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  • 1.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Democracy at work: Power and communication in social work2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can social work in social services become an active democratic agent in times of rapid social change? The point of departure in this contribution is that the need of democratic communication is tremendous in modern society and that the possibility to act according to this insight, is more difficult than it ever has been in modern times, because of the challenges of globalisation and migration; the demand for communication is strangled by neoliberalism’s presence in social services through New Public Managment. The question to be answered is how democracy and communication can be realized in this bureaucratic setting, after all. Democracy is not understood as a stable and static state of affairs, but rather as a frail, but vigorous, condition that only exists to the degree that people act democratically. The greater the role that communication, deliberation and reflection play in official activities, the more democratic the society is. In hindsight it becomes obvious that the more diverse and complex society has become, due to globalisation, migration, the crisis of the nation state and the decline of the welfare state, the more conformal and hierarchical the control of the public institutions have become. As one of the public institutions that institutionalize the moral conceptions of how life should be lived, social services have the potential of being a democratic forum that contributes to the strengthening of social equality. Social equality is the prerequisite for gender equality in society and in families, but through the past twenty years the Swedish society has raised increasingly stronger demands for gender equality in cultural minority group families, at the same time as the general welfare system’s capacity to create the necessary tools for developing equality, have been in decline. In this turmoil social problems are to an ever increasing degree percieved of in terms of lack of individuality and reflexivity in minority contexts, leading to compulsory interventions in families under the Care of Young Persons (Special Provisions Act). Research shows that investigations of foreign-born children or children with foreign-born parents lead to compulsory care and 24-hour care outside the home more often than investigations of Swedish-born children with Swedish-born parents. The interaction between the social worker and the client should, ideally spoken, according to the law, be characterized by voluntary consensus. This requires that the participants in the interaction situation find a mutual understanding of the event that has created the interaction situation. They need to find intersubjectivity, but the possibility of achieving intersubjectivity varies, due to the closeness or distance between the lifeworlds and, hence, the moral values of all the participants. In purpose of finding ways to understand how moral complexity can be an active tool in the democratic enterprise of reaching necessary mutual understanding in the social work context described initially, the concept of i) intersubjectivity must be combined with ii) intersectionality for the possibility to recognize the complex power relations involved, and iii) discourse ethics for the possibility to analyzing the communication itself.

  • 2.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Diversity as the Challenge of Democracy: A study of how the social welfare services, as a welfare bureaucracy and moral institution in society, understands and handles cultural diversity2012Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Dissertation

     

    This dissertation deals with the how Swedish society is confronting the democratic challenge of fining ways to integrate individuals and groups with a diversity of cultural and religious beliefs and social practices. The ide that democracy must include all members of society is central in contemporary welfare states. In Sweden, this idea is closely related to a concept of social justice and equality. This means that this study deals with aspects of integration processes. Social service is one of the  societal institutions that institutionalises the moral conceptions of how life should be lived. Therefore, its function in the integrations processes mirrors the ethos of society as a whole. The chief characteristics of a democratic state is that it represents every member of society and that it is transparent, communicative, and reflexive. But this is not easily performed. The state may exercise oppression in the form of forced assimilation through the culturally detached design of law and policy, and with the politics of diversity, minority groups may exert internal oppression of vulnerable elements within the group. In this thesis, this tension expresses The Paradox of Democracy. Social workers deal with the paradox while handling society’s moral panic regarding “other’s” traditions that are perceived as difficult to comprehend. Therefore, there investigative work is of great importance in a society that aspires to treat all citizens as equals. But the framework for such investigations is narrow and tightly controlled. A qualitative change in the scope of social workers’ ability to work in the service of communicative action within the complex areas discussed in this study could be a step towards broadening and deepening democratic practices. When the public institutions take their clients’ wishes and needs seriously and treat them as indicators of the actual needs seriously, the public institutions can build a foundation for reciprocal and communicatively anchored integration work.

