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  • 1. Eriksson, Conny
    et al.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Working range of roll pass sequences in wire rod rolling with interstand tensions2004In: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 81-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the high speed rolling of wire rod in blocks, interstand tensions are utilised in order to keep the process stable. However, interstand tensions influence the rolling process, and especially the spread and forward slip, which are dependent of tensions between the stands. By the influence on spread, the tolerances of the rolled product depend on the tensions and usually the interstand tensions are kept as low as possible in order to obtain required tolerances. A narrow spread technology is used to utilise interstand tensions in order to increase the working range of a pass sequence and move the product range towards smaller sizes. By adapting a certain amount of interstand tensions, smaller sizes can be rolled by a given roll pass schedule. A practical problem in this method is the fixed gearings in the common blocks, which require a certain and given level of interstand tensions and corresponding reductions. In the latest generation of blocks, where the stands are arranged in units, two by two, with each unit driven by a dedicated electrical motor, it is possible to introduce 'inter unit' tensions, and by this method extend the working range of the pass sequence. A special computer program for analysis of interstand tensions has been developed by combining a program TENSION, developed at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, dealing with the basic principles of rolling with interstand tensions, with the recently published program WORKRAN, which analyses the working range of any roll pass sequence built up by common two-symmetrical grooves. From the analysis and experimental data it is shown that interstand tensions at the level of 10% of the yield stress of the material increase the working range in a six stand block by 2% and reduce the lower limit of the exit section area by about 15%. Higher tension levels have a larger effect both on the extension of the working range and on the reduction of the minimum exit area but it becomes more difficult to control the tolerances at higher tension levels. The influence of interstand tensions on the reduction and on the working range of the pass sequence is mainly obtained by the influence on the round passes, while the oval passes have a counteracting effect on the influence of interstand tensions

  • 2.
    Gillström, Peter
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Shot blasting of billets and wire rod2005In: Metallurgy and new materials researches, ISSN 1221-5503, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model for work and power in shot blasting is derived. A study is made to use recycled glass as a shot blasting media. The theoretical model must be adjusted for strain hardening material. The experiments indicate that the average shear yield stress is more than twice the initial value for austenitic stainless steels. Soft materials get rough surfaces in shot blasting, which can be advantageous for the ability to carry the wire drawing lubricant. Recycled glass is a possible shot material. Due to the lower density, the shot velocity must be higher than for steel shots. This effect becomes larger by rotation of the glass shots during operation. Recycled glass gives irregular surface, including chip formation, which can improve the lubricant carrying ability of the wire rod surface, but also increase the risk for reduction of the fatigue strength of the wire.

  • 3. Hadad, Rabie
    et al.
    Lindgren, Patrik
    Jonsson, Mikael
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    A Theoretical / Empirical study of void closure in heavy plate hot rolling of tool steel2009In: Metallurgy and New Materials Researches / Cercetari metalurgice, si de noi materiale, ISSN 1221-5503, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 9-26Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By the introduction of TOOLOX®, SSAB in Oxelösund has turned into a new market segment, including heavier sizes and dramatically increased requirements on inner quality of the plate. To be able to determine the minimum reduction from slab to finished plate with acceptable inner quality, a study was made, to evaluate the minimum reduction for a given requirement of inner quality. By experimental rolling in the heavy plate mill in Oxelösund it has been proven that more than 40 % total reduction is necessary for total closure of voids under the geometrical deformation conditions in that mill. The total reduction is more important than the geometrical rolling conditions, and heavy pass reductions are favourable for void closure. The closure of internal defects can be improved by cooling the surface of the slabs.

