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  • 1.
    Elmarghani, Ahmed
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Seyoum, Asmerom
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Khalaf, Hazem
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ros, Torbjön
    Pelagia Miljokonsult AB, Umeå, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Lars-Håkan
    Mälarenergi AB, Vasterås, Sweden.
    Nermark, Tomas
    Karlskoga Energi MO AB, Karlskoga, Sweden.
    Osterman, Lisa
    Skebäcks Reningsverk, Örebro, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Ulf
    Tyrens AB, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Per
    ALS Scandinavia AB, Täby, Sweden.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Contribution of pharmaceuticals, fecal bacteria and endotoxin to the inflammatory responses to inland waters2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 488-489, p. 228-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing contamination of freshwater with pharmaceuticals, surfactants, pesticides and other organic compounds are of major concern. As these contaminants are detected at trace levels in the environment it is important to determine if they elicit biological responses at the observed levels. In addition to chemical pollutants, there is also a concern for increasing levels of bacteria and other microorganisms in freshwater systems. In an earlier study, we observed the activation of inflammatory systems downstream of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in southern Sweden. We also observed that the water contained unidentified components that were pro-inflammatory and potentiated the immune response in human urinary bladder epithelial cells. In order to determine if these effects were unique for the studied site or represent a common response in Swedish water, we have now performed a study on three WWTPs and their recipient waters in central Sweden. Analysis of immune responses in urinary bladder epithelial cells, monocyte-like cells and blood mononuclear cells confirm that these waters activate the immune system as well as induce pro-inflammatory responses. The results indicate that the cytokine profiles correlate to the endotoxin load of the waters rather than to the levels of pharmaceuticals or culturable bacteria load, suggesting that measurements of endotoxin levels and immune responses would be a valuable addition to the analysis of inland waters.

  • 2.
    Seyoum, Asmerom
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Effect of phthalates on development, reproduction, fat metabolism and lifespan in Daphnia magna2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 654, p. 969-977Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalates are used as plasticizers to increase durability, resistivity and flexibility of plastic materials. The commonly used phthalate, diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is used in different plastic materials like food packaging, toys and medical devices. DEHP has been linked to different toxicities in humans as well as in animals, and as a consequence other phthalates, including dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP) are being introduced. The increased use of phthalates has resulted in contamination of aquatic ecosystem and it directly threatens the aquatic life. In this study, we analyzed the effects of three phthalates DEHP, DEP and DBP using freshwater organism Daphnia magna. Although, exposure of the three phthalates at 1 and 10 μM did not result any lethality and hatching delay, the chronic exposure for 14 days resulted in reduction of body length. There was enhanced fat accumulation on exposure to all the phthalates, as indicated by oil red O staining. qRT-PCR analysis of genes involved in fat metabolism suggests that the increase in fat content could be due to inhibition of absorption and catabolism of fatty acids. Reproduction analysis showed that DBP and DEP did not alter fecundity but surprisingly, DEHP at 1 μM increased reproduction by 1.5 fold compared to control group. Phthalates also showed negative effect on lifespan as DEP at 10 μM and DBP at both 1 and 10 μM significantly reduced the lifespan. Our data indicates that along with the banned phthalate DEHP, the other substitute phthalates DEP and DBP could also have detrimental effect on aquatic organisms.

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