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    Diversity as a Challenge for Democracy - English Summary
  • 3.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Diversity as the Condition of Democracy: Reflective versus conformal action in National Social Services in Sweden2015In: Re-visioning social work with individuals, collectives and communities: social work research: Program Book & Book of Abstracts / [ed] Darja Zaviršek, Gašper Krstulović, Ana Sobočan, Jelka Zorn, Martina Kerec, Petra Videmšek, Romana Zidar, Ljubljana: Fakulteta za socialno delo , 2015, p. 252-252Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The debate about societal integration and equality in connection with migration has been vivacious in a Swedish context for several decades now. An interesting research question in this context is how the Swedish society confronts the democratic challenge of finding ways to societal integration in times of rapid globalization and social change. In a case study of National Social Services in Sweden, I have studied how social workers within national social services understand and handle cultural diversity in their investigation and decision making involving children, young adults and their families. It becomes evident that the search for possibilities to societal integration has been abandoned for a system of societal monitoring and control, here expressed as conformal action. A deep conflict occurs between the social worker's communicative skills and an ever increasing, conformal bureaucracy. This conflict is understood as a conflict between the lifeworld and the system. Two important components in the argument are that integration demands communicative and reflective action in society and that The National Social Servicesi nstitutionalizes the representations of society as a whole. When treating the factors of the integration process it becomes clear that the social workers are handling an awkward paradox, seemingly impossible to dissolve. The paradox is activated in the intersection between the individual rights versus cultural and religious rights and it permeates every text guiding social work, from the Constitution over The Social Services Act to other governmental recommendations. Although the paradox cannot be dissolved it is evident that it could be mitigated through communication and reflective action. Nevertheless there is a rapid change in social services, away from communicative and reflective and action, towards conformal action. The theoretical concepts that are used as analytical tools in the study are derived from the thinking of Durkheim and Habermas.

  • 4.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Heder: Hedersrelaterat våld, förtryck och socialt arbete2017 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kommunikation och makt i kulturellt komplexa relationer inom socialtjänsten2018In: Relationer i socialt arbete: i gränslandet mellan profession och person / [ed] Bruhn, Anders & Källström, Åsa, Stockholm: Liber , 2018, 1, p. 76-91Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Andelen tvångsinsatser inom socialtjänsten gentemot barn och unga med utomeuropeisk bakgrund är större jämfört med barn och unga med svensk bakgrund. Vår tids etniska, kulturella och religiösa mångfald ställer krav på att det sociala arbetet inom socialtjänsten utvecklas så att det fungerar på ett jämlikt och rättvist sätt, men ojämlikhetens mönster tyder på att såväl samhället i sin helhet som socialtjänsten har svårt att hantera mångfald. Ordet mångfald relaterar här till skillnader avseende människors resurser, normer och behov. Tvång får bara tillgripas när varje möjlighet för lösningar i frivillighet och samförstånd har uttömts, men det kräver djupgående kommunikation mellan socialarbetare och klienter på ett sätt som styrningen av socialtjänsten inte tillåter. I samma takt som samhällets mångfald har ökat har den tid socialarbetare använder på direkt kommunikation med klienter minskat. I artikeln presenteras ett utkast till en teori om intersektionellt medveten diskursetik. Teorin skisserar vilka kriterier som uppfylls när kommunikation fungerar och belyser vikten av medvetenhet om aktörernas identiteter och kategoriseringar.

     

  • 6.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Migration och kvinnors utsatthet för våld i nära relationer2021In: Intersektionella perspektiv på våld i nära relationer / [ed] Linn Moser Hällen, Stockholm: Liber förlag , 2021, p. 202-215Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This anthology contribution, Migration and women's vulnerability to intimate relationship violence, highlights general vulnerability to intimate relationship violence in attachment-related migration situations from an intersectional perspective.

    Through four women's stories, we see the importance of two constitutional factors -  isolation and mobility - for exposure to violence in the borderlands of migration and how gender, age, ethnic/or national origin, language, religion, sexuality and migration status interact with society's legislation and its capacity to, through its welfare institutions, offer adequate support and assistance that the exposed also have the opportunity to take part in.

  • 7.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Mångfald som demokratins utmaning: en studie av hur socialtjänsten som välfärdsbyråkrati och moralisk samhällsinstitution förstår och hanterar kulturell mångfald2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation deals with how Swedish society is confronting the democratic challenge of finding ways to integrate individuals and groups with a diversity of cultural and religious beliefs and social practices. The idea that democracy must include all members of society is central in contemporary welfare states. In Sweden this idea is closely related to a concept of social justice and equality. This means that this study deals with aspects of integration processes. Social services are one of the societal institutions that institutionalize the moral conceptions of how life should be lived. Therefore, its function in the integration processes mirrors the ethos of society as a whole. The chief characteristics of a democratic state are that it represents every member of society and that it is transparent, communicative, and reflexive. But this is not easily performed. The State may exercise oppression in the form of forced assimilation through the culturally detached design of law and policy, and with the politics of diversity, minority groups may exert internal oppression of vulnerable elements within the group. This tension expresses a tension that is called the Paradox of Democracy in this thesis. Social workers deal with the paradox while handling society’s moral panic regarding “others’” traditions that are perceived as difficult to comprehend. Therefore, their investigative work is of great importance in a society that aspires to treat all citizens as equals. But the framework for such investigations is narrow and tightly controlled. A qualitative change in the scope of social workers’ ability to work in the service of communicative action within the complex areas discussed in this study could be a step towards broadening and deepening democratic practices. When the public institutions take their clients’ diverse wishes and needs seriously, and treat them as indicators of the actual needs of members of society, the public institutions receive a foundation for reciprocal and communicatively anchored integration work.