  • 4. Hansen, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Jönsson, Pär
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Törresvoll, Ketil
    The concept of the liquid sampling and hot rolling method for determination of macro inclusion characteristics in steel2006In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 177-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel method for determination of semi-macro and macro size distributions of inclusions in steel from samples in ladle, tundish and mould has been developed. The samples are worked and surface treated before inspection. Mainly immersed ultrasonic scanning is performed to determine the semi-macro and macro inclusion content. The LSHR method has been tested in several different steel plants and for different steel grades. It is concluded that new information regarding large inclusions during steelmaking can be obtained using the method.

  • 5. Igel, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Bolin, Örjan
    Walk, Rainer
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Operative conditions and materials choice for roller guide rollers in wire rod and bar mills2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6. Larsson, Sture
    et al.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Invention and innovation: the heritage to Morgårdshammar from Erik Norlind2007In: Nordic steel & mining review, ISSN 0284-0448, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    A Model for Prediction of Roll Force and Torque in Edge Rolling2007In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 160-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although edge rolling has been important since the early days of rolling, not until lately, methods for calculation of roll force and torque in edge rolling have been developed. Based on a simple upper bound solution, including plastic flow perpendicular to the rolling direction, a model was derived and arranged to be possible to implement into commercial roll pass design and set up software. Verifications were made in a laboratory rolling mill. Heavy strain hardened copper, and precipitation hardened aluminium were rolled. The calculated forces were in good agreement with the measurements. The developed model has been examined from well documented industrial rolling trials. The relation between the predicted and measured forces, are within 10 % and only in one case of twenty the predicted force deviate more than 15 % from the measured value. No trend indicating different precision as a function of the geometrical conditions has been seen. The experimental scatter is caused by the experimental situation rather than error in the model, which still can be assumed to be in the order of the numerical approximations. The mathematical form of the model is sound, and better predictions of the roll force can be done with the new model compared to older models. By implementation of the new model into any commercial software for rolling analysis, all kinds of roll pass sequences for wire rod and bar rolling can be studied.

  • 8.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    A vision of wire rod rolling technology for the twenty first century2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    A vision of wire rod rolling technology for the twenty first century2007In: Advanced Materials Research, ISSN 1662-8985, Vol. 23, p. 39-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last 60 years, tremendous developments have been in wire rod rolling. Finish rolling speeds in the order of 100 – 140 m/s are common and on line wire rod cooling practices, has made it possible to treat the wire rod directly in line in the mill instead of separate off line operations. New procedures for roll setting have been developed to cut the downtime in the mill, by presetting the stands in separate workshops an supply the entire rolling line with fast changing equipment. Much of the efforts have been directed to improve the productivity and the wire rod quality, but also to improve the working environment. In the 21:st century, the main challenge will be the global energy saving and environment protection, which in turn will require new trends in wire rod rolling and wire rod rolling research. The in line treatment will be applied for more steel grades, but the important savings must be solved at the interface between the steelmaking/continuous casting and the wire rod rolling. Hot charging as well as warm rolling will be employed in order to save energy. Their knowledge of the rolling processes will be improved by means of new methods for plastic analysis. New processes must be introduced, where the requirements from the rolling mills will direct the development. These are including casting of smaller billet sections, in order to minimize the mechanical work, and thus the consumption of electrical energy for conversion of the billets to wire rod. By the development of these technologies not only energy will be saved. Better wire rod surfaces can be obtained and the investment cost for new rolling mills will decrease. However the development of new knowledge and new processes requires funding on a level that is hard to expect, especially from the funding system which exists at present.

