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  • 1.
    Andersson, Erika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    SAKAB.
    Berggren, Anna
    Analycen AB.
    Ivarsson, Per
    Analycen AB.
    Hollert, Henner
    RWTH Aachen university.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    AhR agonist and genotoxicant bioavailability in a PAH-contaminated soil undergoing biological treatment2009In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 521-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradation of the 16 US EPA priority PAHs in soil subjected to bioremediation is often achieved. However, the PAH loss is not always followed by a reduction in soil toxicity. For instance, bioanalytical testing of such soil using the chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) assay, measuring the combined effect of all Ah receptor (AhR) activating compounds, occasionally indicates that the loss of PAHs does not correlate with the loss of Ah receptor-active compounds in the soil. In addition, standard PAH analysis does not address the issue of total toxicant bioavailability in bioremediated soil.

    To address these questions, we have used the CALUX AhR agonist bioassay and the Comet genotoxicity bioassay with RTL-W1 cells to evaluate the toxic potential of different extracts from a PAH-contaminated soil undergoing large-scale bioremediation. The extracts were also chemically analyzed for PAH16 and PCDD/PCDF. Soil sampled on five occasions between day 0 and day 274 of biological treatment was shaken with n-butanol with vortex mixing at room temperature to determine the bioavailable fraction of contaminants. To establish total concentrations, parts of the same samples were extracted using an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) with toluene at 100A degrees C. The extracts were tested as inducers of AhR-dependent luciferase activity in the CALUX assay and for DNA breakage potential in the Comet bioassay.

    The chemical analysis of the toluene extracts indicated slow degradation rates and the CALUX assay indicated high levels of AhR agonists in the same extracts. Compared to day 0, the bioavailable fractions showed no decrease in AhR agonist activity during the treatment but rather an up-going trend, which was supported by increasing levels of PAHs and an increased effect in the Comet bioassay after 274 days. The bio-TEQs calculated using the CALUX assay were higher than the TEQs calculated from chemical analysis in both extracts, indicating that there are additional toxic PAHs in both extracts that are not included in the chemically derived TEQ.

    The response in the CALUX and the Comet bioassays as well as the chemical analysis indicate that the soil might be more toxic to organisms living in soil after 274 days of treatment than in the untreated soil, due to the release of previously sorbed PAHs and possibly also metabolic formation of novel toxicants.

    Our results put focus on the issue of slow degradation rates and bioavailability of PAHs during large-scale bioremediation treatments. The release of sorbed PAHs at the investigated PAH-contaminated site seemed to be faster than the degradation rate, which demonstrates the importance of considering the bioavailable fraction of contaminants during a bioremediation process.

    It has to be ensured that soft remediation methods like biodegradation or the natural remediation approach do not result in the mobilization of toxic compounds including more mobile degradation products. For PAH-contaminated sites this cannot be assured merely by monitoring the 16 target PAHs. The combined use of a battery of biotests for different types of PAH effects such as the CALUX and the Comet assay together with bioavailability extraction methods may be a useful screening tool of bioremediation processes of PAH-contaminated soil and contribute to a more accurate risk assessment. If the bioremediation causes a release of bound PAHs that are left undegraded in an easily extracted fraction, the soil may be more toxic to organisms living in the soil as a result of the treatment. A prolonged treatment time may be one way to reduce the risk of remaining mobile PAHs. In critical cases, the remediation concept might have to be changed to ex situ remediation methods.

  • 2.
    Baduel, Christine
    et al.
    Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Corfield, John
    Brisbane Airport Corporation PTY Limited, Brisbane QLD, Australia.
    Gomez-Ramos, Maria-Jose
    Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia; Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (CeiA3), Department of Chemistry and Physics, University of Almeria, Almeria,Spain; European Union Reference Laboratory for Pesticide Residues in Fruit and Vegetables, Almería, Spain.
    Discovery of novel per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) at a fire fighting training ground and preliminary investigation of their fate and mobility2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 185, p. 1030-1038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs) have been released at fire training facilities for several decades resulting in the contamination of soil and groundwater by per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). AFFF compositions are proprietary and may contain a broad range of PFASs for which the chemical structures and degradation products are not known. In this study, high resolution quadrupole-time-of flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS) in combination with data processing using filtering strategies was applied to characterize and elucidate the PFASs present in concrete extracts collected at a fire training ground after the historical use of various AFFF formulations. Twelve different fluorochemical classes, representing more than 60 chemicals, were detected and identified in the concrete extracts. Novel PFASs homologues, unmonitored before in environmental samples such as chlorinated PFSAs, ketone PFSAs, dichlorinated PFSAs and perfluoroalkane sulphonamides (FASAs) were detected in soil samples collected in the vicinity of the fire training ground. Their detection in the soil cores (from 0 to 2 m) give an insight on the potential mobility of these newly identified PFASs.

