tekniska Universitet , 2013, 1, p. 207-227Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Körledares erfarenheter av dysconsentriker: intervjuer med Eric Ericson, Karin Oldgren och Göran Staxäng2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Musical cyborg – the human–non-human offspring within music streaming2016In: Musikliv i snabb förändring – hur förändras forskningen?, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The musical cyborg is the hybrid life form between the musicking human and smart algorithms that inhabits streaming services of music. The neologism derives from Donna Haraway’s cyborg but instead of accounting for technological elements built into the human body the musical cyborg is a hybrid between software code in the shape of algorithms and the human autonomic nervous system which regulates emotions, moods, heartbeats, breathing, and body temperature.

    Music streaming services offers a plethora of available music. The amount of musical content is no longer at stake; rather it is the selection of that content aligned with a constant need to find “new” music within the plethora. Therefore, by necessity music needs to be tailored for us in one way or the other. Music streaming companies such as Spotify has since its launch into the Internet focused on these particular issues making social suggestions from peers, the ability “to follow” peers within the Spotify community, recommended playlists etc. as different entrances toward selection and suggestions of music. As a Spotify user it is possible to select or ignore recommendations with a simple screen touch. So far the user have been active on a rather high cognitive level in making decisions like this. However this is about to change.

    Quite recently Spotify launched its ‘running app’ an application on the smart phone that can detect the tempo of running and use that input to tweak the tempo of a certain piece of music, which in turn is used by the runner to enforce the running. The whole arrangement shows a looped activity where it is rather difficult to identify and isolate a prompt to the course of events. We know from earlier research within musicology and adjacent research areas that humans uses music for all sorts of purposes for diverse activities like leisure, focus or even therapy. If we add to that the emerging development of Internet of Things (IoT) which conveniently emerges in our everyday life and embraces us like the tempo detectors in our smart phones, the pulse meters on our wrists, smart fabrics detecting body temperature, smart car seats reading pressure points of our backs, screens reading our facial expressions and so on, we are facing a new dawn where the physical input to the digital systems are almost automatic even though the input stems from the human herself.

    Whilst studying Spotify as a case example of a music streaming service and combining this with a screening of the inventions of ICT I have come to this conclusion that music can serve as a role model for how the cyborg can bring us closer to humanity than ever before. The modern negotiation represented by Marx, Adorno, and Benjamin where man shall differ himself from he machine. The mission of the humanities, which where music belongs to, have been to offer an alternative to a technological reproduction, affording emancipation and refinement for the human being. I suggest a different reading of contemporary technology in the realm of digitalisation. The originating digital cyborg can actually offer a deepened understanding of what it means to be human and discover our human potential, not in contrast to the machine but on the contrary on behalf of being cyborg in an intertwined relationship between humans and non-humans (i.e. the machine). The musical cyborg is not the end of the modern project where humans cease into the belonging to the machine, instead the cyborg constitute a new beginning post the modern. As it need the human input in order to operate and act. This is an act of Action – the beginning of something new – a musical advent – to quote Hannah Arendt’s biblical words “for unto us a child is born” – I suggest that that child is to be a Musical Cyborg.    

     

     

     

  • 11.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Symbolic Mobility: movements of identities through music in a digitalized context2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will present an outline of how an empirical investigation of the concept of symbolic mobility with a focus on the two phenomena music and identity. ‘Mobility’ is the core concept of the contemporary paradigm “The Mobile Turn” where transportation of people, goods and ideas are researched. However, since the establishment of the Internet, mobility is no longer purely a question of the real world. A social community is for instance no longer limited to a physical place, it is also augmented into a virtual space where individuals can be born, connect, travel and interact. Within this virtual world the phenomenon of music is a widespread inhabitant. Music is there to be experienced but music is also being used instrumental by individuals in a symbolic way. Music can be manifested in the form of a musical playlist, a collection of sonic samples that fits certain occasions or it may express identity. This latter feature seems to be of great importance. One example of this significance is how the final candidates of the American presidency in 2012 present themselves partly to the voters through musical playlists. Their identity is then represented as a musical identity. The playlists may not only manifest representations of identity, it may also play a part in communication as they are shared in digital communities. Playlists, cultural tracks, are in this study regarded as text, can be considered as symbols where the phenomenon of music and identity is intertwined with each other. The presentation will, after a brief introduction to the field of mobility, suggest a way to empirical investigate what significance or what meaning music play when symbolic identities are constructed.