  • 10.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Development trends in high productivity hot rolling of high quality high carbon steel wire rod2002In: BHM : Berg- und hüttenmännische Monatshefte, ISSN 0005-8912, Vol. 147, no 11, p. 333-344Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Evaluation of friction in the hot rolling of steel bars by means of on line forward slip measurements2004In: Scandinavian journal of metallurgy, ISSN 0371-0459, E-ISSN 1600-0692, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 129-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    In spite of the importance of friction it is still a weak point in the analysis of rolling. Most studies assume that a coefficient of friction (μ) is representative for the roll gap. Forward slip measurements under normal production conditions in a bar mill have been used to evaluate the coefficient of friction, completed by laboratory measurements in a high-temperature test rig, and stability measurements in oval-square and flat-edge oval pass sequences. Coefficients of friction in the range 0.35-0.40 have been evaluated from the forward slip measurements. The rolling speed did not exceed 0.2 m/s and measurements were made in the temperature range 1000-1150°C. No clear influence of temperature on friction could be observed. The stability measurements show similar results. However, no tests have been made at temperatures other than 1000°C, and no influence of temperature on friction can be evaluated. In the high-temperature test rig the influence of temperature on friction is strong at temperatures exceeding 900°C, and probably the mechanism of friction changes in the test rig at higher temperatures, due to the lack of plastic deformation in the contact zone. Further investigations are necessary to formulate a relevant model for friction, valid for the entire range of parameters in a bar or wire rod mill. © Blackwell Publishing, 2004.

  • 12.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Experience of cemented carbide rolls in bar rolling2004In: Metallurgy and New Materials Researches, ISSN 1221-5503, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Future trends in hot rolling of high quality wire rod2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Geometric factors affecting the ball rolling process in single and multiple grooved rolls2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rolling of balls as well as of cylpebs and other grinding media has been established as a process, superior to forging, both on terms of productivity and of quality. The multiple groove technology makes it possible to improve the productivity in the ball rolling process to even higher levels. By means of geometrical analysis and improvements of the roll pass design, the problem with surface shells on the rolled balls, common in the early days of ball rolling, has been solved. At present the research focuses on improving the pole area of the rolled balls in order to make it possible to roll even bearing balls with a minimum of subsequent treatment.

  • 15.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Kalibriering für das Walzen von Kugeln auf Ein- und Mehrkalibrirwalzen2007In: Der Kalibreur, ISSN 0022-796X, Vol. 68, p. 21-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Kalibrörerna byter spår2006In: Bergsmannen med Jernkontorets annaler : nordisk branschtidning för stål-, metall-, berg- och mineralindustrierna, ISSN 0284-0448, no 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Modelling of roll force and torque in heavy plate rolling from simplified slip line field solution2006In: Cercetari Metalurgice si de noi Materiale, ISSN 1221-5503, Vol. 14, no 1-2, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Modern high-speed hot rolling of high carbon steel wire rod2003In: METEC Congress 03, 3rd European Rolling Conference, Düsseldorf: Verl. Stahleisen , 2003, p. 255-260Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Produktionsteknik och plastisk formning i Örebro2005In: Bergsmannen med Jernkontorets annaler : nordisk branschtidning för stål-, metall-, berg- och mineralindustrierna, ISSN 0284-0448, no 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Requirements for the design of roll materials for wire rod rolling2005In: Proceedings, 8 ESAFORM, Conference on material forming, 2005, p. 1053-1056Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Roll pass design for ball rolling in single and multiple grooved rolls2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Statistical design and evaluation of experiments in steel production2003In: Steel research international, ISSN 1611-3683, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 386-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Making experiments under industrial production conditions gives many times difficulties in varying the important parameters in a relevant way in order to significantly influence the process and thus make it possible to measure the result. The common way of varying one parameter at a time, gives rise to many experiments and mostly, large difficulties in the evaluation. The statistical design method, on the other hand, where the parameters are varied systematically and simultaneously, gives possibilities to influence the process in a more efficient way, thus reducing the necessary number of experiments, and at the same time to obtain more reliable results. In spite of the linear approach presented here, it is always possible to evaluate any kind of influence on a process, by choosing the studied parameters in a relevant way. This is simply done by means of a suitable variable transformation before the experimental matrix is set. Analytical evaluation of the experiments often raises a voluminous mathematical treatment of the results. However due to the linearity of the primary functions, the experiments can be evaluated by means of a simplified linear procedure, and even large experimental matrices can easily be evaluated only by means of a simple spread sheet program. By application of the method to industrial problems, a calculation model was developed for the prediction of process parameters for quenching and self tempering of rebar, as a function of requirements and chemical composition of the steel. Alternately the required chemical composition can be predicted when required mechanical properties and quenching parameters are given, or the mechanical properties can be predicted when composition and quenching parameters are given. Another use of the method has been to optimize the finish rolling and coiling temperatures for on line treated high carbon steel wire rod.

