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  • 1.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Statistics Sweden, Örebro, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Poldahl, Andreas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Female Top Management in Family Firms and Non-family Firms: Evidence from Total Population Data2018In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 303-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We exploit information on ownership, management and kinship to study the representation of women in top management teams in Swedish family and non-family firms among domiciled limited liability firms over the years 2004 to 2010. The share of female top managers is analysed across listed and non-listed firms as well as across industries. We then estimate the likelihood that a woman is elected into the top management team in family and non-family firms using a probit regression model where we control for firm- and individual-level characteristics, including the gender distribution of the firm and kinship relations to existing board members and firm owners. We find that non-listed family firms are more likely to appoint female top managers, whereas we find no differences among listed firms. Moreover, we find that the gender composition and kinship structures of firms influence the appointment of female top managers.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Statistics Sweden, Örebro, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Poldahl, Andreas
    Statistics Sweden, Örebro, Sweden.
    The Characteristics and Performance of Family Firms: Exploiting information on ownership, governance and kinship using total population data2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Family firms are often considered characteristically different from non-family firms, and the economic implications of these differences have generated significant academic debate. However, our understanding of family firms suffers from an inability to identify them in total population data, as this requires information on owners, their kinship and involvement in firm governance, which is rarely available. We present a method for identifying domiciled family firms using register data that offers greater accuracy than previous methods. We then apply it to data from Statistics Sweden concerning firm ownership, governance and kinship over the years 2004-2010. Next, we use Swedish data to estimate these firms’ economic contribution to total employment and gross domestic product (GDP) and compare them to private domiciled non-family firms in terms of their characteristics and economic performance. We find that the family firm is the prevalent organizational form, contributing to over one-third of all employment and GDP. Family firms are common across industries and sizes, ranging from the smallest producers to the largest multinational firms. However, their characteristics differ across sizes and legal forms, thereby indicating that the seemingly contradictory findings among previous studies on family firms may be due to unobserved heterogeneity. We furthermore find that they are smaller than private non-family firms in employment and sales and carry higher solidity, although they are more profitable. These differences diminish with firm size, however. We conclude that the term ‘family firm’ contains great diversity and call for increased attention to their heterogeneity.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. SCB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Poldahl, Andreas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. SCB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Characteristics of Family Firms: Exploiting Information on Ownership, Kinship and Governance Using Total Population Data2018In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 539-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Family firms are often considered characteristically different from non-family firms. However, our understanding of family firms suffers from an inability to identify them in total population data; information is rarely available regarding owners, their kinship, and their involvement in firm governance. We present a method for identifying domiciled family firms using register data; this method offers greater accuracy than previous methods. We apply this method to Swedish data concerning firm ownership, governance, and kinship from 2004 to 2010. We find that the family firm is a significant organizational form, contributing over one third of all employment and gross domestic product (GDP). Family firms are common in most industries and range in size. Furthermore, we find that, compared to private non-family firms, family firms have fewer total assets, employment, and sales and carry higher solidity, although family firms are more profitable. These differences diminish with firm size. We conclude that the term “family firm” includes a large variety of firms, and we call for increased attention to their heterogeneity.

  • 4. Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    et al.
    Poldahl, Andreas
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Is there really an inverted U-shaped relation between competition and R&D?2006In: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 101-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We test whether predictions of the Aghion et al. (Aghion, P., Bloom, N., Blundell, R., Griffith, R. and Howitt, P. (2004) Competition and Innovation: An Inverted U Relationship. NBER Working Paper series, No. 9269.) model are supported by firm-level data. In particular, we analyze if there is an inverted U-shaped relation between competition and R&D. Results show that the inverted U-shaped relation is supported by the Herfindahl index but not by the price cost margin. Using the Herfindahl index, results suggest that breaking up monopolies increases R&D, whereas further increases in competition most likely lead to reduced R&D. Comparing different estimators, we find that time series-based estimators typically result in less clear-cut results, probably driven by a lack of time series variation in measures of competition.

  • 5.
    Poldahl, Andreas
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Domestic vs. international spillovers: evidence from Swedish firm level data2006In: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012, Vol. 6, no 3-4, p. 277-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the association between total factor productivity growth and the R&D expenditures of Swedish manufacturing firms in the presence of domestic- and international R&D spillovers. The paper assumes that the principal channel of transmission of new technology is through I/O relations. Econometric evidence suggests that international as well as domestic inter-industry R&D spillovers are important determinants of firms’ productivity growth in the long run. The R&D spillovers generated within the industry and following I/O links seem to be of minor importance in explaining productivity growth. It seems likely that within-industry productivity spillovers follow other channels than I/O flows, such as horizontal spillovers through copying of new products and processes, or labour turnover. The use of a convergence parameter is one way to check for such within-industry technology flows. Our results indicate that a catch-up process exists by which the non-frontier firms in the Swedish manufacturing sector absorb knowledge spillovers from the leading firms in the industry. Finally, a firm’s own R&D efforts are found to be more or less positively correlated with the TFP growth, maybe the contribution from R&D efforts in some sense are underestimated.

  • 6.
    Poldahl, Andreas
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    The impact of competition and innovation on firm performance2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This PhD thesis consists of four papers analyzing the impact of competition and innovation on Swedish manufacturing firms’ performance.

    Paper [I] (co-authored with Patrik Gustavsson Tingvall) analyse determinants of firm R&D using matched Swedish employer-employee data spanning the period 1990-1999. We explore if predictions from the model of creative destruction are supported by data. Using various measures of competition, results indicate that competition is likely to contract rather than expand firm R&D expenditures. In addition, firm R&D is positively correlated with its own export and to the R&D-intensity of other firms within the same concern, indicating the existence of knowledge spillovers.