  • 3.
    Bräunig, Jennifer
    et al.
    Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Baduel, Christine
    Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Heffernan, Amy
    Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia; The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville VIC, Australia.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Donaldson, Eric
    Aviation Medical Specialist, Oakey Qld, Australia.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Fate and redistribution of perfluoroalkyl acids through AFFF-impacted groundwater2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 596, p. 360-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaching of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from a local point source, a fire-fighting training area, has led to extensive contamination of a groundwater aquifer which has spread underneath part of a nearby town, Oakey, situated in the State of Queensland, Australia. Groundwater is extracted by residents from privately owned wells for daily activities such as watering livestock and garden beds. The concentration of 10 PFAAs in environmental and biological samples (water, soil, grass, chicken egg yolk, serum of horses, cattle and sheep), as well as human serum was investigated to determine the extent of contamination in the town and discuss fate and redistribution of PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFAA in all matrices investigated, followed by perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS). PFOS concentrations measured in water ranged between <0.17-14 mu g/L, concentrations of PFHxS measured between <0.07-6 mu g/L. PFAAs were detected in backyards (soil, grass), livestock and chicken egg yolk. Significant differences (p < 0.01) in PFOS and PFHxS concentrations in two groups of cattle were found, one held within the contamination plume, the other in the vicinity but outside of the contamination plume. In human serum PFOS concentrations ranged from 38 to 381 mu g/L, while PFHxS ranged from 39 to 214 mu g/L. Highest PFOS concentrations measured in human serum were >30-fold higher compared to the general Australian population. Through use of contaminated groundwater secondary sources of PFAA contamination are created on private property, leading to further redistribution of contamination and creation of additional human exposure pathways.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mikkelsen, Bjorg
    Faroese Food & Vet Agcy, Torshavn, Faroe Islands, Denmark.
    Dam, Maria
    Environm Agcy, Argir, Faroe Islands, Denmark.
    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in food and water from Faroe Islands2013In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 7940-7948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diet and drinking water are suggested to be major exposure pathways for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). In this study, food items and water from Faroe Islands sampled in 2011/2012 were analyzed for 11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs). The food samples included milk, yoghurt, crSme fraiche, potatoes, fish, and fish feed, and the water samples included surface water and purified drinking water. In total, nine PFCAs and four PFSAs were detected. Generally, the levels of PFAS were in the lower picogram per gram range. Perfluorobutanoic acid was a major contributor to the total PFASs concentration in water samples and had a mean concentration of 750 pg/L. Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) was predominating in milk and wild fish with mean concentrations of 170 pg/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was most frequently detected in food items followed by PFUnDA, perfluorononanoic acid, and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Levels of PFUnDA and PFOA exceeded those of PFOS in milk and fish samples. Prevalence of long-chain PFCAs in Faroese food items and water is confirming earlier observations of their increase in Arctic biota. Predominance of short-chain and long-chain homologues indicates exposure from PFOS and PFOA replacement compounds.

  • 5.
    Larsson, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Chemical and bioanalytical characterisation of PAHs in risk assessment of remediated PAH-contaminated soilsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common contaminants in soil at former industrial areas; and in Sweden, some of the most contaminated sites are being remediated. Generic guideline values for soil use after so-called successful remediation actions of PAHcontaminated soil are based on the 16 EPA priority pollutants, which only constitute a small part of the complex cocktail of toxicants in many contaminated soils. The aim of the study was to elucidate if the actual toxicological risks of soil samples from successful remediation projects could be reflected by chemical determination of these PAHs. We compared chemical analysis (GC-MS) and bioassay analysis (H4IIE-luc) of a number of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. The H4IIE-luc bioassay is an aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-based assay that detects compounds that activate the Ah receptor, one important mechanism for PAH toxicity. Comparison of the results showed that the bioassay-determined toxicity in the remediated soil samples could only be explained to a minor extent by the concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs. The current risk assessment method for PAH-contaminated soil in use in Sweden along with other countries, based on chemical analysis of selected PAHs, is missing toxicologically relevant PAHs and other similar substances. It is therefore reasonable to include bioassays in risk assessment and in the classification of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. This could minimise environmental and human health risks and enable greater safety in subsequent reuse of remediated soils. 

  • 6.
    Larsson, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Chemical and bioanalytical characterisation of PAHs in risk assessment of remediated PAH-contaminated soils2013In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 12, p. 8511-8520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common contaminants in soil at former industrial areas; and in Sweden, some of the most contaminated sites are being remediated. Generic guideline values for soil use after so-called successful remediation actions of PAH-contaminated soil are based on the 16 EPA priority pollutants, which only constitute a small part of the complex cocktail of toxicants in many contaminated soils. The aim of the study was to elucidate if the actual toxicological risks of soil samples from successful remediation projects could be reflected by chemical determination of these PAHs. We compared chemical analysis (GC-MS) and bioassay analysis (H4IIE-luc) of a number of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. The H4IIE-luc bioassay is an aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-based assay that detects compounds that activate the Ah receptor, one important mechanism for PAH toxicity. Comparison of the results showed that the bioassay-determined toxicity in the remediated soil samples could only be explained to a minor extent by the concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs. The current risk assessment method for PAH-contaminated soil in use in Sweden along with other countries, based on chemical analysis of selected PAHs, is missing toxicologically relevant PAHs and other similar substances. It is therefore reasonable to include bioassays in risk assessment and in the classification of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. This could minimise environmental and human health risks and enable greater safety in subsequent reuse of remediated soils.

