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  • 1. Agarwal, Natasha
    et al.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden; Global Labor Organization.
    Tang, Aili
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Tano, Sofia
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Growth Analysis, Östersund, Sweden.
    Wang, Zheng
    De Montfort University, Leicester, UK.
    Guaranteed Success?: The Effects of Export Credit Guarantees on Firm Performance2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries offer government-backed export credit guarantees to domestic firms. We investigate the effects of such guarantees on firm exports, jobs and value added. Using uniquely detailed and exhaustive transaction-level panel data on guarantees and granular information on trade, exporters and foreign buyers, we perform difference-indifferences matching estimations. We find that guarantees improve firm performance. However, the effects are strikingly heterogeneous across firm size and response variables. Using guarantees increases the firm-destination probability of exporting and the value of exports by 18 and 172 percent, respectively, but does not generally increase jobs or value added. Smaller firms benefit the most in terms of exports. Overall, the evidence suggests a causal link from guarantees to firm export performance.

  • 2.
    Anderson, Ian
    et al.
    The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Tano, Sofia
    School of Business and Economy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Yap, Leslie
    Native Hawaiian Center of Excellence, John A Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu HI, United States.
    Indigenous and tribal peoples' health (The Lancet-Lowitja Institute Global Collaboration): a population study2016In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 388, no 10040, p. 131-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: International studies of the health of Indigenous and tribal peoples provide important public health insights. Reliable data are required for the development of policy and health services. Previous studies document poorer outcomes for Indigenous peoples compared with benchmark populations, but have been restricted in their coverage of countries or the range of health indicators. Our objective is to describe the health and social status of Indigenous and tribal peoples relative to benchmark populations from a sample of countries.

    Methods: Collaborators with expertise in Indigenous health data systems were identified for each country. Data were obtained for population, life expectancy at birth, infant mortality, low and high birthweight, maternal mortality, nutritional status, educational attainment, and economic status. Data sources consisted of governmental data, data from non-governmental organisations such as UNICEF, and other research. Absolute and relative differences were calculated.

    Findings: Our data (23 countries, 28 populations) provide evidence of poorer health and social outcomes for Indigenous peoples than for non-Indigenous populations. However, this is not uniformly the case, and the size of the rate difference varies. We document poorer outcomes for Indigenous populations for: life expectancy at birth for 16 of 18 populations with a difference greater than 1 year in 15 populations; infant mortality rate for 18 of 19 populations with a rate difference greater than one per 1000 livebirths in 16 populations; maternal mortality in ten populations; low birthweight with the rate difference greater than 2% in three populations; high birthweight with the rate difference greater than 2% in one population; child malnutrition for ten of 16 populations with a difference greater than 10% in five populations; child obesity for eight of 12 populations with a difference greater than 5% in four populations; adult obesity for seven of 13 populations with a difference greater than 10% in four populations; educational attainment for 26 of 27 populations with a difference greater than 1% in 24 populations; and economic status for 15 of 18 populations with a difference greater than 1% in 14 populations.

    Interpretation: We systematically collated data across a broader sample of countries and indicators than done in previous studies. Taking into account the UN Sustainable Development Goals, we recommend that national governments develop targeted policy responses to Indigenous health, improving access to health services, and Indigenous data within national surveillance systems.

  • 3.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Centrum för samisk forskning (CeSam), Umeå universitet, Umeå, Sverige.
    Sköld, Peter
    Centrum för samisk forskning (CeSam), Umeå universitet, Umeå, Sweden.
    Tano, Sofia
    Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University (Arcum), Umeå, Sweden.
    Sweden: The Sami2016In: A Global Snapshot of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples' Health: The Lancet–Lowitja Institute Collaboration / [ed] Kate Silburn, Hannah Reich & Ian Anderson, Carlton South, Victoria, Australia: The Lowitja Institute , 2016, , p. 2p. 46-47Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Berck, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy, University of California, Berkeley CA, United States.
    Tano, Sofia
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Jyväskylä School of Business and Economics, Jyväskylä University, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Regional sorting of human capital: the choice of location among young adults in Sweden2016In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 757-770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration rates are highest among young adults, especially students, and their location choices affect the regional distribution of human capital, growth and local public sector budgets. Using Swedish register data on young adults, the choice of whether to enroll in education and the choice of location are estimated jointly. The results indicate a systematic selection into investment in further education based on school grades and associated preferences for locations with higher per capita tax bases. For students, the estimates indicate lower preferences for locations with higher shares of older people.  The importance of family networks for the choice of location is confirmed.    

