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  • 1.
    Rosén, Siv
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Svensson, Margita
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ulrica G.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. Department of Health Sciences and Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Calm or not calm: the question of anxiety in the perianesthesia patient2008In: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing, ISSN 1089-9472, E-ISSN 1532-8473, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 237-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preoperative anxiety can be a major problem for the patient. Three distinct dimensions of preoperative anxiety are known: fear of the unknown, fear of feeling ill, and fear for life. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients feel anxiety (calm or not calm) preoperatively before undergoing an elective day care surgery and also to elucidate the factors contributing to a patient's current state of mind. A prospective study with 161 American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II outpatients scheduled for elective surgery was conducted. In a questionnaire the patients were asked to state if they were feeling calm or not and to describe factors contributing to their current mood. If responding that they did not feel calm, the participants were asked to rate the level of anxiety on a Numeric Rating Scale, 1-10. The results showed that 57% (n = 91) of the participants stated that they did not feel calm. A significantly higher proportion of women did not feel calm (65%), P < .05. Significantly more participants with a previous experience of surgery felt calm (90%), P < .01. In all, 190 statements were submitted. The results show that nearly half of the participants felt calm before surgery. The reasons were earlier positive experiences, feeling of security and caring, being well-informed, and having positive expectations. Furthermore, a higher proportion of women did not feel calm preoperatively. This indicates a need before surgery to routinely document and evaluate the individual patient's state of mind and reasons for the state of mind. This individual preoperative care can make it possible to provide emotional support, decrease anxiety, and give the patient a more positive surgical experience.

  • 2.
    Svensson, M
    et al.
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Rosen, Siv
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Local warming to reduce pain on peripheral intravenous cannula insertion: a randomised controlled study2006In: Journal of advanced perioperative care, ISSN 1470-5664, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 107-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insertion of intravenous cannulas (IVCs) is one of the most commonly used invasive procedures in healthcare and can be perceived as very painful by the patient.The aim of this study was to evaluate whether venous dilatation produced by local warming (LW) reduces pain on peripheral IVC insertion.The study with a sample size of 125 patients was undertaken in a day care unit.Patients were randomised to an experimental group (n = 61) or a control group (n = 64).The experimental group received LW during 60 seconds before cannula insertion.The control group received no treatment.The intravenous catheter used was optiva, an 18 gauge over-the-needle catheter.Pain was measured with a 10cm visual analogue scale (VAS) with a possible pain score of 0–10.The results showed no statistical significance between the groups in mean pain, with 1.74 measured in the LW group versus 2.01 scored in the control group.The percentage of patients who had a VAS >3 was 15.6% in the LW group versus 22.9% in the control group.However, this difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, LW before peripheral IVC insertion appears not to have any pain-reducing effect. Altogether 20% of all the participants experienced the insertion as a painful procedure.

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