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  • 8.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Towards a Theory of Power and Communication in Social Work2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for an elaboration of a mutual understanding between worldviews is steadily increasing in our societies today, due to growing economic, social, cultural, and religious gaps. To enhance wellbeing, integration and democracy, the growing gaps require a substantial level of communication between representatives for public institutions - such as social services - and citizens. Social workers share the insight that a specific communicative competence signifies the profession. They, however, also share the experience that social work is involved in a multidimensional battle about what power and communication is and ought to be, respectively. The battle is framed as New Public Management (NPM). The outcome of NPM’s rule seems to be leading towards strict conformal structures of power and communication in a time where professional ethics and knowledge could and, for all we know, should be guiding the interaction between social workers and citizens to enhance mutual integration in a globalized society. Research on power and communication in social work show a rather rigid understanding of power relations. Despite the use of theory, be it reflected, or heavily theoretically guided as for example in the case of poststructuralists, inspired by Foucault - and irrespective of the starting point or the theoretical awareness of the researcher - power seems to be described as a unidirectional process in which the social worker HAS power and the client IS powerless. As a part of this standard package of power, it seems as if the only recommendations of handling the lack of equality is to try mitigating it by empowerment. Empowerment is framing the power of citizens as clients most of the time. There is an intrinsic problem here, since the idea of empowerment seems to hold an automatically triggered top-down position as the process starts with the social worker passing power to the client. To enhance inclusion and democracy in times of social change and globalization, social work needs a theory of power and communication that makes sense, in the tight corridors of action offered in the social services. It is the aim of this paper to outline the conceptual brickwork necessary for the construction of a theory of communication and power in social work. The first conceptual brick is derived from the concepts of intersectionality, inspired by Foucault’s theory of power and the second from Habermas’ discourse ethics. The theories of Habermas and Foucault, respectively, are often perceived as incomparable, but I find a great potential in bringing them together. One binding element between them is the concept of intersubjectivity, a main component in the theoretical construction of Habermas and its connection to Arendt. Her theory of power and violence is another binding element. Even further Durkheim and the concept of moral delivers another conceptual connection. The clue for this theory is derived from my empirical studies of social work and cultural diversity. The next step is to apply the theory in an ongoing study aiming at understanding communicative processes between social workers and inhabitants in an exposed, suburban area in Sweden.

  • 9.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Ablett, Phillip
    University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC QLD, Australia.
    The Transformation and Integration of Society: Developing Social Work Pedagogy through Jürgen Habermas’ Theory of Communicative Action2020In: The Routledge Handbook of Critical Pedagogies for Social Work / [ed] Christine Morley, Phillip Ablett, Carolyn Noble, Stephen Cowden, Oxon, UK: Routledge, 2020, 1, p. 450-465Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social work is a globalised field of action, facing theoretical, practical, ethical and pedagogical challenges caused by major global transformations that have given rise to an increasing diversity of socioeconomic, national, ethnic, racial, and religious divisions. This context poses anew the question of the possibility of interconnectedness over or between these divisions. It prompts us to ask, inter alia, do we have to share the same life, the same experiences, the same class, nationality, ethnicity, race, or religion to achieve solidarity and mutual understanding? The German philosopher, sociologist and critical theorist, Jürgen Habermas has shown that this increasing diversity calls for a specific kind of communication to reach mutual understanding and the emancipatory possibilities this entails. He also states that our possibilities for communication are often systematically obstructed. However, Habermas has not been content with stating the problem, he also offers a way to create mutual understanding and cohesion in a rapidly changing world. In such a context, the stakes for social workers (both as practitioners and educators) to communicate or facilitate mutual understanding over socioeconomic, cultural, religious and normative divides, are extraordinarily high. In this chapter the pressing needs of communication across difference and the obstacles to it will be examined in the light of Habermas Theory of Communicative Action. 