  • 5.
    Berck, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Tano, Sofia
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Jyväskylä School of Business and Economics, Jyväskylä University, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Regional sorting of human capital: the choice of location among young adults in Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration rates are highest among young adults, especially students, and their location choices affect the regional distribution of human capital, growth and local public sector budgets. Using Swedish register data on young adults, the choice of whether to enroll in education and the choice of location are estimated jointly. The results indicate a systematic selection into investment in further education based on school grades and associated preferences for locations with higher per capita tax bases. For students, the estimates indicate lower preferences for locations with higher shares of older people.  The importance of family networks for the choice of location is confirmed. 

  • 6.
    Berck, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Tano, Sofia
    Department of Economics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Department of Economics, The Ageing and Living Conditions Program, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    The determinants of the choice of location among young adults: evidence from Sweden2011Other (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Falkenhall, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Östersund, Sweden.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS), Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Tano, Sofia
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Östersund, Sweden.
    Rätt lagat?: Effekter av sänkt moms på restaurang och cateringtjänster i Sverige2016In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 40-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vår analys av den sänkta restaurangmomsen visar på relativt kraftiga effekter på de undersökta variablerna omsättning, anställningar, lönesumma, rörelsemarginal och nettotillskott av företag i branschen. Den kortsiktiga effekten på sysselsättningen motsvarar 11 300 heltidstjänster över tre år. Vi bedömer att den sänkta restaurangmomsen även kommer att ha en långsiktigt positiv effekt på den varaktiga sysselsättningen. För analysen har vi vidareutvecklat en metodansats benämnd matchning med syntetiska kontrollgrupper, vilket enligt oss ökar möjligheterna att kunna uppskatta effekter av reformer som påverkar alla företag i en bransch.

  • 8.
    Falkenhall, Björn
    et al.
    Tillväxtanalys, Östersund, Sweden.
    Tano, Sofia
    Tillväxtanalys, Östersund, Sweden.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS), Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Quoreshi, Shahid
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Sänkt moms på restaurang- och cateringtjänster: slutrapport2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our analysis of the effects of the reduction in VAT for restaurants and catering services indicates a positive outcome for employment, total wages and turnover. It is clear that firms have not only used the VAT reduction in order to lower prices since effects on gross profit and the net surplus of new firms can also be seen. Growth Analysis concludes that the lower VAT rate will have a long-term positive effect on employment.

  • 9.
    Månsson, Jonas
    et al.
    School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Falkenhall, Björn
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Östersund, Sweden.
    Tano, Sofia
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Östersund, Sweden.
    Impact of the VAT reform on Swedish restaurants: a synthetic control group approach2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our analysis of the reduction in VAT for restaurant and catering services shows positive effects on turnover, employments, total wages, gross profit margins and net entry of firms. It is clear that the firms have used the VAT reduction in more ways than lowering prices.

    In this study we investigate the impact of the VAT reform for restaurant and catering services that took place in Sweden on January 1, 2012. The aim of this reform was to increase long-term employment in Sweden. Growth Analysis was commissioned to evaluate the effects of this reform from the perspective of firms. This PM serves as a foundation for this commission’s final report Reduced VAT on restaurant and catering services – final report.

    Evaluating the effects of a VAT reduction that includes all firms in an industry is a challenge and difficult methodologically due to the lack of a counterfactual outcome. In this study, we constructed our counterfactual using a synthetic control group (SCG) approach, which is a data-driven approach that only relies to a small extent on subjective choices. Unlike previous studies we assume that the VAT reform can affect each part in the profit function and also influence entry and exit in the market. We do the analysis on industry level by aggregating firm level data.