  • 7.
    Nilsson, Helena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Professional ski waxers' exposure to PFAS and aerosol concentrations in gas phase and different particle size fractionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Nilsson, Helena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Örebro University Hospital.
    Biotransformation of fluorotelomer compound to perfluorocarboxylates in humans2013In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 51, p. 8-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in biological compartments have been known for some time but their transport routes and distribution patterns are not properly elucidated. The opinions diverge whether the exposure of the general population occurs indirect through precursors or direct via PFCAs. Previous results showed that ski wax technicians are exposed to levels up to 92 000 ng/m(3) of 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) via air and have elevated blood levels of PFCAs. Blood samples were collected in 2007-2011 and analyzed for C(4)-C(18) PFCAs, 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 unsaturated fluorotelomer acids (FTUCAs) and 3:3, 5:3 and 7:3 fluorotelomer acids (FTCAs) using UPLC-MS/MS. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was detected in levels ranging from 1.90 to 628 ng/mL whole blood (wb). Metabolic intermediates 5:3 and 7:3 FTCA were detected in all samples at levels up to 6.1 and 3.9 ng/mL wb. 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 FTUCAs showed maximum levels of 0.07, 0.64 and 0.11 ng/mL wb. Also, for the first time levels of PFHxDA and PFOcDA were detected in the human blood at mean concentrations up to 4.22 ng/mL wb and 4.25 ng/mL wb respectively. The aim of this study was to determine concentrations of PFCAs and FTOH metabolites in blood from ski wax technicians.

  • 9.
    Nilsson, Helena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Biotransformation of fluorotelomer compund to perfluorocarboxylates in humansManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Nilsson, Helena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Inhalation exposure to fluorotelomer alcohols yield perfluorocarboxylates in human blood?2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 19, p. 7717-7722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) in different environmental and biological compartments have been known for some time, but the routes of exposure still remain unclear. The opinions are divergent whether the exposure to general populations occurs mainly indirect through precursor compounds or direct via PFCAs. Previous results showed elevated blood levels of PFCAs in ski wax technicians compared to a general population. The objective of this follow-up study was to determine concentrations of PFCAs, perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs), and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), precursor compounds that are known to degrade to PFCAs, in air collected in the breathing zone of ski wax technicians during work. We collected air samples by using ISOLUTE ENV+ cartridges connected to portable air pumps with an air flow of 2.0 L min(-1). PFCAs C5-C11 and PFSAs C4, C6, C8, and C10 were analyzed using LC-MS/MS and FTOHs 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 with GC-MS/MS. The results show daily inhalation exposure of 8:2 FTOH in mu g/m(3) air which is up to 800 times higher than levels of PFOA with individual levels ranging between 830-255000 ng/m(3) air. This suggests internal exposure of PFOA through biotransformation of 8:2 FTOH to PFOA and PFNA in humans.

  • 11.
    Nilsson, Helena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Professional ski waxers' exposure to PFAS and aerosol concentrations in gas phase and different particle size fractions2013In: Environmental science. Processes & impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 814-822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous reports show that professional ski waxers have elevated blood levels of perfluorinated substances (PFAS) such as perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and are exposed to very high concentrations of PFAS in air during ski waxing. Aerosol exposure increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, and PFOA is a potential hormonal disruptor and carcinogen, and can affect the fatty acid metabolism. Animal studies have shown that 8: 2 FTOH can undergo biotransformation to PFOA. For the first time, this study presents an occupational scenario of professional ski waxers who are exposed to extremely high dust levels as well as per-and polyfluorinated compounds. Personal and fixed measurements of total aerosol, inhalable and respirable fractions were performed during World Cup events 2007-2010. The occupational exposure limit (OEL) is exceeded in 37% of the personal measurements with concentrations up to 15 mu g m(-3) in air. There are differences between personal and area total aerosol concentrations with levels from personal measurements twice as high as those from the area measurements. The personal levels for FTOH ranged up to 996 mg m(-3) (mean = 114 mu g m(-3)) and for PFOA up to 4.89 mu g m(-3) (mean = 0.53 mu g m(-3)) in ENV+ sorbent samples as compared to the general exposure levels from air reaching only low ng m(-3) (<30 ng m(-3)) levels. FTOHs were not detected in aerosols but PFOA showed an average level of 12 mu g m(-3) (range = 1.2-47 mu g m(-3)). The ski waxers' exposure to paraffin fumes and PFAS is not in compliance with the occupational exposure standards and by far exceed the general populations' exposure. Preventive measures must be taken to minimize the exposure in this occupational group.

