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  • 1.
    Dinoto, Achmad
    et al.
    Laboratory of Microbial Physiology, Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido .
    Marques, Tatiana M.
    Laboratory of Microbial Physiology, Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido.
    Sakamoto, Kanta
    Creative Research Initiative Sousei (CRIS), Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
    Fukiya, Satoru
    Laboratory of Microbial Physiology, Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido.
    Watanabe, Jun
    Creative Research Initiative Sousei (CRIS), Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
    Ito, Susumu
    Creative Research Initiative Sousei (CRIS), Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
    Yokota, Atsushi
    Laboratory of Microbial Physiology, Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido.
    Population dynamics of Bifidobacterium species in human feces during raffinose administration monitored by fluorescence in situ hybridization-flow cytometry2006In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 72, no 12, p. 7739-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The population dynamics of bifidobacteria in human feces during raffinose administration were investigated at the species level by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) coupled with flow cytometry (FCM) analysis. Although double-staining FISH-FCM using both fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and indodicarbocyanine (Cy5) as labeling dyes for fecal samples has been reported, the analysis was interfered with by strong autofluorescence at the FITC fluorescence region because of the presence of autofluorescence particles/debris in the fecal samples. We circumvented this problem by using only Cy5 fluorescent dye in the FISH-FCM analysis. Thirteen subjects received 2 g of raffinose twice a day for 4 weeks. Fecal samples were collected, and the bifidobacterial populations were monitored using the established FISH-FCM method. The results showed an increase in bifidobacteria from about 12.5% of total bacteria in the prefeeding period to about 28.7 and 37.2% after the 2-week and 4-week feeding periods, respectively. Bifidobacterium adolescentis, the Bifidobacterium catenulatum group, and Bifidobacterium longum were the major species, in that order, at the prefeeding period, and these bacteria were found to increase nearly in parallel during the raffinose administration. During the feeding periods, indigenous bifidobacterial populations became more diverse, such that minor species in human adults, such as Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium dentium, and Bifidobacterium angulatum, proliferated. Four weeks after raffinose administration was stopped, the proportion of each major bifidobacterial species, as well as that of total bifidobacteria, returned to approximately the original values for the prefeeding period, whereas that of each minor species appeared to differ considerably from its original value. To the best of our knowledge, these results provide the first clear demonstration of the population dynamics of indigenous bifidobacteria at the species level in response to raffinose administration.

  • 2.
    Gorreja, Frida
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Rush, Stephen
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Marques, Tatiana M.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Repsilber, Dirk
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Baker, Adam
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Head of Discovery, Microbiome and Human Health, Christian Hansen, Danimark.
    Wall, Rebecca
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Brummer, Robert Jan
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    The impacts of probiotics and prebiotics on the gut mucosa and immune system through targeting inflammation and intestinal barrier function2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Marques, Tatiana M.
    et al.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), University College, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Cryan, J. F.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), University College, Cork, Ireland, Ireland.
    Shanahan, F.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), University College, Cork, Ireland, Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, G. F.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), University College, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Ross, R. P.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), University College, Cork, Ireland, Ireland; Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Dinan, T. G.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), University College, Cork, Ireland, Ireland.
    Stanton, C.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC), University College, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Fermoy, Ireland.
    Gut microbiota modulation and implications for host health: dietary strategies to influence the gut-brain axis2013In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 22, p. 239-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human intestinal microbiota evolves from an immature and unstable ecosystem during infancy into a more complex and stable ecosystem in adulthood. Diet is one of the main factors contributing to the composition and diversity of the human intestinal microbiota. From birth, breast milk offers the best nutritional regime for maturation of the gut, whereas the introduction of solid food selects the most adapted bacteria, converging towards an adult-like microbiota. The gut microbiota plays an important role in host health, influencing the maturation of the immune system and regulating energy metabolism. Moreover, it has become evident that the microbiota can affect brain function and behaviour. On this bidirectional communication between intestine and the central nervous system (CNS), the so called gut-brain axis, the gut influences brain development and biochemistry, whereas the brain affects gastrointestinal function. In this context, probiotics and prebiotics have been used as dietary strategies aimed at improving host health by modulating the gut ecosystem and, consequently, affecting host stress-responses, behaviour and cognition.

