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  • 1.
    Agrawal, Vikas
    et al.
    IBM Research, , India.
    Archibald, Christopher
    Mississippi State University, Starkville, United States.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Bui, Hung Hai
    Laboratory for Natural Language Understanding, Sunnyvale CA, United States.
    Cook, Diane J.
    Washington State University, Pullman WA, United States.
    Cortés, Juan
    University of Toulouse, Toulouse, France.
    Geib, Christopher W.
    Drexel University, Philadelphia PA, United States.
    Gogate, Vibhav
    Department of Computer Science, University of Texas, Dallas, United States.
    Guesgen, Hans W.
    Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
    Jannach, Dietmar
    Technical university Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany.
    Johanson, Michael
    University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
    Kersting, Kristian
    Fraunhofer-Institut für Intelligente Analyse- und Informationssysteme (IAIS), Sankt Augustin, Germany; The University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Konidaris, George
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge MA, United States.
    Kotthoff, Lars
    INSIGHT Centre for Data Analytics, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Michalowski, Martin
    Adventium Labs, Minneapolis MN, United States.
    Natarajan, Sriraam
    Indiana University, Bloomington IN, United States.
    O’Sullivan, Barry
    INSIGHT Centre for Data Analytics, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Pickett, Marc
    Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC, United States.
    Podobnik, Vedran
    Telecommunication Department of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Poole, David
    Department of Computer Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Shastri, Lokendra
    Infosys, , India.
    Shehu, Amarda
    George Mason University, Washington, United States.
    Sukthankar, Gita
    University of Central Florida, Orlando FL, United States.
    The AAAI-13 Conference Workshops2013In: The AI Magazine, ISSN 0738-4602, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 108-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The AAAI-13 Workshop Program, a part of the 27th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, was held Sunday and Monday, July 14-15, 2013, at the Hyatt Regency Bellevue Hotel in Bellevue, Washington, USA. The program included 12 workshops covering a wide range of topics in artificial intelligence, including Activity Context-Aware System Architectures (WS-13-05); Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Methods in Computational Biology (WS-13-06); Combining Constraint Solving with Mining and Learning (WS-13-07); Computer Poker and Imperfect Information (WS-13-08); Expanding the Boundaries of Health Informatics Using Artificial Intelligence (WS-13-09); Intelligent Robotic Systems (WS-13-10); Intelligent Techniques for Web Personalization and Recommendation (WS-13-11); Learning Rich Representations from Low-Level Sensors (WS-13-12); Plan, Activity,, and Intent Recognition (WS-13-13); Space, Time, and Ambient Intelligence (WS-13-14); Trading Agent Design and Analysis (WS-13-15); and Statistical Relational Artificial Intelligence (WS-13-16)

  • 2.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Cognitive Systems, and Spatial Cognition Research Center, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Between Sense and Sensibility: Declarative narrativisation of mental models as a basis and benchmark for visuo-spatial cognition and computation focussed collaborative cognitive systems2013In: p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Cognitive media studies: Potentials for spatial cognition and AI research2018In: Cognitive Processing, ISSN 1612-4782, E-ISSN 1612-4790, Vol. 19, no Suppl. 1, p. S6-S6Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive media studies has developed as an area of research at the interface of disciplines as diverse as aesthetics, psychology, neuroscience, film theory, and cognitive science. In this context, the focus of this talk is on the foundational significance of artificial intelligence and visuo-spatial cognition and computation for the design of inte-grated analytical–empirical methods for the (multi-modal) analysis of human behaviour data vis-a-vis a range of digital visuo-auditory narrative media (e.g., narrative film). The presentation focusses on the methodological foundations and assistive technologies for systematic formalization and empirical analyses aimed at, for instance, the generation of evidence, establishing and characterizing correlates between principles for the synthesis of the moving image (e.g., from a cinematographic viewpoint), and its perceptual recipient effects and influence on observers.

    In the backdrop a range of completed and ongoing experiments, we emphasize the core results on the semantic interpretation of human behaviour vis-a-vis narrative film and its visuo-auditory reception. We demonstrate the manner in which AI-based models for machine coding of narrative, and relational inference and learning serves as basis to externalize explicit and inferred knowledge about embodied visuo-auditory reception, e.g., using modalities such as diagrammatic representations, natural language, complex (dynamic) data visualizations.

    Demonstration: The presentation will particularly showcase methods and tools developed to perform perceptual narrativisation or sensemaking with multi-modal, dynamic human-behaviour data (combining visuo-spatial imagery such as film/video, eye-tracking, head-tracking during a perception task) for a chosen set of experimental material based on existing films, as well as lab-developed experimental content.

  • 4.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    SFB/TR 8 Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Commonsense Inference in Dynamic Spatial Systems: Epistemological Requirements2010In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Third International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference (FLAIRS-23) / [ed] Hans W. Guesgen and R. Charles Murray, Menlo Park: AAAI Press , 2010, p. 8-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate the role of commonsense inference toward the modeling of qualitative notions of space and spatial change within a dynamic setup. The inference patterns are connected to those that are required to handle the frame problem whilst modeling inertia, and the causal minimisation of (Lin 1995) that is required to account for the ramifications of occurrences. Such patterns are both useful and necessary in order to operationalize a domain-independent qualitative spatial theory that is re-usable in arbitrary dynamic spatial systems, e.g., for spatial planning and causal explanation tasks. The illustration, grounded in the context of embedding arbitrary 'qualitative spatial calculi' within the situation calculus, utilizes topological and orientation calculi as examples.

  • 5.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Dynamical Spatial Systems - A Potential Approach for the Application of Qualitative Spatial Calculi2008In: Proceedings of the Twenty-First International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference, May 15-17, 2008, Coconut Grove, Florida, USA, Menlo Park: AAAI Press , 2008, p. 580-585Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dynamical systems approach for modeling changing spatial environments is formalised. The formalisation adheres to the representational and computational semantics of situation calculus and includes a systematic account of all aspects necessary to implement a domain-independent qualitative spatial theory that is applicable across diverse application areas. Foundational to the formalisation is a situation calculus based causal theory and a generalised view of qualitative spatial calculi that encompass one or more spatial domains. Furthermore, aspects considered inherent to dynamic spatial systems are also accounted for and the relevant computational tasks addressed by the proposed formalisation are stated explicitly.

  • 6.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Embodied architecture design: On people-centered design of visuo-locomotive cognitive experiences2018In: Cognitive Processing, ISSN 1612-4782, E-ISSN 1612-4790, Vol. 19, no Suppl. 1, p. S5-S5Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation focusses on the analysis and design of human-centered, embodied, cognitive user experiences from the perspectives of spatial cognition and computation, artificial intelligence, and human-computer interaction research. Focusing on large-scale built up spaces (in particular hospitals), this presentation will particularly address:

    ‘how can human-centered cognitive modalities of visuo-locomotive perception constitute the foundational building blocks of design education, discourse, systems, and the professional practice of spatial design for architecture’.

    The presentation will emphasizeevidence-based multimodality studies from the viewpoints of visuo-locomotive (i.e., pertaining to vision, movement, and wayfinding) cognitive experiences. Modalities being investigated include: (1) visual attention (by eye-tracking), gesture, language, facial expressions; (2) human expert guided event segmentation (e.g., coming from behavioral or environmental psychologists, designers, annotators); (3) deep analysis based on dialogic components, think-aloud protocols. We demonstrate (1–3) in the context of a large-scale study conducted at the Old and New Parkland Hospitals in Dallas, Texas.

