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  • 1.
    Bakunzibake, Pierre
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Improving Implementation of e-Government Services in Rwanda: An Organisational Perspective2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of realising development programmes faster, developing countries have been adopting, from developed ones, modern ICTs and implementing e-government towards better public services. However, efforts of implementation of e-government services have been often resulting in unsatisfactory outcomes and even total failures. This is a big challenge particularly for Least Developed Countries which have fewer resources. Such outcomes are partly due to the lack of addressing organisational issues associated with implementations.

    This thesis addresses the question: How can the implementation of e-government services be improved from an organisational perspective in the context of Rwanda?

    The thesis adopts a socio-technical perspective and uses both qualitative case study methodology and a literature review approach. Two cases of implementation of e-government services were studied. The first case, an Enterprise Content Management system concerns the sharing and working on digital documents within government agencies. The second case, the onestop e-government is for providing online services by the central and local government agencies to the general public via a single portal, ‘Irembo’. This thesis shows that implementation of e-government services has been focusing on digitalisation of services superimposing ICT over existing structures with less attention to organisational change issues related to processes, organisational structure and policies. The thesis also identifies a deficit in implementation processes in terms of lacking clear goals and formal monitoring in the local government. Those insights on the implementation of e-government services of an LDC pinpoint a need for optimisation between technical and social aspects. This thesis makes an empirical contribution by bringing forth those insights. In order to help tackle a number of challenging issues found, a comprehensive model for improving the process of implementing e-government services, called Plan-Do-Evaluate-Resolve (PDER) was developed as a theoretical contribution based on a literature analysis.

    List of papers
    1. E-Government Implementation in Developing Countries: Enterprise Content Management in Rwanda
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>E-Government Implementation in Developing Countries: Enterprise Content Management in Rwanda
    2016 (English)In: Electronic Government and Electronic Participation, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2016, p. 251-259Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-Government is now on the rise in developing countries. While developing countries can "leapfrog" technology generations, the necessary organizational change is another matter. In industrialized countries technical systems have been developed over long time in parallel with institutional development; developing countries hope to make that journey faster. Most of the e-Government implementation research focuses on developed countries. It is important to explore the relation between the literature and the findings in the context of developing countries as to come up with a gap to reduce. An interview study with 56 people in 10 government organizations involved in implementing a government-wide enterprise content management system was conducted to find out how critical success factors found in literature on implementation of information management systems relate to the situation in the Rwanda public sector to discover the step forward in Rwanda. We find a large gap between expectations and results due to a strong focus on the technical tool and little concerns about issues related to organizational change.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2016
    Series
    Innovation and the Public Sector, ISSN 1871-1073 ; 23
    Keywords
    e-Government, Implementation, ECM, Developing countries, Rwanda
    National Category
    Information Studies Political Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53017 (URN)10.3233/978-1-61499-670-5-251 (DOI)000383380900026 ()978-1-61499-670-5 (ISBN)978-1-61499-669-9 (ISBN)
    Conference
    15th IFIP Electronic Government (EGOV) / 8th Electronic Participation (ePart) Conference, Univ Minho, Guimaraes, Portugal, September 5-8, 2016
    Available from: 2016-10-18 Created: 2016-10-18 Last updated: 2019-05-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Organisational Challenges in the Implementation of ‘one-stop’ e-Government in Rwanda
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organisational Challenges in the Implementation of ‘one-stop’ e-Government in Rwanda
    2019 (English)In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    One-stop e-government holds potential benefits in all contexts and especially in the context of developing countries and in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). Implementation of one-stop e-government can be challenging as it normally requires addressing a number of organisational issues including those related to the integration of the individual government information systems of different departments which traditionally function as silos; tackling organisational issues can be difficult due to the nature of the public sector. However, the contemporary literature paints a picture of scarce research on the organisational issues that impede the implementation of one-stop e-government initiatives in LDCs. This paper explores the organisational issues underlying the implementation of ‘one-stop’ e-government initiatives in Rwanda, an LDC. The study explores the status of these elements as of and up to March 2017. The qualitative case study methodology used for this study involved data collection by means of documents and interviews with key managers from central government organisations, from a private company, and from local government service clerks. Template analysis was used as a method for data analysis. Even though the number of online services for citizens, businesses, and other agencies is growing rapidly and easy payment of service fees is available, a number of organisational issues were identified. These include the lack of a clear plan of ‘to-be’ service processes and a corresponding change management strategy. Service re-design was taking place very much ad hoc. There were also unclear systematic organisational learning mechanisms and unclear operational goals in the local government. Addressing these issues would contribute towards improving the implementation of one-stop e-government and its corresponding services in such a context. The paper contributes to research by providing insights into organisational issues in a country currently in an early stage of e-government development. For Rwandan e-government professionals, the paper suggests a way forward. It also helps decision makers in Rwanda and similar countries undertaking one-stop initiatives to understand the problem context of actions taken towards IT-driven institutional reform.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Academic Conferences Limited, 2019
    Keywords
    One-stop e-government, e-government organisational challenges, Rwanda
    National Category
    Other Social Sciences
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73592 (URN)
    Projects
    Rwanda e-government project
    Available from: 2019-04-09 Created: 2019-04-09 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
    3. E-government implementation and monitoring: The case of Rwanda ‘one-stop’ E-government
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>E-government implementation and monitoring: The case of Rwanda ‘one-stop’ E-government
    2019 (English)In: Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, ISSN 1681-4835, E-ISSN 1681-4835Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    Taking the case of the “one‐stop” e‐government initiative in Rwanda, the present study aims to find out how the “one‐stop” e‐government initiative is monitored at different government levels and stages and the extent to which the initiative is monitored. Furthermore, the study also aims to identify potential areas for improvement in the monitoring process. An exploratory qualitative study was undertaken in Rwandana gencies. The findings show that the monitoring of the process of implementing and improving one‐stop e‐government is partly formal at central government level and informal at local government level. Furthermore, the focus of the monitoring at the stage of use and maintenance leans more towards the benefits of end users as service consumers than those of the service providers. Incorporating formal methodological approaches at local government level and in all stages of the implementation and improvement process at central government level, as well as paying increased attention to back‐end process performance aspects, could introduce additional improvements into the monitoring practice and, in turn, increase project benefits.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2019
    Keywords
    E‐government implementation, evaluation, monitoring, one‐stop e‐government, Rwanda
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70145 (URN)10.1002/isd2.12086 (DOI)
    Available from: 2018-11-12 Created: 2018-11-12 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
    4. E-Government Implementation Process in Rwanda: Exploring Changes in a Socio-technical Perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>E-Government Implementation Process in Rwanda: Exploring Changes in a Socio-technical Perspective
    2019 (English)In: Business Systems Research Journal, ISSN 1847-8344, E-ISSN 1847-9375, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 53-73Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Failures in e-government projects to deliver expected results are frequent in the context of developing countries. These are partly attributed to the lack of balanced attention to both technical and social aspects in the implementation. However, there has been limited research on these aspects in the least Developed Countries.

