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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Red Cross University College, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Cyber nursing: health 'experts' approaches in the post-modern era of virtual performances : a nethnography study2013In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 335-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The imperative to gather information online and to become an ‘expert’ by locating effective advice for oneself and others is a fairly new support phenomenon in relation to health advice. The creation of new positions for health ‘experts’ within the space of the Internet has been addressed as a cybernursing activity. A focused analysis of communication in health forums might give insight into the new roles that are available for healthexperts in cyberspace.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to describe approaches to being an ‘expert’ in lifestyle health choice forums on the Internet and to elaborate on the communicative performances that take place in the forums.

    Method: An archival and cross-sectional observational forum study was undertaken using principles for conducting ethnographic research online. 2640 pages of data from two health Internet forums were gathered and analyzed.

    Findings: The results reveal three distinctive types of experts that emerge in the forums: (1) those that build their expertise by creating a presence in the forum based on lengthy and frequent postings, (2) those who build a presence through reciprocal exchanges with individual posters with questions or concerns, and (3) those who build expertise around a “life long learning” perspective based on logic and reason.

    Discussion: The results suggest that experts not only co-exist in the forums, but more importantly they reinforce each others’ positions. This effect is central; alongside one another, the posts of the three types of experts we identify constitute a whole for those seeking the forum for advice and support. Users are provided with strong opinions and advice, support and Socratic reasoning, and a problem-oriented approach. The Internet is now an integral part of everyday living, not least of which among those who seek and offer support in cyberspace. As such, cyber nursing has become an important activity to monitor, and formal health care professionals and nursing researchers must stay abreast of developments.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, Sweden.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Supporting a caring fatherhood in cyberspace: an analysis of communication about caring within an online forum for fathers2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 63-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  Today’s parents seek out social support on the Internet. A key motivation behind the choice to go online is the need for more experience based information. In recent years, new fathers have increasingly taken on an active parental role. Men’s support for their caring activities for infants on the Internet needs attention.

    Aim:  The aim was to describe communication about caring activities for infants among men who visited an Internet-based forum for fathers and elaborate on the dimensions of support available in the forum.

    Method:  An archival and cross-sectional observational forum study was undertaken using principles for conducting ethnographic research online: “nethnography”. A total of 1203 pages of data from an Internet forum for fathers were gathered and analysed.

    Result:  Support for a caring fatherhood in cyberspace can be understood as fathers’ communicating encouragement, confirmation and advice. The findings show that important ways of providing support through the forum included a reciprocal sharing of concerns – how to be a better father – in relation to caring for an infant. Concerns for their child’s well-being and shared feelings of joy and distress in everyday life were recurrent supportive themes in the communication. Information gained from contacting others in similar situations is one important reason for the fathers’ use of the Internet.

    Discussion:  Support offered in this kind of forum can be considered as a complement to formal support. Professionals can use it to provide choices for fathers who are developing themselves as caregivers without downplaying the parental support offered by formal health care regimes.

    Further research:  Online support will probably be one of the main supporting strategies for fathers in Scandinavia. Caring and nursing researchers need to closely monitor support activities that develop, and over time, as these ill likely become an important source of support for people.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Avdelningen för vård & omvårdnad, Röda Korset Högskola, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Pringle, Keith
    Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Virtual Invisible Men: Shared experiences of early parenthood in an Internet forum for fathers2014In: Culture, Society and Masculinities, ISSN 1941-5583, E-ISSN 1941-5591, Vol. 6, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Salzmann-Erikson, M.
    et al.
    Lützén, Kim
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Eriksson, H.
    The core characteristics and nursing care activities in psychiatric intensive care units in Sweden2008In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 98-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationally, research on psychiatric intensive care units (PICUs) commonly reports results from demographic studies such as criteria for admission, need for involuntary treatment, and the occurrence of violent behaviour. A few international studies describe the caring aspect of the PICUs based specifically on caregivers' experiences. The concept of PICU in Sweden is not clearly defined. The aim of this study is to describe the core characteristics of a PICU in Sweden and to describe the care activities provided for patients admitted to the PICUs. Critical incident technique was used as the research method. Eighteen caregivers at a PICU participated in the study by completing a semistructured questionnaire. In-depth interviews with three nurses and two assistant nurses also constitute the data. An analysis of the content identified four categories that characterize the core of PICU: the dramatic admission, protests and refusal of treatment, escalating behaviours, and temporarily coercive measure. Care activities for PICUs were also analysed and identified as controlling - establishing boundaries, protecting - warding off, supporting - giving intensive assistance, and structuring the environment. Finally, the discussion put focus on determining the intensive aspect of psychiatric care which has not been done in a Swedish perspective before. PICUs were interpreted as a level of care as it is composed by limited structures and closeness in care. © 2008 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  • 5.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    An integrative review of what contributes to personal recovery in psychiatric disabilities2013In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 185-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this integrated literature review is to identify what people with psychiatric disabilities experience as contributing to their personal recovery. The study design is based on Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review and includes 14 qualitative peer-reviewed articles. The analysis reveals three main themes: recovery as an inner process; recovery as a contribution from others; and recovery as participating in social and meaningful activities. If mental health nurses adhere to the personal recovery perspective, nursing practice will focus on the patients' needs, conveying hope and supporting the patient in the recovery process.