  • 4.
    Marques, Tatiana M.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Holster, Savanne
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Wall, Rebecca
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    König, Julia
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Brummer, Robert Jan
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Correlating the gut microbiome to health and disease2016In: The Gut-Brain Axis: Dietary, Probiotic, and Prebiotic Interventions on the Microbiota / [ed] Niall Hyland, Catherine Stanton, Elsevier, 2016, p. 261-291Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem consisting of a diverse population of prokaryotes that has a symbiotic relationship with its host; thus it plays a vital role for the host’s health. Our understanding of the effect of the gut microbiome in health and disease has grown substantially over the past 2 decades, mostly because of recent advances in sequencing and other high-throughput technologies. Given its high metabolic potential, close proximity to the intestinal mucosa, and interaction with the immune system, it is not surprising that the gut microbiome is an important partaker in human health. Evidence to the importance of the gut microbiome in human health and disease is the growing number of conditions now linked to changes in the resident gut microbiota, including recurrent Clostridium difficile infections, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, colorectal cancer, allergies, neurological diseases, and metabolic diseases. Research into this field of the association of the gut microbiome with health and disease continues to expand at a rapid pace as we come to accept the gut microbiome as our “second genome.” Targeting the gut microbiome to restore/modulate its composition with the use of antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, and even fecal microbiota transplantation is considered a promising future strategy for the development of new solutions in the treatment of various diseases associated with an imbalance in microbiota composition and functioning.

  • 5.
    Marques, Tatiana M.
    et al.
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Moorepark, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Patterson, E.
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Moorepark, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Wall, Rebecca
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    O'Sullivan, O.
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, G. F.
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Cotter, P. D.
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Dinan, T. G.
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Cryan, J. F.
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Ross, R. P.
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Stanton, C.
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Influence of GABA and GABA-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 on the development of diabetes in a streptozotocin rat model2016In: Beneficial Microbes, ISSN 1876-2883, E-ISSN 1876-2891, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 409-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate if dietary administration of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 and pure GABA exert protective effects against the development of diabetes in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Sprague Dawley rats. In a first experiment, healthy rats were divided in 3 groups (n=10/group) receiving placebo, 2.6 mg/kg body weight (bw) pure GABA or L. brevis DPC 6108 (~10(9)microorganisms). In a second experiment, rats (n=15/group) were randomised to five groups and four of these received an injection of STZ to induce type 1 diabetes. Diabetic and non-diabetic controls received placebo [4% (w/v) yeast extract in dH2O], while the other three diabetic groups received one of the following dietary supplements: 2.6 mg/kg bw GABA (low GABA), 200 mg/kg bw GABA (high GABA) or ~10(9) L. brevis DPC 6108. L. brevis DPC 6108 supplementation was associated with increased serum insulin levels (P<0.05), but did not alter other metabolic markers in healthy rats. Diabetes induced by STZ injection decreased body weight (P<0.05), increased intestinal length (P<0.05) and stimulated water and food intake. Insulin was decreased (P<0.05), whereas glucose was increased (P<0.001) in all diabetic groups, compared with non-diabetic controls. A decrease (P<0.01) in glucose levels was observed in diabetic rats receiving L. brevis DPC 6108, compared with diabetic-controls. Both the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota were affected by diabetes. Microbial diversity in diabetic rats supplemented with low GABA was not reduced (P>0.05), compared with non-diabetic controls while all other diabetic groups displayed reduced diversity (P<0.05). L. brevis DPC 6108 attenuated hyperglycaemia induced by diabetes but additional studies are needed to understand the mechanisms involved in this reduction.

  • 6.
    Murphy, E. F.
    et al.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Alimentary Health Ltd, Cork, Ireland.
    Cotter, P. D.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Healy, S.
    Alimentary Health Ltd, Cork, Ireland.
    Marques, Tatiana M.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    O'Sullivan, O.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Fouhy, F.
    Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Clarke, S. F.
    Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    O'Toole, P. W.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Quigley, E. M.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Stanton, C.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Ross, P. R.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    O'Doherty, R. M.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA; Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Shanahan, F.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Composition and energy harvesting capacity of the gut microbiota: relationship to diet, obesity and time in mouse models2010In: Gut, ISSN 0017-5749, E-ISSN 1468-3288, Vol. 59, no 12, p. 1635-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increased efficiency of energy harvest, due to alterations in the gut microbiota (increased Firmicutes and decreased Bacteroidetes), has been implicated in obesity in mice and humans. However, a causal relationship is unproven and contributory variables include diet, genetics and age. Therefore, we explored the effect of a high-fat (HF) diet and genetically determined obesity (ob/ob) for changes in microbiota and energy harvesting capacity over time.