  • 10.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Cinthio, Hanna
    Särnstedt, Emmie
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Det hedersrelaterade våldets och förtryckets uttryck och samhällets utmaningar: En kartläggning i Göteborg, Malmö och Stockholm 2017-2018: Del II: Redovisning av den kvalitativa delstudien i Göteborg, Malmö och Stockholm2018Report (Other academic)
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    Det hedersrelaterade våldets och förtryckets uttryck och samhällets utmaningar: En kartläggning i Göteborg, Malmö och Stockholm 2017–2018
  • 11.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Strid, Sofia
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Complexities facing social work: Honor-based violence as lived reality and stereotype2024In: Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1468-0173, E-ISSN 1741-296XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary: It is widely accepted that honor-based violence is a lived reality and a serious problem. However, honor-based violence is also a contested academic and political field, characterized by a polarized debate about whether or not the violence comprises stereotyping images of immigrants. This article asks how honor-based violence can be understood in light of this polarization, and what consequences it may have for clients and social workers. It is based on interview data with 235 adults with either professional (n = 199) or personal experiences (n = 36) of honor-based violence in Sweden. The data has been thematically coded and analyzed using the concepts of culturalization and intersectionality.

    Findings: Honor-based violence is simultaneously a lived reality and teeming with stereotypes that are constructed by culturalizing images of nation, gender, age, religion, and sexuality. These stereotypes constitute forms of violence themselves and decrease clients’ trust in society and its institutions. Hence, the stereotypes become obstacles to social workers’ capacity to support those exposed to violence. At a general level, the stereotypes contribute to retaining the exposed in violence. In contrast, intersectional approaches to understanding honor-based violence have the potential to capture clients’ self-perceived and complex formulations of the causes of, and the character of, their situation, and thus increase the possibilities for adequate support.

    Applications: The article's findings can support social workers’ understanding of the complexity of honor-based violence and strengthen their possibilities and capacities to develop antiracist and nonviolent communicative practices and, thus, acknowledge clients’ varying experiences and individual needs.

  • 12.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Migration, Honour, Violence and Inequality: Developing Isolation and Mobility as Mechanisms of Honour Related Violence2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to contribute to the expanding knowledge-base for reducing honour related violence (HRV), that has becomeincreasingly complicated, not to say corrupt, by ongoing neoliberalism and right-wing agendas.

    HRV is a serious problem with complex roots, causes and sometimes deadly consequences. It is a contested academic and political fieldconstructed through various borders, boundaries, and intersections such as nation, ethnicity, gender, age, sexuality, religion, and migration.

    The paper examines some of these borders, boundaries, and intersections by analysing the expressions, prevalence, and patterns of HRV in Sweden, a historically social democratic and femocratic welfare state, challenged by increasing social, economic, and political inequalities,and a mainstream discourse describing HRV as a distinctively dangerous form of violence linked to culture, religion, and migrants’ failure to‘assimilate’ to Nordic ideals of gender equality. As such, positionings on HRV have played and continue to play straight into the hands ofnationalist politics, racist agendas, and right-wing assimilationism.

    In contrast, the paper draws on feminist and intersectional sociological theory, at the interface of honour, integration, migration, to develop theconcepts of isolation and mobility. It is based on a substantial qualitative and quantitative empirical material: focus groups and individual in-depth interviews with people with direct, personal experiences and indirect, professional experiences of HRV (n=259) and three surveysanswered by fifteen-year-olds in Swedish metropolitan areas (n=6002).

    The paper shows first, how isolation and mobility reinforce or weakenhonour norms and violence, respectively

  • 13.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Storstadskartläggningen om hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck2020Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Strid, Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Särnstedt Gramnaes, Emmie
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Cinthio, Hanna
    Enelo, Jan-Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Heder och samhälle: Det hedersrelaterade våldets och förtryckets uttryck och samhällets utmaningar2019Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok är resultatet av den hittills mest omfattande studien av det hedersrelaterade våldets uttryck, former och mekanismer som genomförts i Sverige. Studien bygger på kvalitativa och kvantitativa delstudier och har gjorts på uppdrag av Stockholms, Göteborgs och Malmö stad 2017–2018. Bredden gör studien unik inom detta område. Den kvalitativa datainsamlingen: 235 nyckelpersoner med djupgående kunskap om hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck har intervjuats i 95 öppna intervjuer. Några av intervjupersonerna har kunskap utifrån sitt arbete eller från sitt engagemang i föreningar. Andra har kunskap på grund av egen erfarenhet av livet i en hederskontext och av utsatthet för våld och förtryck. Några har båda dessa positioner. Den kvantitativa datainsamlingen: 6 002 ungdomar i årskurs nio har besvarat en enkät om relationer, begränsningar och olika former av utsatthet i hemmet, skolan och på fritiden. Det sammantagna resultatet visar att människor med olika etniska tillhörigheter, trosuppfattningar, funktionsnedsättningar, sexuell läggning, ålder och socioekonomiska förhållanden lever med våldsutsatthet och normer som förtrycker dem. Vidare visas att hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck är uttryck för olika svårigheter som kan sammanfattas med begreppen inneslutning och mobilitet på individ-, grupp- och samhällsnivå och i samspelet mellan dessa. Inneslutning och mobilitet betecknar att våldsutövning ökar i introverta eller inneslutna grupper där samspelet med andra grupper är låg; dvs. att mobiliteten är låg. Hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck närs bland annat av minoritetsskap, särskilt i kombination med kollektiv statslöshet, krig, migration och segregation. Social, ekonomisk och politisk rörlighet urholkar däremot våldsnormerna och minskar våldsanvändandet. Sammantaget visar resultatet att hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck drabbar individer på ett flertal sätt och att samhället genom socialpolitiken bör ta ett förnyat ansvar på flera nivåer, både akut, kortsiktigt och långsiktigt.