  • 12.
    Nilsson, Helena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    A time trend study of significantly elevated perfluorocarboxylate levels in humans after using fluorinated ski wax2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 2150-2155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A time trend study focusing on ski waxing technicians' exposure to perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) from fluorinated wax fumes was performed in 2007/2008. Levels of eight perfluorocarboxylates and three perfluorosulfonates were analyzed in monthly blood samples from eight technicians, Samples were collected before the ski season, i.e., preseason, then at four AS World Cup competitions in cross country skiing, and finally during an unexposed 5-month postseason period. The perfluorinated carboxylates perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) bioaccumulate, and continued exposure may contribute to elevated levels in ski technicians compared to the general population. The wax technicians' median blood level of PFOA is 112 ng/mL compared to 2.5 ng/mL in the general Swedish population. A significant correlation was found between number of working years and levels of perfluorocarboxylates. The PFOA levels in three technicians with "low" initial levels of PFOA (< 10.0 ng/mL in preseason blood) increased by 254, 134, and 120%, whereas five technicians with "high" initial levels (> 100 ng/mL in preseason sample) were at steady state. PFHxA is suggested to have a short half-life in humans relative the other perfluorocarboxylates. The levels of perfluorosulfonates were unaffected by the wax exposure.

  • 13. Persson, S.
    et al.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Backlin, B.
    Brunström, B.
    Magnusson, U.
    Association between testicular weight and brominated flame retardants in male wild mink (Neovison vison)2011In: Reproduction in domestic animals, ISSN 0936-6768, E-ISSN 1439-0531, Vol. 46, no Suppl. 3, p. 140-140Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Persson, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Perfluoroalkyl acids in subarctic wild male mink (Neovison vison) in relation to age, season and geographical area2013In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 59, p. 425-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the influence of biological and environmental factors on the concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in a top predator; the American mink Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) with C-8-C-13 perfluorinated carbon chains were analyzed in livers from wild male mink liver (n = 101) from four areas in Sweden representing two inland environments (rural and highly anthropogenic, respectively) and two different coastal environments. Mean PFOS concentrations were 1250 ng/g wet weight and some mink from the urban inland area had among the highest PFOS concentrations ever recorded in mink (up to 21 800 ng/g wet weight). PFBS was detected in 89% of the samples, but in low concentrations (mean 0.6 ng/g ww). There were significant differences in PFAA concentrations between the geographical areas (p < 0.001-0.01). Age, body condition and body weight did not influence the concentrations significantly, but there was a seasonal influence on the concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively), with lower concentrations in autumn samples than in samples taken" in the winter and spring. It is thus recommended to take possible seasonal differences into account when using mink exposure data. The overall results suggest that the mink is a suitable sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental levels of PFAAs. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Persson, Sara
    et al.
    Division of Reproduction, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bäcklin, Britt-Marie
    Department of Contaminant Research, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Division of Reproduction, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Influence of age, season, body condition and geographical area on concentrations of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in wild mink (Neovison vison) in Sweden2013In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 90, no 5, p. 1664-1671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wild mink has gained acceptance as a sentinel species in environmental monitoring. However, only limited data are available in the literature on factors driving variability in concentrations of organic pollutants in this species. This study characterizes the differences in contaminant concentrations in subcutaneous fat of male mink from four different areas in Sweden and demonstrates how age, season and body condition influence concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (including methoxylated forms, MeO-PBDEs), as well as the pesticides dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), chlordane and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The data were statistically treated using multiple regression and principal component analysis. The Sigma PCB concentration and concentrations of PCB congeners 138, 156, 157, 180,170/190, 189, 194, 206, 209 as well as PBDE 153/154 varied with age. Season had an influence on Sigma PCB, PBDE 47 and PBDE 153/154 concentrations, as well as concentrations of most PCB congeners, with the exception of PCB 101, 110, 141 and 182/187. Lean mink had higher concentrations of most PCBs and PBDEs than mink with larger fat depots. The analyzed pesticides (DDE, oxychlordane, HCB) showed no systematic variation with season, age or body condition. The concentrations of MeO-PBDEs were generally low and 6Me-PBDEO 47 was the most commonly detected MeO-PBDE in mink from marine, brackish and freshwater areas. The results indicate that age, season and body condition are factors that may influence the concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs, and it is thus recommended to take these factors into account when analyzing mink exposure data.

  • 16.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Monitoring persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1984 - 20092011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic has become an important indicator region for assessing persistence and bioaccumulation properties of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This thesis is aimed at evaluating the occurrence of persistent halogenated POPs in seven species of sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals over a 25-year period. The emphasis is on studying temporal variations in concentration of three categories of POPs, including naturally occurring organobromine compounds.

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), Metoxylated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs), and polychlorinated naphtalenes (PCNs) were extracted from blubber tissue and analyzed by GC/MS. Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were extracted from livers and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Although restricted by the number of pooled samples, survey points, and species available from the specimen banks, the results showed some interesting contamination patterns.

    Overall, pollutant concentrations showed signs of declining or levelling out, indicating a decrease in POP exposure in the studied areas in recent years. However, increasing levels of long-chain fluorinated compounds (PFCAs) present in most species is a finding of concern, and implies that a continuous monitoring of these compounds is important. Interestingly, a shift over time in the relative abundance of PFOS isomers in ringed seals was observed, indicating a change in exposure to PFOS in recent years.