    Paper [II] investigates the association between total factor productivity growth and the R&D expenditures of Swedish manufacturing firms in the presence of domestic- and international R&D spillovers. The paper assumes that the principal channel of transmission of new technology is through I/O relations. Econometric evidence suggests that international as well as domestic inter-industry R&D spillovers are important determinants of firms’ productivity growth in the long run. The R&D spillovers generated within the industry and following I/O links seem to be of minor importance in explaining productivity growth. It seems likely that within-industry productivity spillovers follow other channels than I/O flows, such as horizontal spillovers through copying of new products and processes, or labour turnover. The use of a convergence parameter is one way to check for such within-industry technology flows. Our results indicate that a catch-up process exists by which the non-frontier firms in the Swedish manufacturing sector absorb knowledge spillovers from the leading firms in the industry. Finally, a firm’s own R&D efforts are found to be more or less positively correlated with the TFP growth, maybe the contribution from R&D efforts in some sense are underestimated.

    Paper [III] (co-authored with Patrik Gustavsson Tingvall) examines whether predictions of the Aghion and Howitt (2004) model are supported by firm level data. In particular, we analyze if there is an inverted U-shaped relation between competition and R&D. Results show that the inverted U-shaped relation is supported by the Herfindahl index but not by the price cost margin. Using the Herfindahl index results suggest that breaking up monopolies increases R&D while further increases in competition most likely leads to reduced R&D. Comparing different estimators, we find that time-series based estimators typically result in less clear-cut results, probably driven by a lack of time series variation in measures of competition.

    Paper [IV] examines the direct and indirect effect of firm R&D on total factor productivity growth. The R&D efforts do not only stimulate innovation but also enhance firms’ ability to assimilate outside knowledge. We assume that the principal channel of transmission of new technology is through I/O relations. Econometric evidence suggests that in addition to a firm’s own R&D expenditures, R&D spillovers embodied in traded goods within the industry, others imported from abroad, and technology spillovers transferred from the technological frontier within an industry are important determinants of firms’ productivity growth. Results suggest that domestic R&D spillovers following the I/O links between industries are of minor importance in this respect. We also analyze whether firms’ absorptive capacity matters for productivity growth. Analyzing absorptive capacity is particularly important for assessing the effective contribution of spillovers from other firms. The effect of a firm’s absorptive capacity is found to interact positively with imported R&D spillovers, domestic rents spillovers seem to play a minor role for productivity growth.

    List of papers
    1. Determinants of firm R&D: evidence from Swedish firm level data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determinants of firm R&D: evidence from Swedish firm level data
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2943 (URN)
    Available from: 2005-11-28 Created: 2005-11-28 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Domestic vs. international spillovers: evidence from Swedish firm level data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Domestic vs. international spillovers: evidence from Swedish firm level data
    2006 (English)In: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012, Vol. 6, no 3-4, p. 277-294Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the association between total factor productivity growth and the R&D expenditures of Swedish manufacturing firms in the presence of domestic- and international R&D spillovers. The paper assumes that the principal channel of transmission of new technology is through I/O relations. Econometric evidence suggests that international as well as domestic inter-industry R&D spillovers are important determinants of firms’ productivity growth in the long run. The R&D spillovers generated within the industry and following I/O links seem to be of minor importance in explaining productivity growth. It seems likely that within-industry productivity spillovers follow other channels than I/O flows, such as horizontal spillovers through copying of new products and processes, or labour turnover. The use of a convergence parameter is one way to check for such within-industry technology flows. Our results indicate that a catch-up process exists by which the non-frontier firms in the Swedish manufacturing sector absorb knowledge spillovers from the leading firms in the industry. Finally, a firm’s own R&D efforts are found to be more or less positively correlated with the TFP growth, maybe the contribution from R&D efforts in some sense are underestimated.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berlin: Springer, 2006
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2944 (URN)10.1007/s10842-006-8428-4 (DOI)
    Available from: 2005-11-28 Created: 2005-11-28 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Is there really an inverted U-shaped relation between competition and R&D?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is there really an inverted U-shaped relation between competition and R&D?
    2006 (English)In: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 101-118Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We test whether predictions of the Aghion et al. (Aghion, P., Bloom, N., Blundell, R., Griffith, R. and Howitt, P. (2004) Competition and Innovation: An Inverted U Relationship. NBER Working Paper series, No. 9269.) model are supported by firm-level data. In particular, we analyze if there is an inverted U-shaped relation between competition and R&D. Results show that the inverted U-shaped relation is supported by the Herfindahl index but not by the price cost margin. Using the Herfindahl index, results suggest that breaking up monopolies increases R&D, whereas further increases in competition most likely lead to reduced R&D. Comparing different estimators, we find that time series-based estimators typically result in less clear-cut results, probably driven by a lack of time series variation in measures of competition.

    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2945 (URN)10.1080/10438590500129755 (DOI)
    Available from: 2005-11-28 Created: 2005-11-28 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. The two faces of R&D: Does firm absorptive capacity matter?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The two faces of R&D: Does firm absorptive capacity matter?
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2946 (URN)
    Available from: 2005-11-28 Created: 2005-11-28 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
  • 7.
    Poldahl, Andreas
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    The two faces of R&D: Does firm absorptive capacity matter?Manuscript (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Poldahl, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    Determinants of firm R&D: evidence from Swedish firm level dataManuscript (Other academic)
1 - 8 of 8
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  • en-US
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  • text
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