  • 23.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    The origin and development of surface flaws in continuous wire rod and bar rolling2004In: Metallurgy and New Materials Researches, ISSN 1221-5503, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    The "revenge" of the three-high rougher2004In: Stahl und Eisen (1881), ISSN 0340-4803, Vol. 124, no 12, p. 141-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Surface defects due to cooling the billet surface in the roll contact in the roughers is a problem in modern wire rod mills. The cooling reduces the ductility and gives rise to defects. Also the heating of the roll surface gives fire cracks in the rolls and bad surface of the rod. The defects can be avoided by making the roughing in reversing stands. For rolling 1 850 kg, 140 mm square billets, the capacity can be 62 to 134 t/h in two-high roughers, and 62 - 167 t/h in three-high roughers. By separating the rolling in an upper and a lower position the space for guides will be improved, and the barrel length can be reduced, giving better tolerances out of the stand. By replacing a worn-out middle roll and shifting the upper and lower rolls, four rolls only make up two roll sets.

  • 25.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    The wire-rod mill of the 21 century2003In: Steel times international, ISSN 0143-7798, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 17-20, 26Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    During the past 30 years two conflicting developments have taken place in wire rod production. Steelmaking heats and billet size have grown while the demand on the mill has changed to providing customers with small lots at frequent intervals exhibiting high mechanical and dimensional tolerances. Prof Lundberg shows that larger billet sizes are detrimental to surface finish, this consigning the concept of directly linking caster and mill to low surface quality products. Instead, he advocates melting small 5-25t lots in induction furnaces, decarburising in a tunnel furnace and casting small dimension billet on a wheel caster.

  • 26.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Utbildning och forskning inom trådtekniken vid Örebro universitet2003In: Titel saknas, Hallstahammar: Nordisk trådteknisk förening (NTTF) , 2003Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Eriksson, Conny
    Ultra high speed rolling of stainless steel wire rod by means of interstand tensions2005In: Berg- und Huttenmännische Monatshefte (BHM), ISSN 0005-8912, E-ISSN 1613-7531, Vol. 150, no 1, p. 5-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By introduction of an interstand tension in the order of 10% of the actual yield stress of the rolled material in the intermediate stage of wire rod rolling, it is possible to increase the intermediate reductions without excessive increase of energy supply for rolling. Thus, an eight passes finishing block can be replaced by two intermediate stands and a four stand finishing block of a module type. This configuration gives two improvements on the productivity in a wire rod mill for stainless steel. First, the finish rolling speed can be increased from typically 60 m/s up to 80 m/s, meaning 33% higher rolling rate. Second, the modern twin module block system gives the possibility to introduce a single family rolling system, which gives a reduction of the downtime for roll and groove changing in the order of 20% of the production time, depending on the product mix in the mill.