    In many of the investigated species the MeO-PBDE levels equalled or exceeded the levels of PBDEs, showing that MeO-PBDEs can be major contributors to the organobromine load in marine mammal species. No apparent relation was found between PBDE and MeO-PBDE levels, adding further support for a natural origin of MeO-PBDEs.

    List of papers
    1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals from Arctic and North Atlantic regions, 1986 – 2009
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals from Arctic and North Atlantic regions, 1986 – 2009
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 40, p. 102-109Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A selection of PBDE congeners was analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata),fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986–2009). The analytes were extracted and cleaned-up using open column extraction and multi-layer silica gel column chromatography, and the analysis was performed on a GC-MS system operating in the NCI mode. The highest PBDE levels were found in the toothed whale species pilot whale and white-sided dolphin, and the lowest levels in fin whales and ringed seals. One-sided analyses of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey comparisons of means were applied to test for differences between years and sampling areas. Due to inter-year sampling variability, only general comparisons of PBDE concentrations between different sampling areas could be made. Differences in PBDE concentrations between three sampling periods, from 1986 to 2007, were evaluated in samples of pilot whales, ringed seals, white-sided dolphins and hooded seals. The highest PBDE levels were found in samples from the late 1990s or beginning of 2000, possibly reflecting the increase in the global production of technical PBDE mixtures in the 1990s. The levels of BDE #153 and #154 increased relative to the total PBDE concentration in some of the species in recent years, which may indicate an increased relative exposure to higher brominated congeners. In order to assess the effect of measures taken in legally binding international agreements, it is important to continuously monitor POPs such as PBDEs in sub-Arctic and Arctic environments.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2012
    Keywords
    Marine mammals; Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs); Spatial variations; Temporal variations
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-17247 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2011.07.001 (DOI)000301025600014 ()21802148 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84856222973 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Nordic Council of Ministers

    Available from: 2011-09-14 Created: 2011-09-14 Last updated: 2018-08-29Bibliographically approved
    2. Increasing levels of long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in Arctic and North Atlantic marine mammals, 1984-2009
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increasing levels of long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in Arctic and North Atlantic marine mammals, 1984-2009
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal variations in concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and sulfonic acids (PFSAs), including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) structural isomers, were examined in livers of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hisida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), and in muscle tissue of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus). The sampling spanned over 20 years (1984-2009) and covered a large geographical area of the North Atlantic and North West Greenland. Liver and muscle samples were homogenized, extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned up using hexane and solid phase extraction (SPE), and analyzed by liquid chromatography with negative electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In general, the levels of the long-chained PFCAs (C9-C12) increased whereas the levels of PFOS remained steady over the studied period. The PFOS isomer pattern in pilot whale livers was relatively constant over the sampling years. However, in ringed seals there seemed to be a decrease in linear PFOS (L-PFOS) over time, going from 91% in 1984 to 83% in 2006.

    Keywords
    Marine mammals, PFSAs, PFCAs, Structural isomers, Temporal variations
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-17248 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-09-14 Created: 2011-09-14 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Metoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) are major contributors to the persistent organobromine load in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1986-2009
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) are major contributors to the persistent organobromine load in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1986-2009
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A selection of MeO-PBDE and PBDE congeners were analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986-2009). The analytes were extracted and cleaned-up using open column extraction and multi-layer silica gel column chromatography. The analysis was performed using both low resolution and high resolution GC-MS. MeO-PBDE concentrations relative to total PBDE concentrations varied greatly between sampling periods and species. The highest MeO-PBDE levels were found in the toothed whale species pilot whale and white-sided dolphin, often exceeding the concentration of the most abundant PBDE, BDE-47. The lowest MeO-PBDE levels were found in fin whales and ringed seals. The main MeO-PBDE congeners were 6MBDE-47 and 2PMBDE-68. A weak correlation only between BDE-47 and its metoxylated analogue 6MBDE-47 was found and is indicative of a natural source for MeO-PBDEs.

    Keywords
    Arctic, Marine mammals, North Atlantic Ocean, Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), Metoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeOPBDEs), temporal concentration variations
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-17249 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-09-14 Created: 2011-09-14 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Polychlorinated naphtalenes (PCNs) in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1986-2009
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polychlorinated naphtalenes (PCNs) in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1986-2009
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A selection of PCN congeners was analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986-2009). The analytes were extracted and cleaned-up using open column extraction and multi-layer silica gel column chromatography. The analysis was performed using high resolution GC-MS. PCN congeners #48, #52, #53, #66 and #69 were found in the blubber samples between 0.03 and 5.9 ng/g lw. Also PCBs were analyzed in minke whales and fin whales from Iceland. The total PCN content accounted for less than 1% of the total coplanar PCB content. The lowest PCN concentrations were found in the samples from the latest sampling period (2006-2009). The results indicate a decline in the PCN load in marine mammals from the studied area in recent years.