    This research (and symposium) calls for a tightly integrated approach combining analytical methods (rooted in AI and computational cognition) and empirical methods (rooted in psychology and perception studies) for developing human-centered architectural design technologies, and technology-mediated (architectural) design synthesis.

  • 7.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Invited Speakers2013In: Space, Time, and Ambient Intelligence, Papers from the 2013 AAAI Workshop, Bellevue, Washington, USA, July 14, 2013, AAAI Press, 2013, Vol. WS-13-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to six paper presentations, which will be accompanied by discussions, the workshop features two keynote speakers: Anthony Cohn (University of Leeds, UK) and Henry Kautz (University of Rochester, USA).

  • 8.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Minds. Movement. Moving image2018In: Cognitive Processing, ISSN 1612-4782, E-ISSN 1612-4790, Vol. 19, no Suppl. 1, p. S5-S5Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This symposium—conducted in two parts—explores the confluence of empirically-based qualitative research in the cognitive and psychological sciences (focusing on visual and spatial cognition) with computationally-driven analytical methods (rooted in artificial intelligence) in the service of communications, media, design, and human behavioural studies. With a focus on architecture and visuo-auditory media design, the twin-symposia will demonstrate recent results and explore the synergy of research methods for the study of human behaviour in the chosen (design) contexts of socio-cultural, and socio-technological significance.

    The symposium brings together experts and addresses methodsand perspectives from:

    •  Visuo-Spatial Cognition and Computation

    •  Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Systems

    •  Multimodality and Interaction

    •  Cognitive Science and Psychology

    •  Neuroscience

    •  Design Cognition and Computation

    •  Communications and Media Studies

    •  Architecture, Built Environment

    •  Design Studies (focus on architecture and visuo-auditory media)

    •  Evidence Based Design

    The symposium particularly emphasises the role of multimodality and mediated interaction for the analysis and design of human-centered, embodied, cognitive user experiences in everyday life and work. Here, the focus is on multimodality studies aimed at the semantic interpretation of human behaviour, and the empirically-driven synthesis of embodied interactive experiences in real world settings. In focus are narrative media design, architecture and built environment design, product design, cognitive media studies (film, animation, VR, sound and music design), and user interaction studies. In these contexts, the symposium emphasizes evidence-based multimodality studies from the viewpoints of visual (e.g.,attention and recipient effects), visuo-locomotive (e.g. , movement, wayfinding), and visuo-auditory (e.g., narrative media) cognitive experiences. Modalities being investigated include, but are not limited to:

    •  visual attention (by eye-tracking), gesture, speech, language, facial expressions, tactile interactions, olfaction, biosignals;

    •  human expert guided event segmentation (e.g. coming from behavioral or environmental psychologists, designers, annotators,crowd-sensing)

    •  deep analysis based on dialogic components, think-aloud protocols

    The scientific agenda of the twin-symposia also emphasizes the multi-modality of the embodied visuo-spatial thinking involved in ‘‘problem-solving’’ for the design of objects, artefacts, and inter-active people-experiences emanating there from. Universality andinclusion in ‘‘design thinking’’ are of overarching focus in all design contexts relevant to the symposium; here, the implications of mul-timodality studies for inclusive design, e.g.,creation of presentations of the same content in different modalities, are also of interest. The symposium provides a platform to discuss the development of next-generation embodied interaction design systems, practices, and (human-centered) assistive frameworks and technologies encompassing the multi-faceted nature of embodied design conception and synthesis. Individual contributions/talks within the two symposia address the themes under consideration from formal, computational, cognitive, design, engineering, empirical, and philosophical perspectives.

  • 9.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Borrmann, André
    Technische Universität München, München, Germany.
    Amor, Robert
    University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Beetz, Jakob
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Architecture, computing, and design assistance2013In: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891, Vol. 32, p. 161-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design is one of the most complex of human endeavors requiring an enormous number of often conflicting criteria to be contemplated when identifying optimal solutions. Design is constrained by guidelines, codes, and standards applicable to the specific cultural and locational context that the design will be sited. Furthermore, a design has to be created within a collaborative team consisting of many professionals focused on specific subsystems and expert preferences that provide unique functionality to the overall design. The increasing use and capability of software tools involved in the creation and processing of such spatial information has also led to elevated levels of complexity that spurred a need to structure, query and reason about multiple spatial representations of buildings and their components in new ways.

  • 10.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Human-Centred Cognitive Assistance Lab. (HCC), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Cutting, James
    Cornell University, Ithaca, USA.
    Levin, Daniel
    Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, USA.
    Lewis, Clayton
    University of Colorado, Boulder, USA.
    Cognition, Interaction, Design: Discussions as Part of the Codesign Roundtable 20172017In: Künstliche Intelligenz, ISSN 0933-1875, E-ISSN 1610-1987, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 363-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This transcript documents select parts of discus-sions on the confluence of cognition, interaction, design, and human behaviour studies. The interview and related events were held as part of the CoDesign 2017 Roundtable (Bhatt in CoDesign 2017—The Bremen Summer of Cognition and Design/CoDesign Roundtable. University of Bremen, Bremen, 2017) at the University of Bremen (Germany) in June 2017. The Q/A sessions were moderated by Mehul Bhatt (University of Bremen, Germany., and Örebro Uni-versity, Sweden) and Daniel Levin (Vanderbilt University, USA). Daniel Levin served in a dual role: as co-moderator of the discussion, as well as interviewee. The transcript is published as part of a KI Journal special issue on “Seman-tic Interpretation of Multi-Modal Human Behaviour Data” (Bhatt and Kersting in Special Issue on: Semantic Interpre-tation of Multimodal Human Behaviour Data, Artif Intell, 2017).

  • 11.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    SFB/TR 8 Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Dylla, Frank
    SFB/TR 8 Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Hois, Joana
    SFB/TR 8 Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Spatio-terminological Inference for the Design of Ambient Environments2009In: Spatial Information Theory: 9th International Conference, COSIT 2009, Aber Wrac’h, France, September 21-25, 2009, Proceedings / [ed] Kathleen Stewart Hornsby, Christophe Claramunt, Michel Denis, Gérard Ligozat, Springer , 2009, Vol. 5756, p. 371-391Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an approach to assist the smart environment design process by means of automated validation of work-in-progress designs. The approach facilitates validation of not only the purely structural requirements, but also the functional requirements expected of a smart environment whilst keeping in mind the plethora of sensory and interactive devices embedded within such an environment. The approach, founded in spatio-terminological reasoning, is illustrated in the context of formal ontology modeling constructs and reasoners, industrial architecture data standards and state-of-the-art commercial design software.