  • 28.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Överstam, Henrik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Modelling of stress state, centre consolidation and roll force in billet rolling2007In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, Vol. 78, no 6, p. 492-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roll pressure models have been derived from theoretical studies, FEM simulations and experimental investigations. A model developed from slip line field theory has been shown to fit well to the experimental results. The finite element simulations overestimated the pressure function. This is a common problem in hot rolling experiments, since the problem of measuring the correct rolling temperature makes the estimation of the yield strength very difficult. The difference between the FE calculations and the experimental measurements is a measure for the error in the experimental temperature measurements rather than for the accuracy of the finite element method. Traditional modelling has not been an appropriate tool to evaluate the material flow in the centre of the billet. In spite of the fact that the entire stress state can be modelled by slip line field theory, the slip lines which determine the stress state in the centre coincide for actual geometries only in one single point. Thus the strain increments are known only in that single point. Since a material element passes that point instantaneously, it is not possible to find any finite strains in the centre by integrating any incremental function. By FEM, strain modelling is simple and the possibility to consolidate a porous bloom or ingot core can be determined. FE modelling requires an entirely new approach to the modelling problem. It is not reasonable to use FEM to evaluate only the temperature distribution for the use in roll force models from the previous century. Instead, a fully thermomechanically coupled FE model is suggested. However, the calculation time is still far too long to be used for on-line control purposes. For this application hybrid modelling can be a solution, where off-line FE models are combined with empirical modelling, and simplified models can be used for the process control.

  • 29. Stafne, Bård
    et al.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    The success story of MH roller guides2006In: Metallurgical Plant and Technology International, ISSN 0935-7254, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 54-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    About 60 years ago, the roller guide was first introduced in the market, and since then, all over the world the brand MH has been associated with guiding. By the development of guiding systems for new and established rolling processes, Morgardshammar, nowadays a part of the Italian Danieli group, have defended their leadership in guiding even for the more demanding guiding situations occurring in today's rolling mills.

  • 30. Wennström, Henrik
    et al.
    Tingvall, Lars
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    The housingless stand a milestone in rolling2006In: Nordic steel & mining review, ISSN 0284-0448, no 3, p. 96-98Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Överstam, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Eriksson, Conny
    Fagersta Stainless.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    The importance of proper roll pass design and entry guiding on the improvement of the surface quality in wire rod rolling2006In: Der Kalibreur, ISSN 0022-796X, Vol. 67, p. 51-65Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Överstam, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Eriksson, Conny
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    The importance of proper roll pass design and entry guiding on the improvement of the surface quality in wire rod rolling2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Överstam, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    A new approach to roll force and torque modelling in wire rod and bar mills2008In: Der Kalibreur, ISSN 0022-796X, Vol. 69, p. 61-72Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Överstam, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    A new approach to roll force and torque modelling in wire rod and bar mills2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Överstam, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Jarl, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Finite element modelling and laboratory simulation of high speed wire rod rolling in 3-roll stands2003In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, Vol. 74, no 7, p. 431-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern wire rod rolling is characterized by high finish rolling speed and requirements on close tolerances and well defined mechanical properties of the rolled product. In some senses the technological development has run in advance of the scientific knowledge of the phenomena involved in the process. Thus at present no laboratory mill is in operation for rolling speeds above 40 m/s. The modern technologies on thermomechanical rolling and sizing give certain phenomena difficult to handle for the mills, and especially finish rolling at low reductions and temperatures performed in three-roll units sometimes give surprises on grain size distribution and allied properties of the wire rod. Traditional plastic analysis has proven not to be sufficient to analyse the processes involved in high speed rolling of close tolerance wire rod with well-defined properties. Simulations by means of the Finite Element Method on the other hand have proven to be a powerful tool for this kind of analysis, even if the initial difficulties in creating a suitable model require certain care. Also the calculation capacity must be sufficient for making relevant three-dimensional thermomechanically coupled studies. The high speed rolling of wire rod can be simulated under full-scale conditions, and with correct boundary condition in the high-speed laboratory wire rod mill at Orebro University. By utilizing both conventional two-high stands and three-roll units it has been possible to design a laboratory rolling mill for any rolling condition that can occur in wire rod mills. Rolling speeds up to 80 m/s can be combined with thermo-mechanical rolling in any interesting temperature range, and with total flexibility of reductions. Further, fundamental studies of high-speed deformations can be performed in full-scale and with correct frictional conditions and geometries. Thanks to the flexibility in layout and combinations with other equipment in the laboratory also other processes can be simulated.

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