    Keywords
    Marine mammals, polychlorinated naphtalenes (PCNs), temporal concentration variations
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-17250 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-09-14 Created: 2011-09-14 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 17.
    Rotander, Anna
    et al.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    School of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane QLD, Australia.
    Kay, Margaret
    Discipline of General Practice, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital Complex, University of Queensland, Herston QLD, Australia.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Gómez Ramos, María José
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Novel fluorinated surfactants tentatively identified in firefighters using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and a case-control approach2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 2434-2442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorinated surfactant-based aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) are made up of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) and are used to extinguish fires involving highly flammable liquids. The use of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in some AFFF formulations has been linked to substantial environmental contamination. Recent studies have identified a large number of novel and infrequently reported fluorinated surfactants in different AFFF formulations. In this study, a strategy based on a case-control approach using quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS/MS) and advanced statistical methods has been used to extract and identify known and unknown PFAS in human serum associated with AFFF-exposed firefighters. Two target sulfonic acids [PFOS and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS)], three non-target acids [perfluoropentanesulfonic acid (PFPeS), perfluoroheptanesulfonic acid (PFHpS), and perfluorononanesulfonic acid (PFNS)], and four unknown sulfonic acids (Cl-PFOS, ketone-PFOS, ether-PFHxS, and Cl-PFHxS) were exclusively or significantly more frequently detected at higher levels in firefighters compared to controls. The application of this strategy has allowed for identification of previously unreported fluorinated chemicals in a timely and cost-efficient way.

  • 18.
    Rotander, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Polder, Anuschka
    Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo, Norway.
    Riget, Frank
    University of Aarhus, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Atli Auounsson, Guojon
    Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Innovation Center Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Vikingsson, Gisli
    Marine Research Institute, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Wing Gabrielsen, Geir
    FRAM Centre, Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsö, Norway.
    Bloch, Dorete
    Museum of Natural History, Torshavn, Faroe Islands.
    Dam, Maria
    Environment Agency, Argir, Faroe Islands.
    Increasing levels of long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in Arctic and North Atlantic marine mammals, 1984-20092012In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 86, no 3, p. 278-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal variations in concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and sulfonic acids (PFSAs), including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) structural isomers, were examined in livers of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hisida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) and in muscle tissue of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus). The sampling spanned over 20 years (1984-2009) and covered a large geographical area of the North Atlantic and West Greenland. Liver and muscle samples were homogenized, extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned up using hexane and solid phase extraction (SPE), and analyzed by liquid chromatography with negative electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In general, the levels of the long-chained PFCAs (C9-C12) increased whereas the levels of PFOS remained steady over the studied period. The PFOS isomer pattern in pilot whale liver was relatively constant over the sampling years. However, in ringed seals there seemed to be a decrease in linear PFOS (L-PFOS) with time, going from 91% in 1984 to 83% in 2006.

  • 19.
    Rotander, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Polder, Anuschka
    Rigét, Frank
    Atli Audunsson, Gudjón
    Vikingsson, Gisli
    Wing Gabrielsen, Geir
    Bloch, Dorete
    Dam, Maria
    Increasing levels of long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in Arctic and North Atlantic marine mammals, 1984-2009Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal variations in concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and sulfonic acids (PFSAs), including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) structural isomers, were examined in livers of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hisida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), and in muscle tissue of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus). The sampling spanned over 20 years (1984-2009) and covered a large geographical area of the North Atlantic and North West Greenland. Liver and muscle samples were homogenized, extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned up using hexane and solid phase extraction (SPE), and analyzed by liquid chromatography with negative electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In general, the levels of the long-chained PFCAs (C9-C12) increased whereas the levels of PFOS remained steady over the studied period. The PFOS isomer pattern in pilot whale livers was relatively constant over the sampling years. However, in ringed seals there seemed to be a decrease in linear PFOS (L-PFOS) over time, going from 91% in 1984 to 83% in 2006.

  • 20.
    Rotander, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, St Lucia QLD, Australia.
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    School of Public Health and Social Work and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, St Lucia QLD, Australia.
    Aylward, Lesa
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, St Lucia QLD, Australia; Summit Toxicology, Falls Church VA, USA.
    Kay, Margaret
    Discipline of General Practice, School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston QLD, Australia.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, St Lucia QLD, Australia.
    Elevated levels of PFOS and PFHxS in firefighters exposed to aqueous film forming foam (AFFF)2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 82, p. 28-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) was evaluated in 149 firefighters working at AFFF training facilities in Australia by analysis of PFOS and related compounds in serum. A questionnaire was designed to capture information about basic demographic factors, lifestyle factors and potential occupational exposure (such as work history and self-reported skin contact with foam). The results showed that a number of factors were associated with PFAA serum concentrations. Blood donation was found to be linked to low PFAA levels, and the concentrations of PFOS and PFHxS were found to be positively associated with years of jobs with AFFF contact. The highest levels of PFOS and PFHxS were one order of magnitude higher compared to the general population in Australia and Canada. Study participants who had worked ten years or less had levels of PFOS that were similar to or only slightly above those of the general population. This coincides with the phase out of 3M AFFF from all training facilities in 2003, and suggests that the exposures to PFOS and PFHxS in AFFF have declined in recent years. Self-reporting of skin contact and frequency of contact were used as an index of exposure. Using this index, there was no relationship between PFOS levels and skin exposure. This index of exposure is limited as it relies on self-report and it only considers skin exposure to AFFF, and does not capture other routes of potential exposure. Possible associations between serum PFAA concentrations and five biochemical outcomes were assessed. The outcomes were serum cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins, and uric acid. No statistical associations between any of these endpoints and serum PFAA concentrations were observed.

