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  • 1.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Kjell
    Isacson, Maths
    Gavrilov, Dmitri V.
    Axelsson, Robert
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Degerman, Erik
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Kazakova-Apkarimova, Elena Yu.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sadbom, Stefan
    Törnblom, Johan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Learning about the history of landscape use for the future: consequences for ecological and social systems in Swedish Bergslagen2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 146-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Barriers and bridges to implement policies about sustainable development and sustainability commonly depend on the past development of social-ecological systems. Production of metals required integration of use of ore, streams for energy, and wood for bioenergy and construction, as well as of multiple societal actors. Focusing on the Swedish Bergslagen region as a case study we (1) describe the phases of natural resource use triggered by metallurgy, (2) the location and spatial extent of 22 definitions of Bergslagen divided into four zones as a proxy of cumulative pressure on landscapes, and (3) analyze the consequences for natural capital and society. We found clear gradients in industrial activity, stream alteration, and amount of natural forest from the core to the periphery of Bergslagen. Additionally, the legacy of top-down governance is linked to today's poorly diversified business sector and thus municipal vulnerability. Comparing the Bergslagen case study with other similar regions in Russia and Germany, we discuss the usefulness of multiple case studies.

  • 2.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences. Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Britt-Inger
    Div. of Geogr. Info. Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Swedish Space Corporation, Swedish Land Survey, Sweden; Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Geographical Information Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Östman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Geographical Information Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden; Intergraph, Sweden .
    Lazdinis, Marius
    Lithuanian Agricultural University, Lithuania; Southern Illinois University, United States; Lithuanian Ministry of Environment, Lithuania; Department of Conservation Biology, Swedish University of Agriculture, Sweden; Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Université Laval, Canada; Department of Conservation Biology, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden .
    Arnberg, Wolter
    Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Olsson, Jan
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Two-dimensional gap analysis: a tool for efficient conservation planning and biodiversity policy implementation2003In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 527-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance of biodiversity by securing representative and well-connected habitat networks in managed landscapes requires a wise combination of protection, management, and restoration of habitats at several scales. We suggest that the integration of natural and social sciences in the form of "Two-dimensional gap analysis" is an efficient tool for the implementation of biodiversity policies. The tool links biologically relevant "horizontal" ecological issues with "vertical" issues related to institutions and other societal issues. Using forest biodiversity as an example, we illustrate how one can combine ecological and institutional aspects of biodiversity conservation, thus facilitating environmentally sustainable regional development. In particular, we use regional gap analysis for identification of focal forest types, habitat modelling for ascertaining the functional connectivity of "green infrastructures", as tools for the horizontal gap analysis. For the vertical dimension we suggest how the social sciences can be used for assessing the success in the implementation of biodiversity policies in real landscapes by identifying institutional obstacles while implementing policies. We argue that this interdisciplinary approach could be applied in a whole range of other environments including other terrestrial biota and aquatic ecosystems where functional habitat connectivity, nonlinear response to habitat loss and a multitude of economic and social interests co-occur in the same landscape.

  • 3. Törnblom, J.
    et al.
    Angelstam, P.
    Degerman, E.
    Henrikson, L.
    Edman, T.
    Temnerud, Johan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Catchment land cover as a proxy for macroinvertebrate assemblage structure in Carpathian Mountain streams2011In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 673, no 1, p. 153-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compared land cover, riparian vegetation, and instream habitat characteristics with stream macroinvertebrate assemblages in 25 catchments in the Carpathian Mountains in Central Europe. This study area was particularly selected because of its diverse history of forest and agricultural ecosystems linked to geopolitical dynamic, which provide a suite of unique landscape scale, land cover settings in one ecoregion. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) showed that variation in composition and structure of macroinvertebrate assemblages was primarily related to four land cover types, and not to riparian or instream habitat. These were the portions in the catchment areas of (1) broadleaved forest, (2) fine-grained agricultural landscape mosaic with scattered trees (e. g., pre-industrial cultural landscape), (3) mixed forest, and (4) natural grassland without trees. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) suggested that land cover types and stream channel substrates co-varied. The PCA also showed that chemical variables, including organic carbon, had higher values in the agricultural landscape compared to natural forests. The major source of variation among taxa in streams was higher abundance of Diptera in agricultural landscapes and of Plecoptera, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, and Amphipoda in forests. Gastropoda and Oligochaeta were more abundant in open, fine-grained agricultural landscape mosaics with scattered trees. Ephemeroptera taxa were quite indifferent to these gradients in catchment land cover, but showed a tendency of being more abundant in the pre-industrial cultural landscape. Our findings suggest that land cover can be used as a proxy of the composition and structure of macroinvertebrate assemblages. This means that land use management at the catchment scale is needed for efficient conservation and recovery of stream invertebrate communities.

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