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  • 1.
    Bergens, Oscar
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Cardiorespiratory Fitness Does Not Offset Adiposity-Related Systemic Inflammation in Physically Active Older Women2019In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 104, no 9, p. 4119-4126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT: Chronic inflammation increases diabetes risk and may be exacerbated by excess adipose tissue. Whether cardiovascular fitness can offset chronic inflammation associated with excess adipose tissue in older adults is unclear.

    OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to examine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on links between adiposity and pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers related to metabolic risk in physically active older women.

    DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional study comprising older community-dwelling women (n = 109; age, 65-70 yr).

    MAIN OUTCOME: Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using a standardized submaximal test and participants were categorized into high and low adiposity-related metabolic risk (body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and total fat mass). The inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, IL-18, adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α) were analyzed.

    RESULTS: Regardless of adiposity measure, women in the metabolic high-risk group had significantly (P<0.05) elevated CRP and lower adiponectin levels. Levels of IL-6 and MIP1-α were significantly elevated in the high-risk group defined by WHR and total fat mass. IL-18 level was significantly elevated in the high-risk group based on WHR only. Importantly, a high cardiorespiratory fitness level did not attenuate the detrimental links between adiposity measures and inflammation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, cardiorespiratory fitness does not offset the detrimental links between adiposity and several inflammatory biomarkers related to metabolic risk in physically active older women. Reducing abdominal adipose tissue in older adults should be emphasized in efforts aiming to attenuate age-related systemic inflammation and metabolic risk regardless of cardiorespiratory fitness.

  • 2.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Wåhlin-Larsson, Britta
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bergens, Oscar
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Chronic Systemic Inflammation, Physical Activity and Skeletal Muscle in Elderly2017In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 234-234Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: It t is hypothesized that chronic systemic inflammation is influenced by physical activity level and is involved in the age-related decline in muscle function. The impact of physical activity behaviours on the level of C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in elderly women is investigated. The impact of chronic systemic inflammation on muscle mass and the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind the putative inflammation-mediated action on human muscle cells are explored.

    METHODS: Total amount of sedentary time, 30-minute periods of sedentary time and breaks in sedentary behaviour and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were assessed using accelerometry in a cohort of 89 elderly women. Serum HsCRP and TNF-α are were measured. The proliferative and metabolic capacity of human muscle cells obtained from vastus lateralis and exposed to CRP are assessed.

    RESULTS: No variables of sedentary behaviour were significantly associated with the level of CRP or TNF-α. In contrast, time spent in MVPA was inversely associated with the level of CRP, independently of sedentary behaviour and waist circumference, but not TNF-α. Serum CRP levels were inversely associated to skeletal muscle mass. Elevated serum CRP levels were associated to reduced proliferative rate of human muscle cells and changes in the regulation of the size muscle cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: Elevation in the inflammatory status in elderly is influenced by the amount of time spent in MVPA and exerts detrimental effects on skeletal muscle mass.

  • 3.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Bergens, Oscar
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Physical Activity Alters Inflammation in Older Adults by Different Intensity Levels2018In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 1502-1507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To examine the influence of reallocating time spent at different objectively measured physical activity (PA) behaviours on markers of systemic inflammation in older women with different levels of metabolic risk.

    METHODS: Accelerometer-based monitoring of PA was conducted in a population of community-dwelling older women (n = 111; age = 65-70 yr) for determination of daily sedentary time, time in light (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Blood samples were collected for the assessment of the systemic inflammatory markers CRP, fibrinogen and adiponectin. Metabolic risk was assessed by standardized procedures based on definitions for the metabolic syndrome. Data were analysed by linear regression models based on isotemporal substitution analysis.

    RESULTS: Reallocating 30 minutes of sedentary time with either time in LPA (β = -0.47; p<0.05) or MVPA (β = -0.42; p<0.05) was related to reduced fibrinogen level, whereas no corresponding effect was evident when shifting time in LPA with time in MVPA, while holding sedentary time constant. In contrast, reallocating a 30-minute time period in sedentary (β = -0.70; p<0.01) or LPA (β = -0.71; p<0.01) with MVPA was associated with a significant reduction in CRP level, while no impact on CRP was observed when a time period of sedentary behavior was replaced with LPA. Importantly, all significant influences on fibrinogen and CRP by displacement of different PA behaviours remained after adjustment for metabolic risk status among participants. No significant associations with adiponectin were observed.

    CONCLUSION: Altogether, this work supports the existence of different intensity thresholds mediating beneficial effects of PA on important clinical markers of systemic inflammation in older women across different stages of disease prevention.

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