  • 21.
    Rotander, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Polder, Anuschka
    Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Department of Food Safety and Environment, Oslo, Norway.
    Rigét, Frank
    Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, University of Aarhus, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Atli Audunsson, Gudjón
    Innovation Center Iceland, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Keldnaholti, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Wing Gabrielsen, Geir
    Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, Tromsø, Norway.
    Vikingsson, Gísli
    Marine Research Institute, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Bloch, Dorete
    Faroese Musum of Natural History, Torshavn, Denmark.
    Dam, Maria
    Environment Agency, Pob, Argir, Denmark.
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals from Arctic and North Atlantic regions, 1986 – 20092012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 40, p. 102-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A selection of PBDE congeners was analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata),fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986–2009). The analytes were extracted and cleaned-up using open column extraction and multi-layer silica gel column chromatography, and the analysis was performed on a GC-MS system operating in the NCI mode. The highest PBDE levels were found in the toothed whale species pilot whale and white-sided dolphin, and the lowest levels in fin whales and ringed seals. One-sided analyses of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey comparisons of means were applied to test for differences between years and sampling areas. Due to inter-year sampling variability, only general comparisons of PBDE concentrations between different sampling areas could be made. Differences in PBDE concentrations between three sampling periods, from 1986 to 2007, were evaluated in samples of pilot whales, ringed seals, white-sided dolphins and hooded seals. The highest PBDE levels were found in samples from the late 1990s or beginning of 2000, possibly reflecting the increase in the global production of technical PBDE mixtures in the 1990s. The levels of BDE #153 and #154 increased relative to the total PBDE concentration in some of the species in recent years, which may indicate an increased relative exposure to higher brominated congeners. In order to assess the effect of measures taken in legally binding international agreements, it is important to continuously monitor POPs such as PBDEs in sub-Arctic and Arctic environments.

  • 22.
    Rotander, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rigét, Frank
    University of Aarhus, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Atli Audunsson, Gudjón
    Innovation Center Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Polder, Anuschka
    Norwegian school of veterinary science, Oslo, Norway.
    Wing Gabrielsen, Geir
    Norwegian Polar Institute, FRAM Centre, Tromsø, Norway.
    Vikingsson, Gisli
    Marine Research Institute, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Mikkelsen, Bjarni
    Museum of Natural History, Torshavn, Faroe Islands.
    Dam, Maria
    Environment Agency, Argir, Faroe Islands.
    Methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) are major contributors to the persistent organobromine load in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1986-20092012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 416, p. 482-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A selection of MeO-BDE and BDE congeners were analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), coveting a time period of more than 20 years (1986-2009). The analytes were extracted and cleaned-up using open column extraction and multi-layer silica gel column chromatography. The analysis was performed using both low resolution and high resolution GC-MS. MeO-PBDE concentrations relative to total PBDE concentrations varied greatly between sampling periods and species. The highest MeO-PBDE levels were found in the toothed whale species pilot whale and white-sided dolphin, often exceeding the concentration of the most abundant PBDE, BDE-47. The lowest MeO-PBDE levels were found in fin whales and ringed seals. The main MeO-BDE congeners were 6-MeO-BDE47 and 2'-MeO-BDE68. A weak correlation only between BDE47 and its methoxylated analog 6-MeO-BDE47 was found and is indicative of a natural source for MeO-PBDEs.

  • 23.
    Rotander, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rigét, Frank
    University of Aarhus, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Atli Audunsson, Gudjón
    Innovation Center Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Polder, Anuschka
    Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo, Norway .
    Wing Gabrielsen, Geir
    FRAM Centre, Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø, Norway.
    Vikingsson, Gisli
    Marine Research Institute, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Mikkelsen, Bjarni
    Museum of Natural History, Torshavn, Faroe Islands.
    Dam, Maria
    Environment Agency, Argir, Faroe Islands.
    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1986-20092012In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 164, p. 118-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A selection of PCN congeners was analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986-2009). A large geographical area of the North Atlantic and Arctic areas was covered. PCN congeners 48, 52, 53, 66 and 69 were found in the blubber samples between 0.03 and 5.9 ng/g lw. Also PCBs were analyzed in minke whales and fin whales from Iceland and the total PCN content accounted for 0.2% or less of the total non-planar PCB content. No statistically significant trend in contaminant levels could be established for the studied areas. However, in all species except minke whales caught off Norway the lowest Sigma PCN concentrations were found in samples from the latest sampling period.