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    Heder och samhälle: Det hedersrelaterade våldets och förtryckets uttryck och samhällets utmaningar
  • 15.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Särnstedt Gramnaes, Emmie
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Relationerna bestämmer tillhörigheten: En utvärdering av IOP Mötesplats Vox 2018-20202021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING

    IOP Mötesplats Vox 2018-2020 har kommit till för att identifiera och möta behoven i två bostadsområden i Örebro kommun, Varberga och Oxhagen, som tillsammans utgör stadsdelen Vox. Verksamhetens mål är att bidra till ökad jämlikhet och integration genom att stärka förutsättningarna för barn och unga att nå målen i skolan, för en attraktiv och trygg stadsdel, för utbildning, arbete och integration samt för möjligheten till meningsfull fritid. Örebro universitet har under 2020 åtagit sig att utvärdera verksamhetens måluppfyllelse på individ-, områdes- och samhällsnivå. Utvärderingen baseras på intervjuer, statistik och rapporter.

    Mötesplatsens verksamhet var inledningsvis bred men utkristalliserades andra året i en rad mer stabila verksamheter som bidrar till måluppfyllelse. Vi ser detta som en naturlig utveckling som kan liknas vid att vaska guld: efter enträget arbete faller gruset undan och guldkornen framträder. De verksamheter som har bidragit till måluppfyllelse har som gemensam nämnare att de utformats med lyhördhet för deltagarnas behov och i tät samverkan med andra verksamheter. Fritidsbanken, Kul i Vox, Ungdomspoolen och Vox IF är några exempel. Dessa har ökat rörligheten mellan människor och platser vilket målen ytterst handlar om. Måluppfyllelse i skolan är en förutsättning för att barn och unga ska kunna röra sig mellan olika geografiska och sociala miljöer. Detsamma gäller vuxnas utbildning och arbete. I en attraktiv och trygg stadsdel kan människor röra sig fritt utan att begränsas av rädsla och hierarkier mellan människor och grupper i samhället, och en meningsfull fritid handlar om nya erfarenheter, relationer och förmågor som bidrar till rörlighet.

    Mötesplats Vox har bland annat vitaliserat befintlig verksamhet genom Lovskolan, skapat Fritidsbanken, Kul i Vox och Ungdomspoolen varav några permanentats i kommunens regi samt den numera självständiga föreningen Vox IF vilket i högsta grad bidrar till ökad jämlikhet och integration i Vox-området. Deltagande i verksamheterna har haft positiv betydelse för  individer, men när vi undersöker förändring på områdes- och samhällsnivå ser vi att situationen i området försämrats avseende arbete, utbildning och integration. Det är ännu för tidigt att se effekten av satsningar på skolområdet, för det är först 2021-2022 som mätningar kan visa resultat av mötesplatsens insatser. Vi har dock konstaterat att de grundförutsättningar som formar ungas möjlighet till meningsfull fritid såsom föräldrars arbetslöshet, låg utbildningsnivå, fattigdom och trångboddhet, är samspelande faktorer som kan försämra ungas möjligheter till studier, organiserade fritidsaktiviteter, umgänge och återhämtning.

    När det gäller målsättningen om en trygg och attraktiv stadsdel är det svårt att se någon entydig utveckling. Vi ser en överrepresentation av anmälningar som gäller vissa brott, men också en minskning som kan tyda på en nedåtgående trend vad gäller kriminalitet.