  • 12.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Erdem, Esra
    Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Heintz, Fredrik
    Department of Computer Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Spranger, Michael
    Sony Computer Science Laboratories Inc., Tokyo, Japan.
    Cognitive robotics2016In: Journal of experimental and theoretical artificial intelligence (Print), ISSN 0952-813X, E-ISSN 1362-3079, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 779-780Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science and Computer Engineering, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Flahive, Andrew
    Department of Computer Science and Computer Engineering, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Wouters, Carlo
    Department of Computer Science and Computer Engineering, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Rahayu, Wenny
    Department of Computer Science and Computer Engineering, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Taniar, David
    School of Business Systems, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
    MOVE: A Distributed Framework for Materialized Ontology View Extraction2006In: Algorithmica, ISSN 0178-4617, E-ISSN 1432-0541, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 457-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of ontologies lies at the very heart of the newly emerging era of semantic web. Ontologies provide a shared conceptualization of some domain that may be communicated between people and application systems. As information on the web increases significantly in size, web ontologies also tend to grow bigger, to such an extent that they become too large to be used in their entirety by any single application. Moreover, because of the size of the original ontology, the process of repeatedly iterating the millions of nodes and relationships to form an optimized sub-ontology becomes very computationally extensive. Therefore, it is imperative that parallel and distributed computing techniques be utilized to implement the extraction process. These problems have stimulated our work in the area of sub-ontology extraction where each user may extract optimized sub-ontologies from an existing base ontology. The extraction process consists of a number of independent optimization schemes that cover various aspects of the optimization process, such as ensuring consistency of the user-specified requirements for the sub-ontology, ensuring semantic completeness of the sub-ontology, etc. Sub-ontologies are valid independent ontologies, known as materialized ontologies, that are specifically extracted to meet certain needs. Our proposed and implemented framework for the extraction process, referred to as Materialized Ontology View Extractor (MOVE), has addressed this problem by proposing a distributed architecture for the extraction/optimization of a sub-ontology from a large-scale base ontology. We utilize coarse-grained data-level parallelism inherent in the problem domain. Such an architecture serves two purposes: (a) facilitates the utilization of a cluster environment typical in business organizations, which is in line with our envisaged application of the proposed system, and (b) enhances the performance of the computationally extensive extraction process when dealing with massively sized realistic ontologies. As ontologies are currently widely used, our proposed approach for distributed ontology extraction will play an important role in improving the efficiency of ontology-based information retrieval.

  • 14.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Flahive, Andrew
    La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Wouters, Carlo
    La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Rahayu, Wenny
    La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Taniar, David
    Monash University, Australia.
    Dillon, Tharam
    University of Technology Sydney, Australia.
    A distributed approach to sub-ontology extraction2004In: 18th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA 2004), 29-31 March 2004, Fukuoka, Japan: Proceedings / [ed] Leonard Barolli, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society , 2004, Vol. 1, p. 636-641Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new era of semantic web has enabled users to extract semantically relevant data from the web. The backbone of the semantic web is a shared uniform structure which defines how web information is split up regardless of the implementation language or the syntax used to represent the data. This structure is known as an ontology.

    As information on the web increases significantly in size, Web ontologies also tend to grow bigger to such an extent that they become too large to be used in their entirety by any single application. This has stimulated our work in the area of sub-ontology extraction where each user may extract optimized sub-ontologies from an existing base ontology.

    Sub-ontologies are valid independent ontologies, known as materialized ontologies, that are specifically extracted to meet certain needs. Because of the size of the original ontology, the process of repeatedly iterating the millions of nodes and relationships to form an optimized sub-ontology can be very extensive. Therefore we have identified the need for a distributed approach to the extraction process. As ontologies are currently widely used, our proposed approach for distributed ontology extraction will play an important role in improving the efficiency of information retrieval.

  • 15.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Freksa, Christian
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Spatial Computing for Design — an Artificial Intelligence Perspective2015In: Studying Visual and Spatial Reasoning for Design Creativity / [ed] Gero, John S., Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands , 2015, p. 109-127Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The articulation of the Science of Design by Herbert Simon and the paradigmatic relevance of Artificial Intelligence in that context are closely intertwined topics: Simon elaborates the ‘Sciences of the Artificial’ in the context of the design of artefacts. Situated in this AI-centric view of design, we characterize “spatial computing for design” as a specialisation concerned with the development of the general representational and computational apparatus necessary for solving modelling and reasoning problems in spatial design. Several representation and reasoning problems are dis-cussed in the backdrop of relevant examples involving the formal modelling of structural form with respect to a desired/anticipated artefactual function. The discussion, although applicable to any spatial design activity, is grounded in the domain of assistive decision-support in the context of a conventional computer-aided architecture design workflow.

  • 16.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Cognitive Systems (CoSy), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Guesgen, Hans W.School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
    Situational Awareness for Assistive Technologies2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of smart assistive technology for personal living and public environments is an opportunity that has been recently recognized by research labs across the world. A particular theme that has garnered attention in many countries is the problem of an aging population. The combination of a much larger elderly population and the ever increasing cost of providing full-time human care for them means that finding practical assisted living solutions for this group is becoming increasingly important. Computing is the obvious choice to provide an answer to this growing problem, but to have a real impact, computer-based assistive technologies will need to possess the ability to interact with, and interpret, the actions and situations of those they are designed to assist.

    The papers in this book explore the diversity of the field of ambient intelligence, as well as the wide range of approaches and variety of applications that may prove to be possible. Consideration is given to how space, action, time, and other contexts can be represented and reasoned about for use in sensory mapping, multi-agent interactions, assisted living, and even emergency responses. Many techniques are examined; variety represents one of the most important strengths of this area, meaning that the weakness of one approach can be offset by the capability of others.

    The book consists of research contributions dealing with the crucial notion of situational awareness within assistive smart systems emerging as an overarching concept. An applied computer science character has been retained, whilst bringing to the fore research projects where formal knowledge representation and reasoning techniques have been demonstrated to be applicable to areas within the broader field of ambient intelligence and smart environments.

  • 17.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Guesgen, Hans W.
    Cook, Diane J.
    Preface2013In: Space, Time, and Ambient Intelligence, Papers from the 2013 AAAI Workshop, Bellevue, Washington, USA, July 14, 2013, AAAI Press, 2013, Vol. WS-13-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This workshop has a special focus on the topic of spatio-temporal aspects of human activity interpretation, especially welcoming research concerned with monitoring and inter- pretation of people interactions, real-time commonsense situational awareness involving aspects such as scene perception and understanding, perceptual data analytics, and prediction and explanation-driven high-level control of autonomous systems. In this context, basic topics deemed important include activity and process models; behaviour and intention interpretation; spatial learning; modeling and reasoning about space, events, actions, interaction; spatio-temporal dynamics; and commonsense reasoning about spatio-temporal change.

  • 18.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    SFB/TR 8 Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Guesgen, Hans
    Computer Science and IT, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
    Wölfl, Stefan
    Department of Computer Science, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.
    Hazarika, Shyamanta
    School of Engineering, Tezpur University, Tezpur, India.
    Qualitative Spatial and Temporal Reasoning: Emerging Applications, Trends, and Directions2011In: Spatial Cognition and Computation, ISSN 1387-5868, E-ISSN 1573-9252, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Hois, Joana
    Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Kutz, Oliver
    Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Ontological modelling of form and function for architectural design2012In: Applied Ontology, ISSN 1570-5838, E-ISSN 1875-8533, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 233-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Form, function and the relationship between the two serve a crucial role in design. Within architectural design, key aspects of the anticipated function of buildings, or of spatial environments in general, are supposed to be supported by their structural form, i.e., their shape, layout, or connectivity. Whereas the philosophy of form and function is a well-researched topic, the practical relations and dependencies between form and function are only known implicitly by designers and architects. Specifically, the formal modelling of structural forms and resulting artefactual functions within design and design assistance systems remains elusive.

    In our work, we aim at making these definitions explicit by ontologically modelling respective domain entities, their properties and related constraints. We interpret "(structural) form" and "(artefactual) function" by specifying modular ontologies and their interplay for the architectural design domain. A key aspect in our modelling approach is the use of formal conceptual requirements and qualitative spatial calculi as a link between the structural form of a design and the differing functional capabilities that it affords or leads to. We demonstrate how our ontological modelling reflects types of architectural form and function, and how it facilitates the conceptual modelling of requirement constraints in architectural design.