  • 12.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sångupplevelse - en klingade bekräftelse på min existens i världen: en fenomenologisk undersökning ur första-person-perspektiv2011Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis treats the phenomenon of Singing Experience. Its purpose is to reveal the content that constitutes the phenomenon of singing from the singers’ point of view. Singing should be understood as a unique vocal expression carried by tones in a form that is sonorous, alive and fluid. The singing is in the context of singing with others. In order to perform a study that aims to reveal content within a phenomenon, the study uses a phenomenological approach from a first-person perspective, which is also my own perspective as the singer as well as the researcher. The interest in the field has arisen from the experience of singing with people who do not seem to notice that they sing out of tune. This has led to the thoughts that the phenomenon of singing includes different contents for different people in different situations. The phenomenological methods provide cogitations to stretch the particular situated momentary experience into the sphere of the possible experience. In the thesis the result of this eidetic study is described with its general essence a “musical vocal confirmation of my existence in the world” as well as a description of the constitution of the phenomenon of singing. The description of the phenomenon is a description of the essences of the lived-body, as well as the immanence of emotion and cogito. The description also includes the surrounding world, which harbours the dimension of the real as well as inter-subjective transcendence concerning time and space, humanity, music and the divine. All of the essences have shown to be essential essences of the experience of singing. This, however, is dependent on how the phenomenon of existence is regarded: to exist in a wide or a narrow sense, including or excluding the transcendent aspects of the phenomenon of singing.

  • 13.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    The Musical Cyborg: An Offspring between Music Consumers and Smart Algorithms2015In: Nordic Musicological Congress, August 11-14 2015 in Aalborg. / [ed] Mark Grimshaw and Peder Kaj Pedersen, Aalborg, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently we have the opportunity to get involved in digital distribution of music. This digital consumption of music implies numerous implications for the consumer i.e. the music listener as well as the music producers. This presentation will highlight one of the major findings of my PhD-project that aims to cover these issues using the industry darling Spotify as a lens, the advent of a musical cyborg.

             Spotify offers streamed music, which briefly means that the music can be accessed rather than owned. In digital setting attached to this access model the consumer is no longer a passive receptor of a product. Instead the consumers are an inevitably part of the musical assortment range and even participate in the development of the Spotify product. The consumer could even be regarded as a co-creator of the musical piece given the opportunities that digital contexts offer.

             The product of Spotify is regarded as a market place, a polis. This market place is explored due to its actors, where, when and how it can be accessed, what type of goods are offered at the market place; musical pieces, systematic archive system, play lists, personal suggestions of new music, social dimensions of shared musical experiences and so on. The flow and exchange of currency is also investigated, as identity of the user becomes a currency for free usage of musical services. The polis, is also investigated in regard to an agora where social and negotiating aspects of a musical product takes place e.g. the sharing and recommending of music. These actions by the digital music consumer suggests the advent of a musical cyborg, a human digital life form manifested in the usage of smart algorithms used for intelligent recommendation of music is based on data that the user puts into the digital system. Hence, digital music consumption is undoubtedly pushing musical humans towards musical cyborgs as digital presence in physical life is twisted towards physical presence in digital life. 

  • 14.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Stockholm,Sweden.
    When the first-person perspective is my perspective: An introspective study of the experience of singing2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first-person perspective is most central within phenomenology (Husserl 1913/2004). Dan Zahavi highlights the importance and hence the significance of this perspective by introducing it at the very beginning of his presentation of phenomenology as such (Zahavi 2007). When Husserl, the originator of modern phenomenology, uses this first-person perspective throughout his phenomenological investigations it is his perspective (Husserl 1900/2000). Even though the usage of ones own perspective as the first-person perspective is so common within the writings of phenomenological philosophers (who also claims that they are constructing rigorous science) it is still not commonly used as a perspective in our field of research within music education.  

    In the PhD thesis by Torill Vist, ‘musical experiences’ was studied from a first-person perspective (Vist 2009). Prior to the thesis she used herself in a called self-interview. Her own experiences from being the first-person formed the base for her interviews with her informants as first-persons. In Self interview – Relevance in Research? Vist presents many interesting experiences from being this first-person (Vist 2006). In her thesis she declares how the insights from that prior study affected the PhD-study in a most profound way (Vist 2009).