    När vi beaktar ett axplock av data om socioekonomiska villkor framträder bilden av ett socialt utsatt område. De problem vi har pekat på beror inte på människors födelseland eller bakgrund i sig utan på den samlande summan av socioekonomiska faktorer såsom låg utbildningsnivå, svag ställning på arbetsmarknaden och bristande förankring i de offentliga trygghetssystemen. Dessa faktorer drabbar ju också människor med svensk bakgrund i utsatta områden. Samtidigt kan omständigheter kring migrationen tillsammans med hinder i etableringen i det nya hemlandet förstärka risken för social problematik och fattigdom när det gäller utrikes födda. Den goda sidan av saken är att konkreta livsomständigheter såsom utbildningsnivå, kunskap om socialförsäkringssystemet, boendeförhållanden och kontakter som gynnar etablering på arbetsmarknaden går att förändra till det bättre. De villkor vi har diskuterat är inte huggna i sten utan kan förbättras genom bland annat integrationspolitik, utbildningspolitik, arbetsmarknadspolitik och bostadspolitik och det finns stora behov av långsiktigt, relationsskapande arbete med både barn, unga och vuxna i Vox-området. Det handlar dels om socialt stöd som sådant, dels om att skapa tillit till socialtjänsten, skolan och andra myndigheter som ju tillsammans uppfattas som repressiva representanter för samhället; inte på grund av de boendes bakgrund och erfarenheter i hemländerna utan utifrån myndigheternas faktiska ageranden här och nu.

    Samtliga offentliga och ideella aktörer i Vox-området känner till Mötesplats Vox arbete och åtskilliga har erfarenhet av samverkan med mötesplatsen. De ser positiva sidor av mötesplatsens engagemang i området, men det finns också förslag om utveckling av samverkan.

    I det fortsatta arbetet är framför allt ökad samverkan mellan boende, skola, socialtjänst, föreningar och de verksamheter som ingår i Mötesplats Vox av vikt. Mötesplatsen har goda förutsättningar för att vara drivande i övergripande samverkan som handlar om att skapa långsiktiga relationer och generaliserad tillit bland boende i området; det vill säga att man kan göra något för någon utan att förvänta sig något tillbaka och litar på att den andre gör något för någon annan en annan gång. Generaliserad tillit är i kort och gott förutsättningen för en trygg stadsdel där människor med olika erfarenheter och livsprojekt litar på att också människor utanför den egna gruppen vill dem väl. En förutsättning för att lyckas med sådant arbete är att öka de boendes agens och delaktighet i det egna livet och i samhällsutvecklingen. I sådana sammanhang axlar alla samhällsaktörer i området ansvaret att motverka samhällets allmänna tendens att se de boende som potentiella brottslingar eller problemhärdar, vilket skapar motsatsen till tillit. Den insikten har tydligt uttalats inom flera av mötesplatsens verksamheter och fångas i det medarbetarcitat som utgör rapportens titel: ”Relationerna bestämmer tillhörigheten”.

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    Relationerna bestämmer tillhörigheten: En utvärdering av IOP Mötesplats Vox 2018–2020
  • 16.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Särnstedt Gramnaes, Emmie
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Segregationens betydelse för hedersnormer samt för hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck: Nya analyser utifrån Storstadskartläggningen2022In: Socioekonomisk segregation och hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck: Återrapportering av regeringsuppdrag: DELMOS 2021/437, Stockholm: Delegationen mot segregation (Delmos) , 2022, , p. 40p. 5-45Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What do segregation, honour norms and honour-related violence have to do with each other? Through an analysis of interviews with professionals in public and civil society as well as people with their own experience of growing up in an honour context, we highlight the importance of segregation for honour norms as well as honor-based violence in a number of fields. The fields are socio-economy, neighbourhood, collective statelessness, inclusion in the Swedish welfare system, migration patterns, local and transnational relations and background in states with and without public welfare. The study shows that complex patterns of segregating factors involving these fields contribute to the emergence, maintenance and tranformation of honour-related violence and oppression. Mobility is the opposite of segregation and thus a mechanism that erodes honour norms and reduces honour-based violence. 

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    Fulltext
  • 17.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Särnstedt Gramnaes, Emmie
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Socialt hållbart arbete med hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck i Örebro län 2022: En intersektionell behovsinventering2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Örebro University has been commissioned by the Board of Örebro County to investigate the need for special support and knowledge resources in the concrete work with honour-based violence in the municipalities of Örebro County. Research shows that honour-based violence is a serious problem with many different expressions. The prevalence is unclear within the research and depends on variations in definitions and scientific methods. We see a tendency for the concept to become increasingly loose in the outlines of public documents. Thus, honour-based violence is a complex area of ​​knowledge that contributes to stereotypes that prevent victims from receiving the right help at the right time and with the appropriate scope and duration. Against the background of previous research and 23 focus interviews with 88 professionals from various occupational categories and key persons in civil society in Örebro County, it appears that a special support and knowledge resource should be established. The work of the support and knowledge resource should be based on an inclusive and intersectional perspective and on the foundation of democracy. It should be deeply and broadly rooted in national and international research and have social sustainability as a goal. The knowledge resource should also be based on a scientific basis, work for a dynamic development of knowledge throughout the county as well as openness and transparency in communication between local, regional, and national actors. The overall goal for the county's work with and against honour-based violence should be to work for every resident's right to freedom from violence and oppression as well as freedom to equal and equal participation in community life. These freedoms are related to each other and presuppose freedom from every form of confinement and segregation, within family life, in groups and in society in general.