  • 6.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Caring in intensive psychiatry: rhythm and movements in a culture of stability2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to describe and explore the concept of caring in intensive psychiatry. An initial inventory was made of nursing care activities in a PICU, based on an analysis of critical incidents. This inventory resulted in four categories: supporting, protecting and use of the structured environment (Study I). Caring in intensive psychiatry was also studied through ethnographic fieldwork that that led to the conceptualization of the PICU staff as projecting a culture of stability. Within this culture, the overall goal was to prevent, maintain and restore stability as turbulence occurred. Cultural knowing, as expressed through nursing care, was further described in terms of providing surveillance, soothing, being present, trading information, maintaining security, and what has been termed reducing (Study II). A focused approach was applied to study the staff’s different approaches to observing patients in relation to the practice of surveillance in psychiatric nursing care. PICU staff moved flexibly between a latent and a manifest approach to surveillance (Study III). Having conceptualized the culture as one of stability, a concept analysis was conducted upon the concept of stability. The analysis revealed that stability is by no means a static condition; it fluctuates and can be distorted. Intervening with nursing care when turbulence occurs, can involve both the use of active and passive stability systems (Study IV). Further, I argue that caring in intensive psychiatry can be accurately described as the projection of rhythm and movements. Nursing care in terms of movements creates fluctuations in stability as it entails a rhythm of caring in intensive psychiatry. In conclusion, physical boundaries and incorporated control along with tactful sensibility involve rhythm and movements within limited structures and closeness in care. This thesis contributes to articulating advanced nursing practice within intensive psychiatry 

    List of papers
    1. The core characteristics and nursing care activities in psychiatric intensive care units in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The core characteristics and nursing care activities in psychiatric intensive care units in Sweden
    2008 (English)In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 98-107Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Internationally, research on psychiatric intensive care units (PICUs) commonly reports results from demographic studies such as criteria for admission, need for involuntary treatment, and the occurrence of violent behaviour. A few international studies describe the caring aspect of the PICUs based specifically on caregivers' experiences. The concept of PICU in Sweden is not clearly defined. The aim of this study is to describe the core characteristics of a PICU in Sweden and to describe the care activities provided for patients admitted to the PICUs. Critical incident technique was used as the research method. Eighteen caregivers at a PICU participated in the study by completing a semistructured questionnaire. In-depth interviews with three nurses and two assistant nurses also constitute the data. An analysis of the content identified four categories that characterize the core of PICU: the dramatic admission, protests and refusal of treatment, escalating behaviours, and temporarily coercive measure. Care activities for PICUs were also analysed and identified as controlling - establishing boundaries, protecting - warding off, supporting - giving intensive assistance, and structuring the environment. Finally, the discussion put focus on determining the intensive aspect of psychiatric care which has not been done in a Swedish perspective before. PICUs were interpreted as a level of care as it is composed by limited structures and closeness in care. © 2008 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