    In this paper presentation I will present benefits and challenges of using my perspective as the first-person perspective within my PhD-study of ‘the experience of singing with others from the singer’s point of view’. The presentation will not focus on the questions of why I choose to put my self as the first-person, but rather how I have done this and my experiences connected to that. Nor is it a presentation of how to transform subjectivity into objectivity or, to use a phenomenological vocabulary, a transcendent knowledge valid for others. My presentation will focus upon the experience, difficulties and advantages, of being the first-person in ones own research, which opens up for questions regarding relevance and trustworthiness within research in music education.

     

  • 15.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, stockholm, Sverige.
    Är du tondöv om du inte kan sjunga rent?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Ferm Thorgersen, Cecilia
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Luleå, Sweden.
    Music as Art – Art as Being – Being as Music: A Philosophical Investigation into How Music Education Can Embrace a Work of Art Based on Heidegger’s Thinking2015In: Philosophy of music education challenged: Heideggerian Inspirations. Music, education and personal development / [ed] Frederik Pio & Øivind Varkøy, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2015, p. 113-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Martin Heidegger claims that a Work of Art contains an intrinsic power to open the space of Being. If a Work of Art can be a musical Work of Art, then music possesses the power to strike us and hence throw us into Being. The chapter communicates an investigation of the philosophical thinking in Heidegger’s book The Origin of the Work of Art and what consequences that thinking could generate for music educational practice. The chapter presents an examination of Heidegger’s thinking in relation to the new Swedish syllabus for the subject music. To structure the philosophical investigation two lines were drawn; one investigating Art as an opener to Being and the other line investigating the inescapable nexus of how the Artist makes the Work of Art simultaneously as the Work of Art makes the Artist. The results show that there is an overrepresentation of phenomena connected to what Heidegger refers to as Earth and an underrepresentation of what he refers to as World. According to Heidegger, the phenomenon of art will not reveal itself unless both Earth and World are present, connected to each other throughstrife; a state of tension where Being comes forth. Being, in the Heideggerian sense, has the power to change history and hence constitute history on both a collective and an individual level. Although not explicitly stated in the music syllabus, our results suggest that there are possibilities for art as Being to be expressed in the subject of music.

  • 17.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    et al.
    Kungliga Musikhögskolan, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ferm Thorgersen, Cecilia
    Institutionen Musikhögskolan Ingesund, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Music as Art – Art as Being – Being as Music: A philosophical investigation of how Music Education can embrace the Work of Art based on Heidegger’s thinking2011In: RIME: The 7th International Conference for Research in Music Education, Graduate School of Education, University of Exeter, April 12-16th, 2011 / [ed] Sarah Hennesy, Exeter: School of LIfelong Learning , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presentation will communicate an investigation of the philosophical thinking in Heidegger’s book The Origin of the Work of Art and what consequences that thinking generates for music educational practice. As Heidegger tries to capture truth within the concept of Art he passes through his thinking of the essences of Art as well as his constant thinking about Being. To be able to understand, draw parallels and exemplify Heidegger’s thinking, we choose to relate the investigation of those issues to the Swedish national syllabuses for the subject Music. For educators within an artistic domain, the reasoning is highly interesting to investigate further. The paper will focus and discuss Art, the way Heidegger describes it, as it can exist within music and further music education. Heidegger’s examples of art in painting, architecture, poetry, and musical composition is extended with examples within music educational practise. How can we relate to Music as Art with the same distinctions as Heidegger presents to us, by looking upon Art as a Thing as well as a Tool but also as an as an opener to the World (Welt) and in that sense, Art as the Making of History.The paper will present a way of understanding The Origin of the Work of Art and its connections to music educational practice. This will lead us to the question of how educators can or should be aware of the origin of the artist, the origin of the work of art and most crucial the origin of art itself when teaching. Heidegger’s thinking also provides an interesting line of reasoning about the relations between artist, listener and the work of art. A crucial battery of questions, that evokes from Heidegger’s thinking, is how school and educators can position themselves as being an unquestionable part of the origin of the Artist as well as the origin of the Work of Art within Music Education.