    METHODS: Seven-week-old male ob/ob mice were fed a low-fat diet and wild-type mice were fed either a low-fat diet or a HF-diet for 8 weeks (n=8/group). They were assessed at 7, 11 and 15 weeks of age for: fat and lean body mass (by NMR); faecal and caecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA, by gas chromatography); faecal energy content (by bomb calorimetry) and microbial composition (by metagenomic pyrosequencing).

    RESULTS: A progressive increase in Firmicutes was confirmed in both HF-fed and ob/ob mice reaching statistical significance in the former, but this phylum was unchanged over time in the lean controls. Reductions in Bacteroidetes were also found in ob/ob mice. However, changes in the microbiota were dissociated from markers of energy harvest. Thus, although the faecal energy in the ob/ob mice was significantly decreased at 7 weeks, and caecal SCFA increased, these did not persist and faecal acetate diminished over time in both ob/ob and HF-fed mice, but not in lean controls. Furthermore, the proportion of the major phyla did not correlate with energy harvest markers.

    CONCLUSION: The relationship between the microbial composition and energy harvesting capacity is more complex than previously considered. While compositional changes in the faecal microbiota were confirmed, this was primarily a feature of high-fat feeding rather than genetically induced obesity. In addition, changes in the proportions of the major phyla were unrelated to markers of energy harvest which changed over time. The possibility of microbial adaptation to diet and time should be considered in future studies.

  • 7.
    Murphy, Eileen F.
    et al.
    Alimentary Health Ltd., Cork, Ireland.
    Clarke, Siobhan F.
    Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Marques, Tatiana M.
    Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Hill, Colin
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Stanton, Catherine
    Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Ross, R. Paul
    Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    O'Doherty, Robert M.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism and Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PA, USA.
    Shanahan, Fergus
    Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; Department of Medicine, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Cotter, Paul D.
    Teagasc Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Antimicrobials: Strategies for targeting obesity and metabolic health?2013In: Gut microbes, ISSN 1949-0976, E-ISSN 1949-0984, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 48-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity is associated with a number of serious health consequences, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and a variety of cancers among others and has been repeatedly shown to be associated with a higher risk of mortality. The relatively recent discovery that the composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiota may affect the risk of developing obesity and related disorders has led to an explosion of interest in this distinct research field. A corollary of these findings would suggest that modulation of gut microbial populations can have beneficial effects with respect to controlling obesity. In this addendum, we summarize our recent data, showing that therapeutic manipulation of the microbiota using different antimicrobial strategies may be a useful approach for the management of obesity and metabolic conditions. In addition, we will explore some of the mechanisms that may contribute to microbiota-induced susceptibility to obesity and metabolic diseases.

  • 8.
    Murphy, Eileen F.
    et al.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Alimentary Health Ltd., Cork, Ireland.
    Cotter, Paul D.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Hogan, Aileen
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    O'Sullivan, Orla
    Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Joyce, Andy
    Alimentary Health Ltd., Cork, Ireland.
    Fouhy, Fiona
    Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Clarke, Siobhan F.
    Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Marques, Tatiana M.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    O'Toole, Paul W.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Stanton, Catherine
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Quigley, Eamonn M. M.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Medicine, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Daly, Charlie
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Ross, Paul R.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    O'Doherty, Robert M.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA; Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PA, USA.
    Shanahan, Fergus
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Medicine, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Divergent metabolic outcomes arising from targeted manipulation of the gut microbiota in diet-induced obesity2013In: Gut, ISSN 0017-5749, E-ISSN 1468-3288, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 220-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The gut microbiota is an environmental regulator of fat storage and adiposity. Whether the microbiota represents a realistic therapeutic target for improving metabolic health is unclear. This study explored two antimicrobial strategies for their impact on metabolic abnormalities in murine diet-induced obesity: oral vancomycin and a bacteriocin-producing probiotic (Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 Bac(+)).