    Keywords
    Coercion, Critical incident technique, Intensive care unit, Psychiatric nursing
    National Category
    Occupational Therapy
    Research subject
    Nursing Science w. Occupational Therapy Focus
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-14395 (URN)10.1111/j.1447-0349.2008.00517.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2011-01-31 Created: 2011-01-31 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
    2. Achieving equilibrium within a culture of stability: cultural knowing in nursing care on psychiatric intensive care units
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Achieving equilibrium within a culture of stability: cultural knowing in nursing care on psychiatric intensive care units
    2011 (English)In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 255-265Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents intensive psychiatric nurses' work and nursing care. The aim of the study was to describe expressions of cultural knowing in nursing care in psychiatric intensive care units (PICU). Spradley's ethnographic methodology was applied. Six themes emerged as frames for nursing care in psychiatric intensive care: providing surveillance, soothing, being present, trading information, maintaining security and reducing. These themes are used to strike a balance between turbulence and stability and to achieve equilibrium. As the nursing care intervenes when turbulence emerges, the PICU becomes a sanctuary that offers tranquility, peace and rest.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York, United States: , 2011
    National Category
    Health Sciences Nursing
    Research subject
    Nursing Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-20585 (URN)10.3109/01612840.2010.549603 (DOI)21355761 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-79952156012 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2011-12-18 Created: 2011-12-18 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
    3. Latent or manifest observers: two dichotomous approaches of surveillance in mental health nursing.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Latent or manifest observers: two dichotomous approaches of surveillance in mental health nursing.
    2011 (English)In: Nursing Research and Practice, ISSN 2090-1429, E-ISSN 2090-1437, Vol. 2011, p. 254041-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Surveillance is a central activity among mental health nursing, but it is also questioned for its therapeutic value and considered to be custodial. Aim. The aim of this study was to describe how mental health nurses use different approaches to observe patients in relation to the practice of surveillance in psychiatric nursing care. Methods. In this study, Spradley's twelve-step ethnographic method was used. Results. Mental health nurses use their cultural knowing to observe patients in psychiatric care in various ways. Two dichotomous approaches were identified: the latent and the manifest approach. Discussion. Different strategies and techniques for observing patients are structured along two dichotomies. The underlying relationships between these two different dichotomous positions transform the act of observing into surveillance. This is further developed in a theoretical model called the powerful scheme of observation and surveillance (PSOS).

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Nursing Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-20584 (URN)10.1155/2011/254041 (DOI)21994817 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2011-12-19 Created: 2011-12-18 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
    4. Stability in intensive psychiatry: a concept analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stability in intensive psychiatry: a concept analysis
    2014 (English)In: Perspectives in psychiatric care, ISSN 0031-5990, E-ISSN 1744-6163, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 122-131Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this concept analysis is to describe, explore, and explain stabilityin the context of mental health nursing in intensive psychiatry.

    DESIGN AND METHODS: A modified version of Wilson’s method of conceptanalysis was used.

    FINDINGS: Stability is the ability to be resistant to changes. Stability can take differentdirections after a distortion: re-gaining, neo-gaining, and apo-gaining. Stabilitymay also be achieved through active (adding or using power, making adjustments,parrying, and idling) and passive systems (environmental conditions and constituentmaterials).

    PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: This article contributes by providing knowledge and insight for nurses on the roles they play in intensive psychiatry as stabilizers.

    Keywords
    Concept analysis, intensive psychiatry, mental health nurses, nursing research, psychiatric nurses
    National Category
    Nursing
    Research subject
    Caring sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-30077 (URN)10.1111/ppc.12030 (DOI)000333695600007 ()24689492 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84929518396 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2013-07-31 Created: 2013-07-31 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
  • 7.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Ullevål, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    IMPAD-22: A checklist for authors of qualitative nursing research manuscripts2013In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 33, no 11, p. 1295-1300Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this paper is to develop a checklist for authors preparing qualitative nursing research manuscripts, specifically focusing on the method section.

    Design: Literature review.

    Data Sources: 15 articles were purposefully selected from three different nursing journals.

    Review Methods: Evans' four step process was used to synthesize the method sections of the included articles. Results: Four main categories were identified 1) Ingress and Methodology, 2) Participants, 3) Approval, and 4) Data: Collection and Management. Based on the categories and sub-categories, a 22-item checklist was developed.

    Discussion and Conclusions: Earlier guidelines for formal reporting were developed for qualitative research in general. The main advantage and contribution of IMPAD is that it provides a 22-item checklist specifically aimed towards the method section, and furthermore, it was developed specifically for authors within the field of nursing research. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Sch Hlth & Soc, Dalarna Univ, Falun, Sweden; Dept Acute Psychiat, Div Mental Hlth & Addict, Oslo Univ Hosp, Oslo, Norway.
    Stability in intensive psychiatry: a concept analysis2014In: Perspectives in psychiatric care, ISSN 0031-5990, E-ISSN 1744-6163, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 122-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this concept analysis is to describe, explore, and explain stabilityin the context of mental health nursing in intensive psychiatry.

