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  • 1.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Statistics Sweden, Örebro, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Poldahl, Andreas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Female Top Management in Family Firms and Non-family Firms: Evidence from Total Population Data2018In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 303-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We exploit information on ownership, management and kinship to study the representation of women in top management teams in Swedish family and non-family firms among domiciled limited liability firms over the years 2004 to 2010. The share of female top managers is analysed across listed and non-listed firms as well as across industries. We then estimate the likelihood that a woman is elected into the top management team in family and non-family firms using a probit regression model where we control for firm- and individual-level characteristics, including the gender distribution of the firm and kinship relations to existing board members and firm owners. We find that non-listed family firms are more likely to appoint female top managers, whereas we find no differences among listed firms. Moreover, we find that the gender composition and kinship structures of firms influence the appointment of female top managers.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Statistics Sweden, Örebro, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Poldahl, Andreas
    Statistics Sweden, Örebro, Sweden.
    The Characteristics and Performance of Family Firms: Exploiting information on ownership, governance and kinship using total population data2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Family firms are often considered characteristically different from non-family firms, and the economic implications of these differences have generated significant academic debate. However, our understanding of family firms suffers from an inability to identify them in total population data, as this requires information on owners, their kinship and involvement in firm governance, which is rarely available. We present a method for identifying domiciled family firms using register data that offers greater accuracy than previous methods. We then apply it to data from Statistics Sweden concerning firm ownership, governance and kinship over the years 2004-2010. Next, we use Swedish data to estimate these firms’ economic contribution to total employment and gross domestic product (GDP) and compare them to private domiciled non-family firms in terms of their characteristics and economic performance. We find that the family firm is the prevalent organizational form, contributing to over one-third of all employment and GDP. Family firms are common across industries and sizes, ranging from the smallest producers to the largest multinational firms. However, their characteristics differ across sizes and legal forms, thereby indicating that the seemingly contradictory findings among previous studies on family firms may be due to unobserved heterogeneity. We furthermore find that they are smaller than private non-family firms in employment and sales and carry higher solidity, although they are more profitable. These differences diminish with firm size, however. We conclude that the term ‘family firm’ contains great diversity and call for increased attention to their heterogeneity.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. SCB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Poldahl, Andreas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. SCB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Characteristics of Family Firms: Exploiting Information on Ownership, Kinship and Governance Using Total Population Data2018In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 539-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Family firms are often considered characteristically different from non-family firms. However, our understanding of family firms suffers from an inability to identify them in total population data; information is rarely available regarding owners, their kinship, and their involvement in firm governance. We present a method for identifying domiciled family firms using register data; this method offers greater accuracy than previous methods. We apply this method to Swedish data concerning firm ownership, governance, and kinship from 2004 to 2010. We find that the family firm is a significant organizational form, contributing over one third of all employment and gross domestic product (GDP). Family firms are common in most industries and range in size. Furthermore, we find that, compared to private non-family firms, family firms have fewer total assets, employment, and sales and carry higher solidity, although family firms are more profitable. These differences diminish with firm size. We conclude that the term “family firm” includes a large variety of firms, and we call for increased attention to their heterogeneity.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Dan
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Malm, Arvid
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden; Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Family business: A missing link in economics?2020In: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Family firms account for a substantial share of economic activity and deviate from standard economic assumptions on firmbehavior. However, little is known about how these firms are represented in economic theory. This article examines the inclusion of family business in the curricula of economics doctoral programs in the United States and Sweden as well as professors’ and textbook authors’ views and research on family business. Textbooks, articles and course offerings used in doctoral programs are considered to indicate the state of established knowledge in the field. The findings show that family business is not included in the examined curricula. Furthermore, professors and authors do not publish research on family business and generally do not see a need to incorporate it into economic theory. This article concludes that family business is excluded from ‘core’ economic theory due to a lack of paradigmatic pluralism, axiomatic incompatibility, path dependency, institutional bias and data constraints. Lastly, it is speculated that integration of family business theory into standard economic modeling is likely to occur outside prestigious universities due to path dependency in research.

  • 5.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Does Regional Context Matter for Family Firm Employment Growth?2018In: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 293-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the proposition that family firms have comparative employment growth advantages in relation to non-family firms in regions with relatively low population density. This premise is tested across metropolitan, urban and rural regions using total population data on domestically and privately owned, single-plant, non-listed limited liability firms in Sweden. A panel of more than 89,000 firms is followed over a seven-year period from 2004 to 2010. The average family firm is found to grow more slowly than the average non-family firm across the urban-rural context. However, in line with the study’s conjecture, these differences are found to decrease across metropolitan, urban and rural regions.

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