  • 24.
    Rotander, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rigét, Frank
    Audunsson, Gudjón
    Polder, Anuschka
    Gabrielsen, Geir
    Vikingsson, Gisli
    Mikkelsen, B.
    Dam, Maria
    Metoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) are major contributors to the persistent organobromine load in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1986-2009Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A selection of MeO-PBDE and PBDE congeners were analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986-2009). The analytes were extracted and cleaned-up using open column extraction and multi-layer silica gel column chromatography. The analysis was performed using both low resolution and high resolution GC-MS. MeO-PBDE concentrations relative to total PBDE concentrations varied greatly between sampling periods and species. The highest MeO-PBDE levels were found in the toothed whale species pilot whale and white-sided dolphin, often exceeding the concentration of the most abundant PBDE, BDE-47. The lowest MeO-PBDE levels were found in fin whales and ringed seals. The main MeO-PBDE congeners were 6MBDE-47 and 2PMBDE-68. A weak correlation only between BDE-47 and its metoxylated analogue 6MBDE-47 was found and is indicative of a natural source for MeO-PBDEs.

  • 25.
    Rotander, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rigét, Frank
    Audunsson, Gudjón
    Polder, Anuschka
    Gabrielsen, Geir
    Vikingsson, Gisli
    Mikkelsen, B.
    Dam, Maria
    Polychlorinated naphtalenes (PCNs) in sub-Arctic and Arctic marine mammals, 1986-2009Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A selection of PCN congeners was analyzed in pooled blubber samples of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) and Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), covering a time period of more than 20 years (1986-2009). The analytes were extracted and cleaned-up using open column extraction and multi-layer silica gel column chromatography. The analysis was performed using high resolution GC-MS. PCN congeners #48, #52, #53, #66 and #69 were found in the blubber samples between 0.03 and 5.9 ng/g lw. Also PCBs were analyzed in minke whales and fin whales from Iceland. The total PCN content accounted for less than 1% of the total coplanar PCB content. The lowest PCN concentrations were found in the samples from the latest sampling period (2006-2009). The results indicate a decline in the PCN load in marine mammals from the studied area in recent years.

  • 26.
    Toms, Leisa Maree
    et al.
    School of Clinical Sciences and Institute for Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia .
    Thompson, Jack
    Queensland Health Scientific Services, Brisbane, Australia .
    Rotander, Anna
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia .
    Hobson, Peter
    Sullivan Nicolaides Pathology, Taringa, Australia .
    Calafat, Antonia
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States .
    Kato, K.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States .
    Ye, X.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States .
    Broomhall, S.
    Department of the Environment, Canberra, Australia.
    Harden, F.
    School of Clinical Sciences and Institute for Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia .
    Mueller, J. F.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Brisbane, Australia .
    Decline in perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate serum concentrations in an Australian population from 2002 to 20112014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 71, p. 74-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have become widespread pollutants detected in human and wildlife samples worldwide. The main objective of this study was to assess temporal trends of PFAS concentrations in human blood in Australia over the last decade (2002-2011), taking into consideration age and sex trends.

    Pooled human sera from 2002/03 (n=26); 2008/09 (n=24) and 2010/11 (n=24) from South East Queensland, Australia were obtained from de-identified surplus pathology samples and compared with samples collected previously from 2006/07 (n=84). A total of 9775 samples in 158 pools were available for an assessment of PFASs. Stratification criteria included sex and age: <. 16. years (2002/03 only); 0-4 (2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11); 5-15 (2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11); 16-30; 31-45; 46-60; and >. 60. years (all collection periods). Sera were analyzed using on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected in the highest concentrations ranging from 5.3-19.2. ng/ml (2008/09) to 4.4-17.4. ng/ml (2010/11). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was detected in the next highest concentration ranging from 2.8-7.3. ng/ml (2008/09) to 3.1-6.5. ng/ml (2010/11). All other measured PFASs were detected at concentrations <. 1. ng/ml with the exception of perfluorohexane sulfonate which ranged from 1.2-5.7. ng/ml (08/09) and 1.4-5.4. ng/ml (10/11). The mean concentrations of both PFOS and PFOA in the 2010/11 period compared to 2002/03 were lower for all adult age groups by 56%. For 5-15. year olds, the decrease was 66% (PFOS) and 63% (PFOA) from 2002/03 to 2010/11. For 0-4. year olds the decrease from 2006/07 (when data were first available for this age group) was 50% (PFOS) and 22% (PFOA).

    This study provides strong evidence for decreasing serum PFOS and PFOA concentrations in an Australian population from 2002 through 2011. Age trends were variable and concentrations were higher in males than in females. Global use has been in decline since around 2002 and hence primary exposure levels are expected to be decreasing. Further biomonitoring will allow assessment of PFAS exposures to confirm trends in exposure as primary and eventually secondary sources are depleted.

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