    DESIGN AND METHODS: A modified version of Wilson’s method of conceptanalysis was used.

    FINDINGS: Stability is the ability to be resistant to changes. Stability can take differentdirections after a distortion: re-gaining, neo-gaining, and apo-gaining. Stabilitymay also be achieved through active (adding or using power, making adjustments,parrying, and idling) and passive systems (environmental conditions and constituentmaterials).

    PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: This article contributes by providing knowledge and insight for nurses on the roles they play in intensive psychiatry as stabilizers.

  • 9.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korset Högskola, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fathers sharing about early parental support in healthcare: virtual discussions on an internet forum2013In: Health & Social Care in the Community, ISSN 0966-0410, E-ISSN 1365-2524, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 381-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Becoming a father is a life changing event and this transition is associated with various emotions. Educational activities aimed at new parents are important in healthcare parental support (HCPS). HCPS has been critiqued for its predominant focus on mothers, while the needs of fathers seem to have been downplayed. As a result, fathers often turn to Internet-based forums for support. As virtual discussions and mutual support among fathers take place in cyberspace, it is important to monitor these forums to observe the ways in which the fathers discuss HCPS. The aim of this study is to explore the ways in which new fathers visiting an Internet-based forum for fathers communicated their experiences of HCPS. A netnographic method consisting of six steps was used to gather and analyse the data. The findings show that fathers shared with one another their experiences of the attitudes expressed by HCPS workers as well as their own attitudes towards HCPS. The attitudes of HCPS workers that were directed towards the fathers were perceived as highly personal and individual, while fathers described their attitudes towards the HCPS in general terms, towards HCPS as a system. Overall, the fathers described HCPS as a valuable confirmatory support that eased their worries concerning sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), colic, weight gain, fever and teething. Although the fathers expressed gratitude towards HCPS, they also shared their negative experiences, such as feeling invisible, disregarded and insulted. In fact, the twofold attitudes that exist in the relationship between the fathers and HCPS can act as a barrier rather than being a confirmatory support. We recommend that HCPS adopts a broader approach using more targeted and strategic didactic methods for supporting fathers in the growth of their own personal awareness, as such an approach would offer a competitive and professional alternative to the support offered in informal experience-based Internet forums.

  • 10.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Mälardalens Högskola, Västerås, Sweden.
    Latent or manifest observers: two dichotomous approaches of surveillance in mental health nursing.2011In: Nursing Research and Practice, ISSN 2090-1429, E-ISSN 2090-1437, Vol. 2011, p. 254041-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Surveillance is a central activity among mental health nursing, but it is also questioned for its therapeutic value and considered to be custodial. Aim. The aim of this study was to describe how mental health nurses use different approaches to observe patients in relation to the practice of surveillance in psychiatric nursing care. Methods. In this study, Spradley's twelve-step ethnographic method was used. Results. Mental health nurses use their cultural knowing to observe patients in psychiatric care in various ways. Two dichotomous approaches were identified: the latent and the manifest approach. Discussion. Different strategies and techniques for observing patients are structured along two dichotomies. The underlying relationships between these two different dichotomous positions transform the act of observing into surveillance. This is further developed in a theoretical model called the powerful scheme of observation and surveillance (PSOS).

  • 11.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Department of Acute Psychiatry, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalens University, Västerås, Sweden.
    LiLEDDA: a six step forum-based netnographic research method for nursing science2012In: Aporia: The Nursing Journal, ISSN 1918-1345, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 7-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet research methods in nursing science are less developed than in other sciences. We choose to present an approach to conducting nursing research on an internet-based forum. This paper presents LiLEDDA, a sixstep forum-based netnographic research method for nursing science. The steps consist of:

    1. Literature review and identification of the research question(s)

    2. Locating the field(s) online

    3. Ethical considerations

    4. Data gathering

    5. Data analysis and interpretation and

    6. Abstractions and trustworthiness.

    Traditional research approaches are limiting when studying non-normative and non-mainstream life-worlds and their cultures. We argue that it is timely to develop more up-to-date research methods and study designs applicable to nursing science that reflect social developments and human living conditions that tend to be increasingly online based.