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    Socialt hållbart arbete med hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck i Örebro län 2022: En intersektionell behovsinventering
  • 18.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Särnstedt Gramnaes, Emmie
    Vägar ut och vägar in: Hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck och kvinnors etablering i arbetslivet2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Honour-based violence (HBV) includes a wide range of psychological, physical, sexual, and material limitations, violations and acts of violence aimed at preserving or restoring the reputation of a family in the eyes of those around them. Strict gender norms that regulate people's opportunities to shape their lives are a fundamental element in all honour contexts. Convictions about which relationships, places, tasks, and roles that are suitable for girls, boys, women and men of different ages and social positions, lead to limitations, especially for girls and women - not least their opportunities for education and work outside the family.

    We have analyzed 26 life stories from women who have been subjected to HBV, focusing on how the exposure to violence affects their opportunities for establishment in working life. The life story data comes from Honour and Society, the Swedish Metropolitan Survey comprising the three major cities Gothenburg, Malmö, and Stockholm, 2017-2018.The overall results of the analysis show, firstly, that the gendered obligations and chastity norms of the honour context limit girls' and women's opportunities for education. Some of the interviewees have been allowed to study on family terms while others have been completely prevented. Many have had difficulty completing their studies due to turbulence and ill health because of the violence. Secondly, it is shown that exposure to HBV in the short and long term makes it difficult to establish oneself in working life and society at large. The interview participants who lived in strict honour contexts generally lack work experience during adolescence, as well as other experiences that are central to establishment in working life. Some of the women who arrived in Sweden in adulthood are far from the labor market because they have been prevented from learning Swedish and having contact with society outside the context of honour. Many of our interviewees have lived, and still live, in difficult circumstances due to a serious threat, protected identity, constant break-ups and persistent mental and physical illness, which impairs their ability to work.Some of these circumstances are common to those exposed to violence, regardless of whether they have been subjected to HBV or other forms of violence. But some variations are specifically linked to the degree of confinement and mobility of the honour context, respectively. 

    Patterns. One pattern is that the interview participants whose parents, or other close relatives, have succeeded in establishing themselves in the Swedish labor market eventually educate themselves and work, albeit with difficulties and delays. Whether the parents establish themselves and work in Sweden seems to be more important than the parents' level of education and career in the former home country. This is because the parents who work in Sweden take a larger share of Swedish society, and thus live in a higher degree of mobility and norm change than the parents who do not work and have few contacts with others outside the primary group and thus reside in segregated groups where the honour norms remain strong or even have become strengthened by migration. When parents and other family members work, contact with the surrounding society increases while their social and economic dependence on the honour context decreases, which leads to the honour norms being challenged and weakened. Such mobility leads to a change in norms that improves girls' and women's opportunities for education and work outside the honour context.

    A second pattern is that the interview participants who grew up in ethnic and religious minorities, experiencing war and persecution, low levels of education and poverty have poorer conditions for study and work. Such circumstances force people to join inwardly to ensure their survival and are a soil for strict honour norms which are closely linked to the family's livelihood. In families where the main livelihood rests on transnational relations, work in family businesses and marriages of daughters within the honour context, compulsory schooling in Sweden becomes a problem, as it endangers daughters’ chastity. The same applies to women's work outside the family. But this varies depending on the density of the  honour norms in various contexts. In affluent families with high status, girls' school performance can instead be seen as a measure of their chastity; the family's reputation is favored if the daughters perform impeccably in school and in all areas of life, as it signals a kind of uplifted caring that fits into the image of the successful family. The heteronormative gender order in the honour context is about being a true man or woman in accordance to age and social position. Girls and women in high-status families can therefore, in some cases, enjoy a relative, conditional freedom if their studies and work benefit the family.A third and final pattern has to do with the transformation of honour norms. Several of the interviewees talk about conflicts within the context of honour - sometimes between the parents, other times between the parents and brothers who abuse their sisters on their own initiative, and still others between the parents and the larger family community. Some of the conflicts arise when young men inculcate strict honour norms - that their parents do not recognize - in new, neighborhood-based communities arising due to segregation, discrimination, unequal access to welfare and other circumstances that contribute to exclusion. Here we see how socio-economic gaps become a breeding ground for strengthened honour norms. Other conflicts arise when a person or a family adopts progressive values ​​that go against the norms of honour. For this to happen, access to ideas that challenge the context of honour is needed, but above all that is needed is the opportunity for livelihood, welfare and social contexts that make it possible to create a meaningful life outside it the context and inside a society characterised by diversity and democracy. Thus, honour norms are not fixed and finished once and for all; they are strengthened or weakened depending on the living conditions of human beings, whose extreme structural level can be summarized as degrees of confinement and mobility. Education and work outside the honour circle's narrow circle of family and relatives can offer women who are exposed to HBV a path to a life of security and freedom.