  • 20.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    SFB/TR 8 Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Hois, Joana
    SFB/TR 8 Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Kutz, Oliver
    SFB/TR 8 Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Dylla, Frank
    SFB/TR 8 Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Modelling Functional Requirements in Spatial Design2010In: Conceptual Modeling - ER 2010: 29th International Conference on Conceptual Modeling, Vancouver, BC, Canada, November 1-4, 2010. Proceedings / [ed] Jeffrey Parsons, Motoshi Saeki, Peretz Shoval, Carson Woo, Yair Wand, Springer , 2010, Vol. 6412, p. 464-470Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate the manner in which high-level design requirements, e.g., as they correspond to the commonsensical conceptualisation of expert designers, may be formally specified within practical information systems, wherein heterogeneous perspectives and conceptual commitments are needed. Focussing on semantics, modularity and consistency, we argue that our formalisation serves as a synergistic interface that mediates between the two disconnected domains of human abstracted qualitative/conceptual knowledge and its quantitative/precision-oriented counterpart within systems for spatial design (assistance). Our demonstration utilises simple, yet real world examples.

  • 21.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Human-Centred Cognitive Assistance Lab. (HCC), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Kersting, Kristian
    Technical University of Dortmund (DE), Dortmund, Germany.
    Semantic Interpretation of Multi-Modal Human-Behaviour Data: Making Sense of Events, Activities, Processes2017In: Künstliche Intelligenz, ISSN 0933-1875, E-ISSN 1610-1987, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 317-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue presents interdisciplinary research—at the interface of artificial intelligence, cogni-tive science, and human-computer interaction—focussing on the semantic interpretation of human behaviour. The special issue constitutes an attempt to highlight and steer founda-tional methods research in artificial intelligence, in particular knowledge representation and reasoning, for the develop-ment of human-centred cognitive assistive technologies. Of specific interest and focus have been application outlets for basic research in knowledge representation and reason-ing and computer vision for the cognitive, behavioural, and social sciences.

  • 22.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Lee, Jae Hee
    Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    CLP(QS): A Declarative Spatial Reasoning Framework2011In: Spatial Information Theory: 10th International Conference, COSIT 2011, Belfast, ME, USA, September 12-16, 2011. Proceedings / [ed] Max Egenhofer, Nicholas Giudice, Reinhard Moratz, Michael Worboys, Springer , 2011, Vol. 6899, p. 210-230Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose CLP(QS), a declarative spatial reasoning framework capable of representing and reasoning about high-level, qualitative spatial knowledge about the world. We systematically formalize and implement the semantics of a range of qualitative spatial calculi using a system of non-linear polynomial equations in the context of a classical constraint logic programming framework. Whereas CLP(QS) is a general framework, we demonstrate its applicability for the domain of Computer Aided Architecture Design. With CLP(QS) serving as a prototype, we position declarative spatial reasoning as a general paradigm open to other formalizations, reinterpretations, and extensions. We argue that the accessibility of qualitative spatial representation and reasoning mechanisms via the medium of high-level, logic-based formalizations is crucial for their utility toward solving real-world problems.

  • 23.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Germany.
    Loke, Seng
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Germany.
    Modelling Dynamic Spatial Systems in the Situation Calculus2008In: Spatial Cognition and Computation, ISSN 1387-5868, E-ISSN 1573-9252, Vol. 8, no 1-2, p. 86-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose and systematically formalise a dynamical spatial systems approach for the modelling of changing spatial environments. The formalisation adheres to the semantics of the situation calculus and includes a systematic account of key aspects that are necessary to realize a domain-independent qualitative spatial theory that may be utilised across diverse application domains. The spatial theory is primarily derivable from the all-pervasive generic notion of "qualitative spatial calculi" that are representative of differing aspects of space. In addition, the theory also includes aspects, both ontological and phenomenal in nature, that are considered inherent in dynamic spatial systems. Foundational to the formalisation is a causal theory that adheres to the representational and computational semantics of the situation calculus. This foundational theory provides the necessary (general) mechanism required to represent and reason about changing spatial environments and also includes an account of the key fundamental epistemological issues concerning the frame and the ramification problems that arise whilst modelling change within such domains. The main advantage of the proposed approach is that based on the structure and semantics of the proposed framework, fundamental reasoning tasks such as projection and explanation directly follow. Within the specialised spatial reasoning domain, these translate to spatial planning/re-configuration, causal explanation and spatial simulation. Our approach is based on the hypothesis that alternate formalisations of existing qualitative spatial calculi using high-level tools such as the situation calculus are essential for their utilisation in diverse application domains such as intelligent systems, cognitive robotics and event-based GIS.

  • 24.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Cognitive Systems, Universität Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Rahayu, Wenny
    Data Engineering and Knowledge Management Group, Department of Computer Science and Computer Engineering, La Trobe University, Australia.
    Soni, Sury Prakash
    Data Engineering and Knowledge Management Group, Department of Computer Science and Computer Engineering, La Trobe University, Australia.
    Wouters, Carlo
    Data Engineering and Knowledge Management Group, Department of Computer Science and Computer Engineering, La Trobe University, Australia.
    Ontology driven semantic profiling and retrieval in medical information systems2009In: Journal of Web Semantics, ISSN 1570-8268, E-ISSN 1873-7749, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 317-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose the application of a novel sub-ontology extraction methodology for achieving interoperability and improving the semantic validity of information retrieval in the medical information systems (MIS) domain. The system offers advanced pro. ling of a user's field of specialization by exploiting the concept of sub-ontology extraction, i.e., each sub-ontology may subsequently represent a particular user pro. le. Semantic pro. ling of a user's field of specialization or interest is necessary functionality in any medical domain information retrieval system; this is because the (structural and semantic) extent of information sources is massive and individual users are only likely to be interested in specific parts of the overall knowledge documents on the basis of their area of specialization. The prototypical system, OntoMOVE, has been specifically designed for application in the medical information systems domain. OntoMOVE utilizes semantic web standards like RDF(S) and OWL in addition to medical domain standards and vocabularies encompassed by the UMLS knowledge sources.

  • 25.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Data Engineering and Knowledge Management Group, Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Rahayu, Wenny
    Data Engineering and Knowledge Management Group, Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Soni, Sury Prakash
    Data Engineering and Knowledge Management Group, Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Wouters, Carlo
    Data Engineering and Knowledge Management Group, Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    OntoMove: A Knowledge Based Framework for Semantic Requirement Profiling and Resource Acquisition2007In: Proceedings of the 2007 Australian Software Engineering Conference (ASWEC'07), IEEE Computer Society , 2007, p. 137-146Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of formal knowledge representation structures, or ontologies, has found immense applicability for the interoperability of software systems, e.g., alignment of software and business process models. Toward the management of such knowledge structures, an important foundational problem is that of ontology reuse - it is uncommon for new applications or for different components within one application to use an already available ontology in its entirety. Depending on component specific requirements, typical re-usages are restricted to refined versions of an existing ontology, with the refinement taking the form of a contraction of the knowledge contained therein. Furthermore, when the ontology is used to ascribe meaning to independently existing 'resources' (e.g., documents collections, source code, software manuals, process template repositories) by way of meta-data, there exists a direct mapping between different views/re-uses of an ontology and their respective semantic scopes within an annotated resource repository thereby leading to the concept of view/reuse dependent resource retrieval. We implement a framework that supports ontology reuse by way of a requirement driven sub-ontology extraction methodology. Additionally, based on this concept of a sub-ontology, we implement the idea of a user/component 'requirement profile' consisting of semantic descriptions of the user's interest within a 'resource repository' that has been annotated with semantic types from the ontology under consideration. A generic framework that implements these ideas and its application in the domains of Medical Information Retrieval systems and Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) is presented.