    The VAT reduction had a positive and significant effect on turnover, profit margins and net entry of firms. The average yearly effect is estimated to be 5.6, 1.25 and 1.6 percentage points respectively. These results are significant at the 5 % level. The average yearly effect on total wages and employment lies at 4.9 and 5.0 percentage points respectively and is significant at the 10 % level. The effects tend to decline over time, with exception for net entry of firms.

    Although estimating the exact effects of a reform remains difficult, our results are robust to sensitivity analyses. Overall, our results point to better performance for the restaurant industry compared to what it would have been in the absence of the reform.

  • 10.
    Tano, Sofia
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Internal Migration of Young Adults: Heterogeneity in Effects on Labour Income by School Grades2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper estimates the relationship between migration across labour-market regions and the subsequent changes in earnings in Sweden by using the individual’s grade point average (GPA) from the final year of comprehensive school as a proxy for ability. This measure aims to capture heterogeneity in the effects of mobility on earnings for individuals conditional on educational attainment and other observed traits. Register data from Sweden, including two whole cohorts of individuals, is used. A difference-in-difference propensity score matching estimator is applied to estimate the relationship between income and migration up to seven years after migrating. The results show variation between different ability groups with respect to the return to regional migration. There are indications of larger gains for individuals holding top grades, while the bottom half seems to benefit less, or have slightly negative returns. The difference in return to migration across GPA quartiles is larger for women than for men.

  • 11.
    Tano, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics, Umeå, Sweden.
    Migration and Regional Sorting of Skills2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of an introductory part and four papers.

    Paper [I] estimates jointly the choice of whether to enroll in education and the choice of location among young people. Being a particularly mobile group, the location choices of young individuals shape much of the regional distribution of human capital, growth, and local public sector budgets. Applying Swedish register data on nest leavers, we seek to determine factors deciding the education and location choice of young people. The results indicate a systematic selection higher education based on school grades and preferences for locations with higher per capita tax bases and with lower shares of elderly people. The importance of family networks for the choice of location is confirmed.             

    Paper [II] examines how individual ability, reflected by the grade point average (GPA) from comprehensive school affects the probability of migration among university graduates. The econometric analysis applies detailed micro-data of two entire cohorts of young individuals retrieved from the Swedish population registers. The results indicate that individual abilities are strongly influential both concerning completion of a university degree and for the migration decision. In addition, we find a positive relationship between the GPA and migrating from regions with lower per capita tax bases and/or a relatively small share of highly educated individuals. Analogously, individuals with a high GPA tend to stay in more densely populated regions, suggesting a clustering of human capital vis-à-vis school grades. 

    Paper [III] estimates the relationship between migration across labour market regions and the subsequent changes in earnings by using the GPA from the final year of comprehensive school as a proxy for ability. This measure aims to capture heterogeneity in the returns to migration for individuals conditional on education attainment. Using Swedish register data on young adults, a difference-in-difference propensity score matching estimator is applied to estimate income differences measured up to seven years after migration. The results show variation between different ability groups regarding the returns to regional migration. There are indications of larger gains for individuals holding top grades, while the bottom half seems to benefit less, or face slightly negative effects.

    Paper [IV] examines whether power couple formation and the location choice of such couples are driven by factors already inherent in young people during their formative school years. The paper also extends the analysis by modeling location choice among different sizes of labor market areas, given different power statuses of the couples. Based on analysis of Swedish register data, we produce evidence that power spouses evolve from the population of high achieving school age individuals; the latter is identified by high academic performance during their years of compulsory school. Regarding location choice, the results indicate that power couples display a relatively high tendency to migrate from their regions of origin to large cities.