    Objectives: Taking a socio-technical perspective, this study aims at exploring the extent of changes and effects in the implementation of e-government service-oriented initiatives in Rwanda, one of the Least Developed Countries.

    Methods/Approach: An empirical investigation was conducted, via interviews at 8 agencies during the period from January 2017 to May 2018. This involved two case projects, an Enterprise Content Management System and a One-Stop e-government system. Furthermore, government documents and online material were analyzed.

    Results: A number of changes in technology, processes and people aspects were faced in both projects. However, those changes are coupled with secondary effects; there is a need for a better fit between technical systems and social systems of organizations implementing e-government; a larger gap was identified in the first case project.

    Conclusions: Addressing the issues as a socio-technical system would contribute to improved work systems of agencies and better services.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    De Gruyter Open, 2019
    Keywords
    e-Government implementation, enterprise content management, ‘one-stop’ e-government, Rwanda, socio-technical theory
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73686 (URN)10.2478/bsrj-2019-0005 (DOI)000467633400005 ()2-s2.0-85065835760 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    Rwanda e-government project
    Available from: 2019-04-12 Created: 2019-04-12 Last updated: 2019-06-19Bibliographically approved
    5. A Model for Process Improvement in the Implementation of e-Government Services: Plan-Do-Evaluate-Resolve (PDER)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Model for Process Improvement in the Implementation of e-Government Services: Plan-Do-Evaluate-Resolve (PDER)
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74297 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-05-17 Created: 2019-05-17 Last updated: 2019-05-17Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Bakunzibake, Pierre
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. College of Science and Technology, School of ICT, University of Rwanda, , Rwanda.
    Towards Organizational Transformation in Developing Countries: Enterprise Content Management in Rwanda2016In: Electronic Government and Electronic Participation, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2016, p. 305-312Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-government development is more advanced in developed countries compared to developing countries. Organizational transformation by e-government in developing countries is still at infancy stage. Incremental or radical changes seem to be a subsequent stage in settings where technological implementations are still fresh like in developing countries. In a journey towards organizational transformation, this research work, using design science research, aims 1) to find critical factors influencing implementation of enterprise content management (ECM) in Rwanda as one of the developing countries, 2) to carry out an investigation on how these factors are related to literature in order to detect e-government development stage and 3) to eventually propose a next step towards organizational transformation. Preliminarily results show that implementation of ECM in Rwanda has been focusing on deploying a technical tool in government organizations and this implies that work processes re-design and change management are imperative. The overall contribution of this entire study in progress is two-fold: 1) to suggest a practical way in solving some issues related to efficiency in administrative activities for practitioners towards organizational transformation in a developing country and 2) to create new knowledge for e-government researchers on organization matters especially in developing countries.