  • 26.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University Melbourne, Australia.
    Rahayu, Wenny
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University Melbourne, Australia.
    Sterling, Gerald
    Air-Operations Division, Defence Science Technology Organisation, Melbourne, Australia.
    A Causal Perspective to Qualitative Spatial Reasoning in the Situation Calculus2006In: Advances in Artificial Intelligence - IBERAMIA-SBIA 2006: 2nd International Joint Conference, 10th Ibero-American Conference on AI, 18th Brazilian AI Symposium, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, October 23-27, 2006, Proceedings / [ed] Jaime Simão Sichman, Helder Coelho, Solange Oliveira Rezende, Springer , 2006, Vol. 4140, p. 430-440Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose the utilisation of a general formalism to reason about action & change for reasoning about the dynamic purpose-directed aspects of spatial change. Such an approach is necessary toward the general integration of qualitative spatial reasoning with reasoning about the teleological aspects of spatial change. With this as the overall context, the main contribution of this paper is to illustrate first ideas relevant to providing a causal perspective to qualitative spatial reasoning using the situation calculus. With minimal notions about space & spatial dynamics, we perform a naive characterisation of objects based on their physical properties and investigate the key representational aspects of a topological theory of space, namely the region connection calculus, in the situation calculus. Further, ontological distinctions are made between various occurrents, i.e., actions and internal & external events, and a domain level characterisation of spatial occurrents in terms of their spatial pre-conditions & effects is performed so as to provide a causal perspective to spatial reasoning.

  • 27.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Rahayu, Wenny
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Sterling, Gerald
    Air-Operations Division, DSTO, Melbourne, Australia.
    A General Framework Based on Dynamic Constraints for the Enrichment of a Topological Theory of Spatial Simulation2005In: Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: 9th International Conference, KES 2005, Melbourne, Australia, September 14-16, 2005, Proceedings, Part IV / [ed] Rajiv Khosla, Robert J. Howlett, Lakhmi C. Jain, Springer , 2005, Vol. 3684, p. 366-373Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Qualitative spatial representation and reasoning has emerged as a major sub-field of AI in the past decade. An important research problem within the field is that of integrated reasoning about various spatial aspects such as distance, size, topology etc - an important application here being the qualitative simulation of physical processes. Approaches based on topology alone fail to provide an explicit account of other important aspects of spatial change thereby also not utilizing dynamically available information pertaining to them. Our work in this paper is based on the idea that a general theory of spatial simulation based on topological changes alone can be enriched by the inclusion of sub-theories relevant to other aspects of spatial change. We propose a general framework consisting of dynamic constraints for the enrichment of a topological theory of spatial changes. We propose the utilisation of such dynamic constraints for the incorporation of dynamically available information relevant to various aspects of space thereby making that aspect explicit in the theory. As an example of the proposed approach, we integrate dynamically available information pertaining to motion and size with the topological theory of RCC-8 using our framework of dynamic constraints.

  • 28.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Rahayu, Wenny
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Sterling, Gerald
    Air-Operations Division, DSTO, Melbourne, Australia.
    Qualitative Spatial Reasoning with Topological Relations in the Situation Calculus2006In: Proceedings of the Nineteenth International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference, Melbourne Beach, Florida, USA, May 11-13, 2006, AAAI Press , 2006, p. 713-718Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a qualitative theory of spatial change and illustrate some of the key representational aspects of specifying such a theory using a formalism to reason about action & change; an effort that we regard to be essential toward a general integration of qualitative spatial reasoning with reasoning about the dynamic, causal aspects of spatial change. A topological theory of space, namely the region connection calculus, is used as the spatial metaphor in this work; the reason here primarily being that topological distinctions are inherently qualitative in nature and also because a relational approach as general as the RCC is representative of a similar class of relational techniques in the QSR domain. As such, our results can be easily generalised over a wide range of calculi, encompassing other aspects of space, that are based on similar semantics. The main aim of this paper is to illustrate first ideas on how a causal perspective to qualitative spatial reasoning may be provided using the situation calculus, which is a formalism to reason about dynamically changing domains, The minimalist notions of space and/or spatial dynamics in this paper are based on the hypothesis that it is imperative to approach the problem of the said integration at a elementary level before a higher-level abstraction involving complex actions & events is developed.

  • 29.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Rahayu, Wenny
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Sterling, Gerald
    Air-Operations Division, Defence Science Technology Organisation, Melbourne, Australia.
    Situation Awareness in Synthetic Environments: Towards a Computational Model2005In: Proceedings of the 2nd Indian International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Pune, India, December 20-22, 2005 / [ed] Bhanu Prasad, IICAI , 2005, p. 3556-3575Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The simulation of the behaviour of autonomous entities in space is an interesting research method to advance our understanding of the interaction of human beings with the environment. Although rather complex cognitive models of human-level Situation Awareness (SA) in dynamic environments exist, computational approaches to represent the same remain at best ad-hoc - cognitively inadequate or bearing little or no resemblance to the qualitative manner in which humans seemingly represent & reason about knowledge. The aim of our research is to investigate the computational aspects of situation awareness of autonomous entities in large-scale simulated spaces, called Synthetic Environments (SE). This is done within the scope of an understanding of situation awareness that encompasses common-sense conceptual reasoning and integrated qualitative reasoning about space, time & causality As a product of our research, we envisage to develop a logic based computational framework based on a unified representational semantics for space, time & causality - the essence of which is a process model involving abstract ontological commitments involving spatial, temporal and action event oriented concepts, alongwith a capability to handle concurrent and continuous phenomena. The framework, which is representative of our model of situation awareness, will be most beneficial for systems involving the representation of physical and/or intelligent autonomous processes. However, as an exemplar of our approach, we are interested in applying the framework for the representation of autonomous behaviour in defence Modelling & Simulation (M&S) applications.

  • 30.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Rahayu, Wenny
    Department of Computer Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Sterling, Gerald
    Air-Operations Division, DSTO, Melbourne, Australia.
    Synthetic Environment Representational Semantics Using the Web Ontology Language2005In: Intelligent Data Engineering and Automated Learning - IDEAL 2005: 6th International Conference, Brisbane, Australia, July 6-8, 2005, Proceedings / [ed] Marcus Gallagher, James P. Hogan, Frederic Maire, Springer , 2005, Vol. 3578, p. 9-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of Ontologies for the definition and interoperability of complementary taxonomies has been well-recognised within the Modelling & Simulation (M&S) community. Our research pertaining to the specification of Synthetic Environment (SE) representational semantics has proposed the use of an Synthetic Environment Data Representation Ontology (sedOnto), which is modeled using W3C ' s Web Ontology Language(OWL), The vocabulary specified in sedOnto is based the SEDRIS Data Representation Model (DRM), which is a technological framework for SE data interchange and interoperability. In this paper, we present STOWL - SEDRIS To OWL Transform that automates the transformation of a SEDRIS based SE to a Web-Ontology based representation scheme in the OWL language. The target representation scheme, which shall be based on sedOnto, is in actuality an instantiation of the SE data representation terminology as specified by sedOnto. Such a transformation has many perceived advantages: It enhances SE interoperability by utilizing a Web-Ontology based approach for the specification of SE representation data, is consistent with existing industry based SE representation standards, namely SEDRIS, and that the representation scheme facilitates ontological reasoning over SE objects; a facility that is not directly supported by the SEDRIS DRM.