    List of papers
    1. Regional sorting of human capital: the choice of location among young adults in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regional sorting of human capital: the choice of location among young adults in Sweden
    2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration rates are highest among young adults, especially students, and their location choices affect the regional distribution of human capital, growth and local public sector budgets. Using Swedish register data on young adults, the choice of whether to enroll in education and the choice of location are estimated jointly. The results indicate a systematic selection into investment in further education based on school grades and associated preferences for locations with higher per capita tax bases. For students, the estimates indicate lower preferences for locations with higher shares of older people.  The importance of family networks for the choice of location is confirmed. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Umeå: Umeå University, 2014. p. 25
    Series
    Umeå economic studies, ISSN 0348-1018 ; 878
    Keywords
    Agglomeration, human capital, local public sector, location choice
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66556 (URN)
    Funder
    Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council Formas
    Available from: 2018-04-12 Created: 2018-04-12 Last updated: 2018-09-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Regional Clustering of Human Capital: School Grades and Migration of University Graduates
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regional Clustering of Human Capital: School Grades and Migration of University Graduates
    2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatial distribution of human capital plays a fundamental role for regional differences in economic growth and welfare. This paper examines how individual ability indicated by the grade point average (GPA), from comprehensive school, affects the probability of migration among young university graduates in Sweden. Using detailed micro data available from the Swedish population registers, the study examines two cohorts of individuals who enrol in tertiary education. The results indicate that individual abilities reflected by the GPA are strongly influential when it comes to completing a university degree and for the migration decision after graduation. Moreover, there is a positive relationship between the GPA and the choice of migrating from regions with a relatively low tax base and a relatively small share of highly educated people in the population. Analogously, individuals with a high GPA tend to stay at a higher rate in more flourishing regions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Umeå: Umeå University, 2014. p. 25
    Series
    Umeå economic studies, ISSN 0348-1018 ; 879
    Keywords
    Bivariate probit, individual ability, migration, regional clustering, university graduates
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66554 (URN)
    Note

    This study is part of a project “Higher Education and Regional Economies” supported by the Academy of Finland.

    Available from: 2018-04-12 Created: 2018-04-12 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
    3. Internal Migration of Young Adults: Heterogeneity in Effects on Labour Income by School Grades
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internal Migration of Young Adults: Heterogeneity in Effects on Labour Income by School Grades
    2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper estimates the relationship between migration across labour-market regions and the subsequent changes in earnings in Sweden by using the individual’s grade point average (GPA) from the final year of comprehensive school as a proxy for ability. This measure aims to capture heterogeneity in the effects of mobility on earnings for individuals conditional on educational attainment and other observed traits. Register data from Sweden, including two whole cohorts of individuals, is used. A difference-in-difference propensity score matching estimator is applied to estimate the relationship between income and migration up to seven years after migrating. The results show variation between different ability groups with respect to the return to regional migration. There are indications of larger gains for individuals holding top grades, while the bottom half seems to benefit less, or have slightly negative returns. The difference in return to migration across GPA quartiles is larger for women than for men.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Umeå: Umeå University, 2014. p. 28
    Series
    Umeå Economic Studies, ISSN 0348-1018 ; 880
    Keywords
    Human capital, income, internal migration, propensity score matching
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66551 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-04-12 Created: 2018-04-12 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
    4. Back to the Future: Migration, Matching and the Power Couple Phenomenon in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Back to the Future: Migration, Matching and the Power Couple Phenomenon in Sweden
    2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to a recent and growing literature addressing the phenomenon of high-credentialed power couples. It seeks to determine the extent to which precursors of power couple formation and location choice of couples at midlife are evident in young people during their formative school years. Its second objective is to extend the analysis of location choice by modeling location choice among different sizes of labor market areas, given different power status of the couples.