    DESIGN: Male (7-week-old) C57BL/J6 mice (9-10/group) were fed a low-fat (lean) or a high-fat diet for 20 weeks with/without vancomycin by gavage at 2 mg/day, or with L. salivarius UCC118Bac(+) or the bacteriocin-negative derivative L. salivarius UCC118Bac(-) (each at a dose of 1×10(9) cfu/day by gavage). Compositional analysis of the microbiota was by 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing.

    RESULTS: Analysis of the gut microbiota showed that vancomycin treatment led to significant reductions in the proportions of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and a dramatic increase in Proteobacteria, with no change in Actinobacteria. Vancomycin-treated high-fat-fed mice gained less weight over the intervention period despite similar caloric intake, and had lower fasting blood glucose, plasma TNFα and triglyceride levels compared with diet-induced obese controls. The bacteriocin-producing probiotic had no significant impact on the proportions of Firmicutes but resulted in a relative increase in Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria and a decrease in Actinobacteria compared with the non-bacteriocin-producing control. No improvement in metabolic profiles was observed in probiotic-fed diet-induced obese mice.

    CONCLUSION: Both vancomycin and the bacteriocin-producing probiotic altered the gut microbiota in diet-induced obese mice, but in distinct ways. Only vancomycin treatment resulted in an improvement in the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity thereby establishing that while the gut microbiota is a realistic therapeutic target, the specificity of the antimicrobial agent employed is critical.

  • 9.
    Neumann, Gunter
    et al.
    School of Medical Health (MV), Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Wall, Rebecca
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Rangel, Ignacio
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Marques, Tatiana M.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Repsilber, Dirk
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Qualitative modelling of the interplay of inflammatory status and butyrate in the human gut: a hypotheses about robust bi-stability2018In: BMC Systems Biology, ISSN 1752-0509, E-ISSN 1752-0509, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota interacts with the human gut in multiple ways. Microbiota composition is altered in inflamed gut conditions. Likewise, certain microbial fermentation products as well as the lipopolysaccharides of the outer membrane are examples of microbial products with opposing influences on gut epithelium inflammation status. This system of intricate interactions is known to play a core role in human gut inflammatory diseases. Here, we present and analyse a simplified model of bidirectional interaction between the microbiota and the host: in focus is butyrate as an example for a bacterial fermentation product with anti-inflammatory properties.

    RESULTS: We build a dynamical model based on an existing model of inflammatory regulation in gut epithelial cells. Our model introduces both butyrate as a bacterial product which counteracts inflammation, as well as bacterial LPS as a pro-inflammatory bacterial product. Moreover, we propose an extension of this model that also includes a feedback interaction towards bacterial composition. The analysis of these dynamical models shows robust bi-stability driven by butyrate concentrations in the gut. The extended model hints towards a further possible enforcement of the observed bi-stability via alteration of gut bacterial composition. A theoretical perspective on the stability of the described switch-like character is discussed.

    CONCLUSIONS: Interpreting the results of this qualitative model allows formulating hypotheses about the switch-like character of inflammatory regulation in the gut epithelium, involving bacterial products as constitutive parts of the system. We also speculate about possible explanations for observed bimodal distributions in bacterial compositions in the human gut. The switch-like behaviour of the system proved to be mostly independent of parameter choices. Further implications of the qualitative character of our modeling approach for the robustness of the proposed hypotheses are discussed, as well as the pronounced role of butyrate compared to other inflammatory regulators, especially LPS, NF- κB and cytokines.