  • 31.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    The DesignSpace Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    The DesignSpace Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    People-Centered Visuospatial Cognition: Next-Generation Architectural Design Systems and Their Role in Design Conception, Computing, and Communication2017In: The Active Image: Architecture and Engineering in the Age of Modeling / [ed] Ammon, Sabine; Capdevila-Werning, Remei, Springer International Publishing , 2017, p. 207-232Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When undertaking the task of design, architects imagine and anticipate the visuospatial and navigational experience of building users during the initial design conception phase. The ultimate goal is to ensure that the final physical built-up structure inherently performs with respect to people-centered design criteria encompassing function, behavior, and affordance. We argue that next-generation people-centered design systems, frameworks, assistive tools, educational discourse, and design policies and practices need to be explicitly founded on the cognitive modalities of human perception, attention, action, dynamics, environmental affordance and user experience, and design conception and semantics. We posit that this requires a holistic approach to architectural design cognition, encompassing the application of principles, practices, and methods from the fields of architecture and engineering, cognitive science, spatial cognition and computation, and evidence-based empirical methods in environmental and social psychology.

  • 32.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    Freksa, Christian
    The ‘Space’ in Spatial Assistance Systems: Conception, Formalisation and Computation2014In: Representing space in cognition: Interrelations of behavior, language, and formal models / [ed] Tenbrink, Thora; Wiener, Jan; Claramunt, Christophe, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter is about ‘space’: empty space, spatial structures, and the process of structuring. We organize empty space by building-up structures and artefacts of our everyday existence. This structuring transforms empty space into something of a desired form (e.g. a balanced room, a visually pleasing scene), function (e.g. easily navigable), and semantic connotation (e.g. of a ‘place’). The chapter is written from the perspective of spatial informatics and addresses space at the scale of everyday human perception and thinking. The core of this chapter is to present the informatics of spatial structure; this is done at three levels: (1) the conception of structural form, as it accrues in the minds of people, and its expression, using spatio-linguistic modalities; (2) the formalization of space, using representational means for spatial abstraction; and (3) the computation of structural forms in a manner that constructively assures, assists, and empowers those who conceive of those forms. The chapter is grounded to reality with respect to a particular class of spatial assistance systems, e.g. for spatial design, where our interpretations of creative and constructive assistance are applicable. We also present case studies in domains such as design creativity for media pre-production, and real-time emergency assistance, though architectural design remains an area of special emphasis throughout the chapter.

  • 33.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Cognitive Systems Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    Cognitive Systems Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Huang, Minqian
    Digital Media, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    The Shape of Empty Space: Human-centred cognitive foundations in computing for spatial design2012In: 2012 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing, VL/HCC 2012, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2012, p. 33-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a human-centred model for abstraction, modelling and computing in function-driven spatial design for architecture. The primitive entities of our design conception ontology and computing framework are driven by classic notions of structure, function, and affordance in design, and are directly based on the fundamental human perceptual and analytical modalities of visual and locomotive exploration of space.

    With an emphasis on design semantics, our model for spatial design marks a fundamental shift from contemporary modelling and computational foundations underlying engineering-centred computer aided design systems. We demonstrate the application of our model within a system for human-centred computational design analysis and simulation. We also illustrate the manner in which our design modelling and computing framework seamlessly builds on contemporary industry data modelling standards within the architecture and construction informatics communities.

  • 34.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Cognitive Systems, and Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    Cognitive Systems, and Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Thosar, Madhura
    Cognitive Systems, and Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Computing Narratives of Cognitive User Experience for Building Design Analysis: KR for Industry Scale Computer-Aided Architecture Design2014In: Proceedings of the 14th international conference on principles of knowledge representation and reasoning / [ed] Chitta Baral, Giuseppe De Giacomo, Thomas Eiter, AAAI Press , 2014, p. 508-517Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a cognitive design assistance system equipped with analytical capabilities aimed at anticipating architectural building design performance with respect to peoplecentred functional design goals. The paper focuses on the system capability to generate narratives of visuo-locomotive user experience from digital computer-aided architecture design (CAAD) models. The system is based on an underlying declarative narrative representation and computation framework pertaining to conceptual, geometric, and qualitative spatial knowledge. The semantics of the declarative narrative model, i.e., the overall representation and computation model, is founded on: (a) conceptual knowledge formalised in an OWL ontology; (b) a general spatial representation and reasoning engine implemented in constraint logic programming; and (c) a declaratively encoded (narrative) construction process (based on search over graph structures) implemented in answer-set programming.

    We emphasise and demonstrate: complete system implementation, scalability, and robust performance & integration with industry-scale architecture industry tools (e.g., Revit, Archi-CAD) & standards (BIM, IFC).

  • 35.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Suchan, Jakob
    Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Freksa, Christian
    Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Rotunde - A Smart Meeting Cinematography Initiative: Tools, Datasets, and Benchmarks for Cognitive Interpretation and Control2013In: Space, Time, and Ambient Intelligence, Papers from the 2013 AAAI Workshop, Bellevue, Washington, USA, July 14, 2013, AI Access Foundation , 2013, Vol. WS-13-14, p. 9-12Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    The DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Suchan, Jakob
    The DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    The DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    The DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Embodied visuo-locomotive experience analysis: immersive reality based summarisation of experiments in environment-behaviour studies2016In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Perception (SAP 2016), USA: ACM Digital Library , 2016, p. 133-133Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence-based design (EBD) for architecture involves the study of post-occupancy behaviour of building users with the aim to provide an empirical basis for improving building performance [Hamilton and Watkins 2009]. Within EBD, the high-level, qualitative analysis of the embodied visuo-locomotive experience of representative groups of building users (e.g., children, senior citizens, individuals facing physical challenges) constitutes a foundational approach for understanding the impact of architectural design decisions, and functional building performance from the viewpoint of areas such as environmental psychology, wayfinding research, human visual perception studies, spatial cognition, and the built environment [Bhatt and Schultz 2016].

  • 37.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Cognitive Systems, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Sonderforschungsbereich Transregional Collaborative Research Center 8, Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Suchan, Jakob
    Cognitive Systems, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Sonderforschungsbereich Transregional Collaborative Research Center 8, Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    Cognitive Systems, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Sonderforschungsbereich Transregional Collaborative Research Center 8, Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Cognitive Interpretation of Everyday Activities - Toward Perceptual Narrative Based Visuo-Spatial Scene Interpretation2013In: 2013 Workshop on Computational Models of Narrative / [ed] Mark A. Finlayson; Bernhard Fisseni; Benedikt Löwe; Jan Christoph Meister, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik , 2013, Vol. 32, p. 24-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We position a narrative-centred computational model for high-level knowledge representation and reasoning in the context of a range of assistive technologies concerned with visuo-spatial perception and cognition tasks. Our proposed narrative model encompasses aspects such as space, events, actions, change, and interaction from the viewpoint of commonsense reasoning and learning in large-scale cognitive systems. The broad focus of this paper is on the domain of human-activity interpretation in smart environments, ambient intelligence etc. In the backdrop of a smart meeting cinematography domain, we position the proposed narrative model, preliminary work on perceptual narrativisation, and the immediate outlook on constructing general-purpose open-source tools for perceptual narrativisation.