  • 18.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Ferm Thorgersen, Cecilia
    Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Luleå, Sweden.
    The Music Teacher in the Nexus of Art Origin2015In: / [ed] Werner Jank & Cecilia Ferm Thorgersen, Frankfurt, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Ferm Thorgersen, Cecilia
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Luleå, Sweden.
    Zandén, Olle
    Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Music and Art, Linnéniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Rolle, Christian
    Hochschule für Musik Saar (HFM), University of Music, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Lehmann-Wermser, Andreas
    Institut für Musikwissenschaft und Musikpädagogik, Universität Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Leistungsbewertung im kompetenzorientierten Musikunterricht Videobasierte Unterstützungssysteme zur Bewertung musikpraktischer Leistungen: Anregungen aus Schweden2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Nyberg, Johan
    Musikhögskolan, Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Piteå, Sweden.
    Assessment of musical quality: a case study of achieving a World Champion title in chorus singing2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013 the World Champion title in female barbershop singing was awarded the Swedish chorus Rönninge Show Chorus. This achievement was historical not only because the winning score was the highest ever in the history of the competition, but foremost because it was made by a non-American chorus. How did this become possible? All participating choruses are assessed by a standard, which among other criteria includes being in command of American English in order to perfect formants, and thereby the united sound of the Chorus. This event has triggered our interest in researching the assessment protocol of the competition, and how such criteria guide the pedagogical work of the chorus – work that has led to mastery and scoring a new world record. 

    In our presentation we will describe the atomistic standard used in the assessment of musical qualities of the female barbershop singing competition environment: Music, Sound, Expression and Showmanship. These four categories are in turn divided into a number of assessment units. In relation to music education we will focus on the first three categories, which we find to be relevant in any musical work. In addition to this, our presentation will describe the underlying choral work based on interviews with the two conductors of the Rönninge Show Chorus. Finally, we will discuss the barbershop learning practice in relation to a musical educational context: What can we learn from this explicit, atomistic judgement practice in the ongoing discussion regarding atomistic and holistic assessment in music education?

  • 21.
    Zandén, Olle
    et al.
    Institutionen för musik och bild, Linneuniversitetet, Växjö, Sverige.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Bedömningsstöd i ämnet musik: uppdrag, överväganden och design2013In: / [ed] Øivind Varkøy, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I anslutning till genomförandet av den stora läroplans- och bedömningsreformen Lgr11 har Skolverket producerat material som syftar till att underlätta arbetet med att implementera reformen. En del i Skolverkets material är ett så kallat bedömningsstöd. Detta paper kommer att presentera uppdraget, överväganden och design av bedömningsstödet i ämnet musik för årskurs nio respektive årskurs sex, ett arbete som undertecknande har genomfört.  Bedömningsstödets explicita syfte är att öka likvärdigheten i betygsättning mellan olika skolor i Sverige. Vid utarbetandet av stödet för årskurs nio gavs relativt fria händer att, med förankring i en referensgrupp musiklärare, utforma materialet. Bedömningsstödet för årskurs sex hade något snävare gränser, bland annat för att det förväntades anknyta till stödet för årskurs nio. En utgångspunkt för båda bedömningsstöden var att de skulle centreras kring elevers konkreta musicerande och behandla frågor om musikalisk kvalitet i anslutning till eller helst med klingande exempel. Samtidigt ville vi undvika att skapa ”benchmarks”, det vill säga modeller för vad man ska prestera som helhet för att få ett visst betyg. Bedömningsstödet i musik för årskurs nio innehåller i stället omfattande diskussioner om kvalitetsaspekter i elevers musicerande och bedömer dessa aspekter med kunskapskravens terminologi och värdenivåer utan att ge summativa omdömen om de enskilda elevernas helhetsprestationer. Bedömningsstöden innehåller inspelningar av elevers musikskapande och musicerande, inspelade såväl som skriftliga lärarkommentarer, referenser till forskning om bedömning samt förslag på hur materialet kan användas som fortbildning och för professionalisering inom musiklärarkåren. Under arbetets gång har vi fått balansera mellan uppdraget, våra musikaliska och musikdidaktiska värderingar samt vårt ansvar som forskare. I presentationen kommer vi att beskriva och illustrera uppdraget, några av de kritiska överväganden vi gjort, materialets slutliga utformning samt, förhoppningsvis, något om hur det blivit emottaget av musiklärare. 

  • 22.
    Zandén, Olle
    et al.
    Institutionen för musik och bild, Linneuniversitetet, Växjö, Sverige.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    On the developing of a Swedish national assessment support in music: context, commission, design and possible outcome2013In: / [ed] Sarah Hennessy, Exeter: University of Exeter , 2013, p. 1-1Conference paper (Refereed)
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