    Based on analysis of Swedish register data, we produce evidence that power spouses evolve from the population of high achieving school age individuals, the latter identified by high academic performance during the years of compulsory schooling. Other factors such as parental education and family income also play a role. In addition, there appear to be regional disparities in the evolution of power couples. The evidence also points to the presence self-selection arising from unmeasured heterogeneity, both in spouse matching and to a lesser extent in location choice. Regarding location choice, the results indicate that power couples display a disproportionate tendency to migrate from their regions of origin to large cities.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2014. p. 27
    Series
    Umeå Economic Studies, ISSN 0348-1018 ; 881
    Keywords
    Early markers, education, location choice, marital matching
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66547 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-04-11 Created: 2018-04-11 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
  • 12.
    Tano, Sofia
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Regional clustering of human capital: school grades and migration of university graduates2014In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 561-581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatial distribution of human capital plays a fundamental role for regional differences in economic growth and welfare. This paper examines how individual ability indicated by the grade point average (GPA) from comprehensive school affects the probability of migration among young university graduates in Sweden. Using detailed microdata available from the Swedish population register, the study examines two cohorts of individuals who enrol in tertiary education. The results indicate that individual abilities reflected by the GPA are strongly influential when it comes to completing a university degree and for the migration decision after graduation. Moreover, there is a positive relationship between the GPA and the choice of migrating from regions with a relatively low tax base and a relatively small share of highly educated people in the population, while individuals with higher GPA tend to stay at a higher rate in more flourishing regions.

  • 13.
    Tano, Sofia
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Regional Clustering of Human Capital: School Grades and Migration of University Graduates2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatial distribution of human capital plays a fundamental role for regional differences in economic growth and welfare. This paper examines how individual ability indicated by the grade point average (GPA), from comprehensive school, affects the probability of migration among young university graduates in Sweden. Using detailed micro data available from the Swedish population registers, the study examines two cohorts of individuals who enrol in tertiary education. The results indicate that individual abilities reflected by the GPA are strongly influential when it comes to completing a university degree and for the migration decision after graduation. Moreover, there is a positive relationship between the GPA and the choice of migrating from regions with a relatively low tax base and a relatively small share of highly educated people in the population. Analogously, individuals with a high GPA tend to stay at a higher rate in more flourishing regions.

  • 14.
    Tano, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Labour income effects of the recent "mining boom" in northern Sweden2016In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 49, p. 31-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the early 21st century, the world market prices for minerals increased dramatically. As a consequence of this development, large investments were made in mining all around the world. Increased exploration activities, the opening of new mines and large investment schemes in already operating mines and related physical infrastructure also gave rise to a “mining boom” in the remote and sparsely populated areas of northern Sweden. New jobs were generated in the mining sector, but the question of whether the “mining boom” also has stimulated economic development in a broader sense in these areas has been more open. The present article investigated whether labour incomes have increased not only in sectors clearly connected to mining, but also in other parts of the local and regional economy. This was done by following the income changes of residents in the mining areas of northern Sweden over the time period 2004–2010 and by using a propensity score matching estimator method (PSM). The results show rapid income growth for employees in the mining industry and construction sectors, but also some growth in several other sectors, indicating spread effects to the rest of the local and regional economies. The impact, however, is much stronger in the largest mining towns than in communities where mining is of less significance.

  • 15.
    Tano, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå Univeristy, Umeå, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå Univeristy, Umeå, Sweden; Jyväskylä University, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Nakosteen, Robert
    University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA.
    Zimmer, Michael
    University of Evansville, Evansville IN, USA.
    Back to the Future: Migration, Matching and the Power Couple Phenomenon in Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to a recent and growing literature addressing the phenomenon of high-credentialed power couples. It seeks to determine the extent to which precursors of power couple formation and location choice of couples at midlife are evident in young people during their formative school years. Its second objective is to extend the analysis of location choice by modeling location choice among different sizes of labor market areas, given different power status of the couples.

    Based on analysis of Swedish register data, we produce evidence that power spouses evolve from the population of high achieving school age individuals, the latter identified by high academic performance during the years of compulsory schooling. Other factors such as parental education and family income also play a role. In addition, there appear to be regional disparities in the evolution of power couples. The evidence also points to the presence self-selection arising from unmeasured heterogeneity, both in spouse matching and to a lesser extent in location choice. Regarding location choice, the results indicate that power couples display a disproportionate tendency to migrate from their regions of origin to large cities.

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