  • 10.
    Patterson, Elaine
    et al.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College, Cork, Ireland; Food Biosciences Department Moorepark, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, Cork, Ireland.
    Marques, Tatiana M.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College, Cork, Ireland; Food Biosciences Department Moorepark, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College, Cork, Ireland.
    O'Sullivan, Orla
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College, Cork, Ireland; Food Biosciences Department Moorepark, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, Patrick
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College, Cork, Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, Gerald F.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology, University College, Cork, Ireland.
    Cotter, Paul D.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College, Cork, Ireland; Food Biosciences Department Moorepark, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Dinan, Timothy G.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College, Cork, Ireland.
    Cryan, John F.
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College, Cork, Ireland.
    Stanton, Catherine
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College, Cork, Ireland; Food Biosciences Department Moorepark, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Ross, R. Paul
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College, Cork, Ireland; Food Biosciences Department Moorepark, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Ireland.
    Streptozotocin-induced type-1-diabetes disease onset in Sprague-Dawley rats is associated with an altered intestinal microbiota composition and decreased diversity2015In: Microbiology, ISSN 1350-0872, E-ISSN 1465-2080, Vol. 161, no Pt 1, p. 182-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing appreciation that microbiota composition can significantly affect host health and play a role in disease onset and progression. This study assessed the impact of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type-1-diabetes (T1D) on intestinal microbiota composition and diversity in Sprague-Dawley rats, compared with healthy controls over time. T1D was induced by injection of a single dose (60 mg STZ kg(-1)) of STZ, administered via the intraperitoneal cavity. Total DNA was isolated from faecal pellets at weeks 0 (pre-STZ injection), 1, 2 and 4 and from caecal content at week 5 from both healthy and T1D groups. High-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing was employed to investigate intestinal microbiota composition. The data revealed that although intestinal microbiota composition between the groups was similar at week 0, a dramatic impact of T1D development on the microbiota was apparent post-STZ injection and for up to 5 weeks. Most notably, T1D onset was associated with a shift in the Bacteroidetes : Firmicutes ratio (P<0.05), while at the genus level, increased proportions of lactic acid producing bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were associated with the later stages of T1D progression (P<0.05). Coincidently, T1D increased caecal lactate levels (P<0.05). Microbial diversity was also reduced following T1D (P<0.05). Principle co-ordinate analyses demonstrated temporal clustering in T1D and control groups with distinct separation between groups. The results provide a comprehensive account of how T1D is associated with an altered intestinal microbiota composition and reduced microbial diversity over time.

  • 11.
    Wall, Rebecca
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Marques, Tatiana
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Edebol-Carlman, Hanna
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Sundin, J.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Vumma, R.
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Rangel, Ignacio
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Brummer, Robert Jan
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Altered expression of membrane transporters in colonic mucosa of patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Post-infectious (PI)-IBS compared to healthy subjects2017In: Neurogastroenterology and Motility, ISSN 1350-1925, E-ISSN 1365-2982, Vol. 29, no Suppl. 2, p. 107-108Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects 5%- 15% of adults in the general population, and is characterized by chronic recurrent abdominal pain and discomfort and associated with altered bowel habits. The pathophysiology of IBS is complex and not fully under-stood. Hence, treatment is often based on symptomatology rather than underlying physiological aberrancies.

    Objective: To compare the expression of membrane transporters in mucosal biopsies of healthy subjects, IBS patients and post- infectious (PI)- IBS patients.

    Methods: Mucosal biopsies were obtained from the unprepared sigmoid colon in 18 IBS patients, 9 PI- IBS patients and 10 healthy subjects. Total RNA was isolated and prepared for gene expression analyses using quantitative reverse- transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT- PCR). We compared the expression of genes encoding membrane- spanning transporters, using GAPDH as a reference gene, and by using the comparative 2- ΔΔCt method.

    Results: Colonic expression of SCL7A5 and SLC3A2 (together com-prising the amino acid transporter LAT1+4F2hc) was significantly lower in IBS patients, but not in PI- IBS patients, compared to healthy controls (P<.001). The expression of SLC7A8 (LAT2) tended to be lower in IBS patients compared to controls (P=.06). Mucosal gene ex-pression of the short chain fatty acid transporter SMCT1 (SLC5A8) was lower in both IBS- patients and PI- IBS patients compared to healthy subjects (P<.01).

    Conclusions: The amino acid transporters LAT1 and LAT2 appeared to be affected in IBS patients, but not in PI- IBS patients, compared to healthy subjects, suggesting a possible alteration in amino acids transport in this patient group. Furthermore, our results suggest a lower uptake of short chain fatty acids in both IBS- and PI- IBS pa-tients. Altered expression of these transporters may be involved in the pathophysiology of IBS as well as being a potential biomarker of this aberration, and therefore deserves further study in IBS.

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