  • 3.
    Bakunzibake, Pierre
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. College of Science and Technology, School of Engineering and School of ICT, , Rwanda.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Klein, Gunnar O.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    E-Government Implementation in Developing Countries: Enterprise Content Management in Rwanda2016In: Electronic Government and Electronic Participation, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2016, p. 251-259Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-Government is now on the rise in developing countries. While developing countries can "leapfrog" technology generations, the necessary organizational change is another matter. In industrialized countries technical systems have been developed over long time in parallel with institutional development; developing countries hope to make that journey faster. Most of the e-Government implementation research focuses on developed countries. It is important to explore the relation between the literature and the findings in the context of developing countries as to come up with a gap to reduce. An interview study with 56 people in 10 government organizations involved in implementing a government-wide enterprise content management system was conducted to find out how critical success factors found in literature on implementation of information management systems relate to the situation in the Rwanda public sector to discover the step forward in Rwanda. We find a large gap between expectations and results due to a strong focus on the technical tool and little concerns about issues related to organizational change.

  • 4.
    Bakunzibake, Pierre
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Klein, Gunnar O.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Organisational Challenges in the Implementation of ‘one-stop’ e-Government in Rwanda2019In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One-stop e-government holds potential benefits in all contexts and especially in the context of developing countries and in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). Implementation of one-stop e-government can be challenging as it normally requires addressing a number of organisational issues including those related to the integration of the individual government information systems of different departments which traditionally function as silos; tackling organisational issues can be difficult due to the nature of the public sector. However, the contemporary literature paints a picture of scarce research on the organisational issues that impede the implementation of one-stop e-government initiatives in LDCs. This paper explores the organisational issues underlying the implementation of ‘one-stop’ e-government initiatives in Rwanda, an LDC. The study explores the status of these elements as of and up to March 2017. The qualitative case study methodology used for this study involved data collection by means of documents and interviews with key managers from central government organisations, from a private company, and from local government service clerks. Template analysis was used as a method for data analysis. Even though the number of online services for citizens, businesses, and other agencies is growing rapidly and easy payment of service fees is available, a number of organisational issues were identified. These include the lack of a clear plan of ‘to-be’ service processes and a corresponding change management strategy. Service re-design was taking place very much ad hoc. There were also unclear systematic organisational learning mechanisms and unclear operational goals in the local government. Addressing these issues would contribute towards improving the implementation of one-stop e-government and its corresponding services in such a context. The paper contributes to research by providing insights into organisational issues in a country currently in an early stage of e-government development. For Rwandan e-government professionals, the paper suggests a way forward. It also helps decision makers in Rwanda and similar countries undertaking one-stop initiatives to understand the problem context of actions taken towards IT-driven institutional reform.

  • 5.
    Bakunzibake, Pierre
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. University of Rwanda, College of Science and Technology, School of ICT, Rwanda.
    Klein, Gunnar O.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Islam, M. Sirajul
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    A Model for Process Improvement in the Implementation of e-Government Services: Plan-Do-Evaluate-Resolve (PDER)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Bakunzibake, Pierre
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. College of Science and Technology, School of ICT, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Klein, Gunnar O.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Islam, M. Sirajul
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    E-government implementation and monitoring: The case of Rwanda ‘one-stop’ E-government2019In: Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, ISSN 1681-4835, E-ISSN 1681-4835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Taking the case of the “one‐stop” e‐government initiative in Rwanda, the present study aims to find out how the “one‐stop” e‐government initiative is monitored at different government levels and stages and the extent to which the initiative is monitored. Furthermore, the study also aims to identify potential areas for improvement in the monitoring process. An exploratory qualitative study was undertaken in Rwandana gencies. The findings show that the monitoring of the process of implementing and improving one‐stop e‐government is partly formal at central government level and informal at local government level. Furthermore, the focus of the monitoring at the stage of use and maintenance leans more towards the benefits of end users as service consumers than those of the service providers. Incorporating formal methodological approaches at local government level and in all stages of the implementation and improvement process at central government level, as well as paying increased attention to back‐end process performance aspects, could introduce additional improvements into the monitoring practice and, in turn, increase project benefits.

  • 7.
    Bakunzibake, Pierre
    et al.
    University of Rwanda, School of ICT/ Engineering, Rwanda.
    Klein, Gunnar O.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Islam, M. Sirajul
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    E-Government Implementation Process in Rwanda: Exploring Changes in a Socio-technical Perspective2019In: Business Systems Research Journal, ISSN 1847-8344, E-ISSN 1847-9375, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 53-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Failures in e-government projects to deliver expected results are frequent in the context of developing countries. These are partly attributed to the lack of balanced attention to both technical and social aspects in the implementation. However, there has been limited research on these aspects in the least Developed Countries.

    Objectives: Taking a socio-technical perspective, this study aims at exploring the extent of changes and effects in the implementation of e-government service-oriented initiatives in Rwanda, one of the Least Developed Countries.

    Methods/Approach: An empirical investigation was conducted, via interviews at 8 agencies during the period from January 2017 to May 2018. This involved two case projects, an Enterprise Content Management System and a One-Stop e-government system. Furthermore, government documents and online material were analyzed.

    Results: A number of changes in technology, processes and people aspects were faced in both projects. However, those changes are coupled with secondary effects; there is a need for a better fit between technical systems and social systems of organizations implementing e-government; a larger gap was identified in the first case project.

    Conclusions: Addressing the issues as a socio-technical system would contribute to improved work systems of agencies and better services.

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