  • 12.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Department of Acute Psychiatry, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Norway; School of Health and Sciences, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalens University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Panoptic power and mental health nursing-space and surveillance in relation to staff, patients and neutral places2012In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 500-504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental health nurses use manifest and latent approaches for surveillance and observation of patients in the context of mental health care. Patient spaces in mental health organizations are subtly linked to these different means of surveillance. This article investigates these approaches, focusing in particular on the variety of spaces patients occupy and differences in the intensity of observation that can be carried out in them. The aim is to elaborate on space and surveillance in relation to the patients’ and nurses’ environment in psychiatric nursing care. Places where patients were observed were operationalized and categorized, yielding three spaces: those for patients, those for staff, and neutral areas. We demonstrate that different spaces produce different practices in relation to the exercise of panoptic power and that there is room for maneuvering and engaging in alternatives to “keeping an eye on patients” for nurses in mental health nursing. Some spaces offer asylum from panoptic observations and the viewing eyes of psychiatric nurses, but the majority of spaces in mental health nursing serve as a field of visibility within which the patient is constantly watched.

  • 13.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Torrenting values, feelings, and thoughts: cyber nursing and virtual self-care in a breast augmentation forum2011In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 7378-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier research shows that breast augmentation is positively correlated with positive psychological states. The aim of this study was to explore the shared values, feelings, and thoughts within the culture of breast enlargement among women visiting Internet-based forums when considering and/or undergoing esthetic plastic surgery. The study used a netnographic method for gathering and analyzing data. The findings show that the women used the Internet forum to provide emotional support to other women. Through electronic postings, they cared for and nursed each others' anxiety and feelings throughout the whole process. Apart from the process, another central issue was that the women's relationships were frequently discussed; specifically their relationship to themselves, their environment, and with the surgeons. The findings suggest that Internet forums represent a channel through which posters can share values, feelings, and thoughts from the position of an agent of action as well as from a position as the object of action. These dual positions and the medium endow the women with a virtual nursing competence that would otherwise be unavailable. By introducing the concept of torrenting as a means of sharing important self-care information, the authors provide a concept that can be further explored in relation to post modern self-care strategies within contemporary nursing theories and practice.

  • 14.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. School of Health and Sciences, Dalarna University , Falun, Sweden.
    Lützén, Kim
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Mälardalens University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Achieving equilibrium within a culture of stability: cultural knowing in nursing care on psychiatric intensive care units2011In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 255-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents intensive psychiatric nurses' work and nursing care. The aim of the study was to describe expressions of cultural knowing in nursing care in psychiatric intensive care units (PICU). Spradley's ethnographic methodology was applied. Six themes emerged as frames for nursing care in psychiatric intensive care: providing surveillance, soothing, being present, trading information, maintaining security and reducing. These themes are used to strike a balance between turbulence and stability and to achieve equilibrium. As the nursing care intervenes when turbulence emerges, the PICU becomes a sanctuary that offers tranquility, peace and rest.

  • 15.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    Dalarna Univ, Västerås, Sweden.
    Lützén, Kim
    Dalarna Univ, Falun, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Mälardalens University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Intensive psychiatric care2010In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 25, p. 635-635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The first psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU) opened in the early 1970's in New York. This ward was designed to manage patient that did not respond to treatment in open psychiatric wards. There are about 15 PICUs in Sweden but the concept has not been specified by any public organs. In many county hospitals, both acute and intensive care units exists parallel.

    Aims: Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the core characteristics of PICU in Sweden and to describe the care activities provided for patients admitted to PICU.

    Method: Critical incident technique was used. In the study, eighteen caregivers at a PICU participated by completing a semi-structured questionnaire. Additional, in-depth interviews with three nurses and two assistant nurses also constitute the data.

    Results: Four categories were identified that characterise the core of PICU: the dramatic admission, protests and refusal of treatment, escalating behaviours and temporarily coercive measure. Care activities for PICU were also analysed and identified as controlling - establishing boundaries, protecting - warding off, supporting - giving intensive assistance and structuring the environment.

    Conclusions: PICU were interpreted as a level of care as it is composed by limited structures and closeness in care.

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Output format
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  • asciidoc
  • rtf