  • 38.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Suchan, Jakob
    DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Goyal, Saurabh
    DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Artificial Intelligence for Predictive and Evidence Based Architecture Design2016In: Proceedings of the Thirtieth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-16), AAAI press , 2016, p. 4349-4350Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evidence-based analysis of people's navigation and wayfinding behaviour in large-scale built-up environments (e.g., hospitals, airports) encompasses the measurement and qualitative analysis of a range of aspects including people's visual perception in new and familiar surroundings, their decision-making procedures and intentions, the affordances of the environment itself, etc. In our research on large-scale evidence-based qualitative analysis of wayfinding behaviour, we construe visual perception and navigation in built-up environments as a dynamic narrative construction process of movement and exploration driven by situation-dependent goals, guided by visual aids such as signage and landmarks, and influenced by environmental (e.g., presence of other people, time of day, lighting) and personal (e.g., age, physical attributes) factors. We employ a range of sensors for measuring the embodied visuo-locomotive experience of building users: eye-tracking, egocentric gaze analysis, external camera based visual analysis to interpret fine-grained behaviour (e.g., stopping, looking around, interacting with other people), and also manual observations made by human experimenters. Observations are processed, analysed, and integrated in a holistic model of the visuo-locomotive narrative experience at the individual and group level. Our model also combines embodied visual perception analysis with analysis of the structure and layout of the environment (e.g., topology, routes, isovists) computed from available 3D models of the building. In this framework, abstract regions like the visibility space, regions of attention, eye movement clusters, are treated as first class visuo-spatial and iconic objects that can be used for interpreting the visual experience of subjects in a high-level qualitative manner. The final integrated analysis of the wayfinding experience is such that it can even be presented in a virtual reality environment thereby providing an immersive experience (e.g., using tools such as the Oculus Rift) of the qualitative analysis for single participants, as well as for a combined analysis of large group. This capability is especially important for experiments in post-occupancy analysis of building performance. Our construction of indoor wayfinding experience as a form of moving image analysis centralizes the role and influence of perceptual visuo-spatial characteristics and morphological features of the built environment into the discourse on wayfinding research. We will demonstrate the impact of this work with several case-studies, particularly focussing on a large-scale experiment conducted at the New Parkland Hospital in Dallas Texas, USA.

  • 39.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Cognitive Systems, Spatial Cognition Research Center (SFB/TR 8), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Wallgrün, Jan Oliver
    Department of Geography, GeoVISTA Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park PA, United States.
    Geospatial Narratives and Their Spatio-Temporal Dynamics: Commonsense Reasoning for High-Level Analyses in Geographic Information Systems2014In: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 166-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modeling, analysis and visualization of dynamic geospatial phenomena has been identified as a key developmental challenge for next-generation Geographic Information Systems (GIS). In this context, the envisaged paradigmatic extensions to contemporary foundational GIS technology raises fundamental questions concerning the ontological, formal representational and (analytical) computational methods that would underlie their spatial information theoretic underpinnings. We present the conceptual overview and architecture for the development of high-level semantic and qualitative analytical capabilities for dynamic geospatial domains. Building on formal methods in the areas of commonsense reasoning, qualitative reasoning, spatial and temporal representation and reasoning, reasoning about actions and change and computational models of narrative, we identify concrete theoretical and practical challenges that accrue in the context of formal reasoning about space, events, actions and change. With this as a basis and within the backdrop of an illustrated scenario involving the spatio-temporal dynamics of urban narratives, we address specific problems and solution techniques chiefly involving qualitative abstraction, data integration and spatial consistency and practical geospatial abduction.

  • 40.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    La Trobe University, Australia.
    Wouters, Carlo
    La Trobe University, Australia.
    Flahive, Andrew
    La Trobe University, Australia.
    Rahayu, Wenny
    La Trobe University, Australia.
    Taniar, David
    Monash University, Australia.
    Semantic Completeness in Sub-ontology Extraction Using Distributed Methods2004In: Computational Science and Its Applications - ICCSA 2004: International Conference, Assisi, Italy, May 14-17, 2004, Proceedings, Part III / [ed] Antonio Laganá, Marina L. Gavrilova, Vipin Kumar, Youngsong Mun, C. J. Kenneth Tan, Osvaldo Gervasi, Springer , 2004, Vol. 3045, p. 508-517Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of ontologies lies at the very heart of the newly emerging era of Semantic Web. They provide a shared conceptualization of some domain that may be communicated between people and application systems. A common problem with web ontologies is that they tend to grow large in scale and complexity as a result of ever increasing information requirements. The resulting ontologies are too large to be used in their entirety by one application. Our previous work, Materialized Ontology View Extractor (MOVE), has addressed this problem by proposing a distributed architecture for the extraction/optimization of a sub-ontology from a large scale base ontology. The extraction process consists of a number of independent optimization schemes that cover various aspects of the optimization process. In this paper, we extend MOVE with a Semantic Completeness Optimization Scheme (SCOS), which addresses the issue of the semantic correctness of the resulting sub-ontology. Moreover, we utilize distributed methods to implement SCOS in a cluster environment. Here, a distributed memory architecture serves two purposes: (a). Facilitates the utilization of a cluster environment typical in business organizations, which is in line with our envisaged application of the proposed system and (b). Enhances the performance of the computationally extensive extraction process when dealing with massively sized realistic ontologies.

  • 41.
    Dubba, Krishna Sandeep Reddy
    et al.
    School of Computing, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    SFB/TR 8 Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Dylla, Frank
    SFB/TR 8 Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Hogg, David C.
    School of Computing, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Cohn, Anthony G.
    School of Computing, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Interleaved Inductive-Abductive Reasoning for Learning Complex Event Models2011In: Inductive Logic Programming: 21st International Conference, ILP 2011, Windsor Great Park, UK, July 31 - August 3, 2011, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Stephen H. Muggleton, Alireza Tamaddoni-Nezhad, Francesca A. Lisi, Springer , 2011, Vol. 7207, p. 113-129Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose an interleaved inductive-abductive model for reasoning about complex spatio-temporal narratives. Typed Inductive Logic Programming (Typed-ILP) is used as a basis for learning the domain theory by generalising from observation data, whereas abductive reasoning is used for noisy data correction by scenario and narrative completion thereby improving the inductive learning to get semantically meaningful event models. We apply the model to an airport domain consisting of video data for 15 turn-arounds from six cameras simultaneously monitoring logistical processes concerned with aircraft arrival, docking, departure etc and a verbs data set with 20 verbs enacted out in around 2500 vignettes. Our evaluation and demonstration focusses on the synergy afforded by the inductive-abductive cycle, whereas our proposed model provides a blue-print for interfacing common-sense reasoning about space, events and dynamic spatio-temporal phenomena with quantitative techniques in activity recognition.