     

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    Vägar ut och vägar in
  • 19.
    Bruhn, Anders
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Petersén, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Johansson, Björn
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Att ta mark i professionen - nya socionomers yrkesval och karriärvägar: Rapport från en studie med särskilt fokus på socialtjänsten2020Report (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Strid, Sofia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Honour as a border regime: enclosure and mobility as mechanisms of honour-based violence in Swedish metropolitan area2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Strid, Sofia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Enelo, Jan-Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Inequalities, isolation, and intersectionality: A quantitative study of honour-based violence among girls and boys in metropolitan Sweden2021In: Women's Studies: International Forum, ISSN 0277-5395, E-ISSN 1879-243X, Vol. 88, article id 102518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper examines the prevalence and patterns of honour-based violence and oppression by documenting and analysing self-reported experiences among youth in contemporary metropolitan Sweden. The material is gathered via three surveys of 15-year-olds in metropolitan Sweden (N6002). The analysis draws on feminist intersectional violence studies and situates honour-based violence at the intersections of gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. It develops the concepts of isolation and mobility within and between groups at family, community, and societal levels.

    The paper finds higher levels of multiple forms of violence and control, including physical, psychological and sexual violence, among youth who live with honour norms. The prevalence of violence is higher with each of the forms of isolation explored in the paper.

  • 22.
    Strid, Sofia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Enelo, Jan-Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Cinthio, Hanna
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Det hedersrelaterade våldets och förtryckets uttryck och samhällets utmaningar. En kartläggning i Göteborg, Malmö och Stockholm 2017–2018: Del III: Redovisning av den kvantitativa delstudien i Göteborg2018Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Det hedersrelaterade våldets och förtryckets uttryck och samhällets utmaningar. En kartläggning i Göteborg, Malmö och Stockholm 2017–2018: Del III: Redovisning av den kvantitativa delstudien i Göteborg
  • 23.
    Strid, Sofia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Enelo, Jan-Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Cinthio, Hanna
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Det hedersrelaterade våldets och förtryckets uttryck och samhällets utmaningar. En kartläggning i Göteborg, Malmö och Stockholm 2017–2018: Del III: Redovisning av den kvantitativa delstudien i Stockholm2018Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Det hedersrelaterade våldets och förtryckets uttryck och samhällets utmaningar. En kartläggning i Göteborg, Malmö och Stockholm 2017–2018: Del III: Redovisning av den kvantitativa delstudien i Stockholm
  • 24.
    Strid, Sofia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Enelo, Jan-Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Cinthio, Hanna
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Det hedersrelaterade våldets och förtryckets uttryck och samhällets utmaningar. En kartläggning i Göteborg, Malmö och Stockholm 2017–2018: Del III: Redovisning av den kvantitativa delstudien i Malmö2018Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Det hedersrelaterade våldets och förtryckets uttryck och samhällets utmaningar En kartläggning i Göteborg, Malmö och Stockholm 2017–2018: Del III Redovisning av den kvantitativa delstudien i Malmö
  • 25.
    Svensson, Kerstin
    et al.
    School of Social Work, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Schiller, Ulene
    Social Work and Social Development, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa.
    Baianstovu, Rúna Í
    Makhubele, Jabulani
    Directorate of Research and Innovation, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa.
    John-Langba, Johannes
    School of Applied Human Sciences, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.
    Exploring child protection content in social work curricula in South Africa and Sweden2023In: Social Work Education, ISSN 0261-5479, E-ISSN 1470-1227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Child participation and agency are vital elements in child protection. Ensuring child participation can contribute to successful interventions. Social workers are often the central agents in ensuring that children participate in matters concerning them and that the best interest of the child principle is adhered to in these matters. The aim of this study is thus to understand if and how social work education in South Africa and Sweden teaches child participation in child protection work. We study curricula for social work programmes in three South African and two Swedish universities. Results indicate broad themes of similar content in curricula in both countries and both indicate gaps in terms of in-depth training in child protection, as well as children to a very low degree are regarded as agents. Students are not explicitly trained to encourage child participation. Further research can show whether and how such knowledge is developed in practice and how the social work programmes can prepare the students for such development. If social workers should be able to promote child participation, regard them as active agents and support them in developing resilience, they need to have that perspective in their fundamental training.

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