  • 42.
    Dubba, Krishna Sandeep Reddy
    et al.
    School of Computing, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Cohn, Anthony G.
    School of Computing, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Hogg, David C.
    School of Computing, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Cognitive Systems, SFB/TR 8 Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Dylla, Frank
    Cognitive Systems, SFB/TR 8 Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Learning Relational Event Models from Video2015In: The journal of artificial intelligence research, ISSN 1076-9757, E-ISSN 1943-5037, Vol. 53, p. 41-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Event models obtained automatically from video can be used in applications ranging from abnormal event detection to content based video retrieval. When multiple agents are involved in the events, characterizing events naturally suggests encoding interactions as relations. Learning event models from this kind of relational spatio-temporal data using relational learning techniques such as Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) hold promise, but have not been successfully applied to very large datasets which result from video data. In this paper, we present a novel framework REMIND (Relational Event Model INDuction) for supervised relational learning of event models from large video datasets using ILP. Efficiency is achieved through the learning from interpretations setting and using a typing system that exploits the type hierarchy of objects in a domain. The use of types also helps prevent over generalization. Furthermore, we also present a type-refining operator and prove that it is optimal. The learned models can be used for recognizing events from previously unseen videos. We also present an extension to the framework by integrating an abduction step that improves the learning performance when there is noise in the input data. The experimental results on several hours of video data from two challenging real world domains (an airport domain and a physical action verbs domain) suggest that the techniques are suitable to real world scenarios.

  • 43.
    Dylla, Frank
    et al.
    SFB/TR 8 Spatial Cognition, Universität Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    SFB/TR 8 Spatial Cognition, Universität Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Qualitative Spatial Scene Modeling for Ambient Intelligence Environments2008In: Intelligent Robotics and Applications: First International Conference, ICIRA 2008, Wuhan, China, October 15-17, 2008, Proceedings, Part I, Springer , 2008, Vol. 5314, p. 716-725Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In ambient intelligence systems, it is necessary to represent and reason about dynamic spatial scenes and configurations. Primarily; the ability to perform predictive and explanatory analyses on the basis of available sensory data is crucial toward serving a useful intelligent function within such environments. In this paper; we present a qualitative model for representing the relevant aspects of these environments in an adequate manner. The model is suited for reasoning about spatial configurations and dynamics in spatial environments. We clarify and elaborate on our ideas with examples grounded in a smart home environment.

  • 44.
    Eppe, Manfred
    et al.
    International Computer Science Institute, Berkeley, United States.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    A history based approximate epistemic action theory for efficient postdictive reasoning2015In: Journal of Applied Logic, ISSN 1570-8683, E-ISSN 1570-8691, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 720-769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose an approximation of the possible worlds semantics (PWS) of knowledge with support for postdiction - a fundamental inference pattern for diagnostic reasoning and explanation tasks in a wide range of real-world applications such as cognitive robotics, visual perception for cognitive vision, ambient intelligence and smart environments. We present the formal framework, an operational semantics, and an analysis of soundness and completeness results therefrom.

    The advantage of our approach is that only a linear number of state-variables are required to represent an agent's knowledge state. This is achieved by modeling knowledge as the history of a single approximate state, instead of using an exponential number of possible worlds like in Kripke semantics. That is, we add a temporal dimension to the knowledge representation which facilitates efficient postdiction. Since we consider knowledge histories, we call our theory h-approximation (HPX).

    Due to the linear number of state variables, HPX features a comparably low computational complexity. Specifically, we show that HPX can solve the projection problem in polynomial (tractable) time. It can solve planning problems in NP, while e.g. for the action language A(k) [48] this is Sigma(P)(2)-complete. In addition to the temporal dimension of knowledge, our theory supports concurrent acting and sensing, and is in this sense more expressive than existing approximations.

  • 45.
    Eppe, Manfred
    et al.
    International Computer Science Institute, Berkeley, United States.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Approximate postdictive reasoning with answer set programming2015In: Journal of Applied Logic, ISSN 1570-8683, E-ISSN 1570-8691, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 676-719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an answer set programming realization of the h-approximation (HPX) theory [8] as an efficient and provably sound reasoning method for epistemic planning and projection problems that involve postdictive reasoning. The efficiency of HPX stems from an approximate knowledge state representation that involves only a linear number of state variables, as compared to an exponential number for theories that utilize a possible-worlds based semantics. This causes a relatively low computational complexity, i.e, the planning problem is in NP under reasonable restrictions, at the cost that HPX is incomplete. In this paper, we use the implementation of HPX to investigate the incompleteness issue and present an empirical evaluation of the solvable fragment and its performance. We find that the solvable fragment of HPX is indeed reasonable and fairly large: in average about 85% of the considered projection problem instances can be solved, compared to a PWS-based approach with exponential complexity as baseline. In addition to the empirical results, we demonstrate the manner in which HPX can be applied in a real robotic control task within a smart home, where our scenario illustrates the usefulness of postdictive reasoning to achieve error-tolerance by abnormality detection in a high-level decision-making task.

  • 46.
    Eppe, Manfred
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Narrative based Postdictive Reasoning for Cognitive Robotics2013In: p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Making sense of incomplete and conflicting narrative knowledge in the presence of abnormalities, unobservable processes, and other real world considerations is a challenge and crucial requirement for cognitive robotics systems. An added challenge, even when suitably specialised action languages and reasoning systems exist, is practical integration and application within large-scale robot control frameworks.

    In the backdrop of an autonomous wheelchair robot control task, we report on application-driven work to realise postdiction triggered abnormality detection and re-planning for real-time robot control: (a) Narrative-based knowledge about the environment is obtained via a larger smart environment framework; and (b) abnormalities are postdicted from stable-models of an answer-set program corresponding to the robot's epistemic model. The overall reasoning is performed in the context of an approximate epistemic action theory based planner implemented via a translation to answer-set programming.

  • 47.
    Eppe, Manfred
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Dylla, Frank
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Approximate Epistemic Planning with Postdiction as Answer-Set Programming2013In: Logic Programming and Nonmonotonic Reasoning: 12th International Conference, LPNMR 2013, Corunna, Spain, September 15-19, 2013. Proceedings / [ed] Pedro Cabalar, Tran Cao Son, Springer , 2013, Vol. 8148, p. 290-303Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a history-based approximation of the Possible Worlds Semantics (PWS) for reasoning about knowledge and action. A respective planning system is implemented by a transformation of the problem domain to an Answer-Set Program. The novelty of our approach is elaboration tolerant support for postdiction under the condition that the plan existence problem is still solvable in NP, as compared to ΣP2 for non-approximated PWS of Son and Baral [20]. We demonstrate our planner with standard problems and present its integration in a cognitive robotics framework for high-level control in a smart home.

  • 48.
    Eppe, Manfred
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Dylla, Frank
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    h-approximation: History-Based Approximation of Possible World Semantics as ASP2013In: p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a history-based approximation of the Possible Worlds Semantics (PWS) for reasoning about knowledge and action. A respective planning system is implemented by a transformation of the problem domain to an Answer-Set Program. The novelty of our approach is elaboration tolerant support for postdiction under the condition that the plan existence problem is still solvable in NP, as compared to ΣP2 for non-approximated PWS of Son and Baral [19]. We demonstrate our planner with standard problems and present its integration in a cognitive robotics framework for high-level control in a smart home.

  • 49.
    Guesgen, Hans W.
    et al.
    Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    SFB/TR 8 Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Advances in Spatial and Temporal Reasoning2010In: Journal of universal computer science (Online), ISSN 0948-695X, E-ISSN 0948-6968, Vol. 16, no 11, p. 1388-1389Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Hastings, Janna
    et al.
    European Bioinformatics Institute, Cambridge, UK; University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Kutz, OliverUniversity of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.Bhatt, MehulÖrebro University, School of Science and Technology. University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.Borgo, StefanoLaboratory of Applied Ontology, Trento, Italy.
    SHAPES 1.0: The Shape Of Things 2011: Proceedings of the First Interdisciplinary Workshop on SHAPES, Karlsruhe, Germany, September 27, 20112011Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 85
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