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  • 1.
    Franjković, Karla
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Nemet, Ivan
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Juranović Cindrić, Iva
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Zeiner, Michaela
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Salopek Sondi, Branka
    Division of Molecular Biology, Laboratory for Chemical Biology, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Influence of salinity on biometal content in collard greens2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Collard greens are loose-leafed cultivars of Brassica oleracea a common vegetable. The aim of the present study consisted on the one hand in the determination of nutrients (major, minor and trace elements) as well as potentially toxic elements in this plant and on the other hand in evaluating the effects of certain stress (elevated salinity) on the uptake and accumulation of the before-determined elements. This stress factor has severe effects on crop productivity especially in countries in the Mediterranean area. Plants’ growth is determined by the photosynthetic activity, which is strongly influenced by salinity stress. The resultant effects are different for various species or cultivars, duration of the stress and applied salt concentration.

    Roots and leaves of normally grown plants and of plants exposed to higher levels of sodium chloride were analyzed in the investigation. More than twenty metals and metalloids were quantified using ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma – optical emission after acidic microwave assisted digestion of the respective plant sample. Apart from the general determination of the elemental contents and their distribution within the plant, special attention was drawn to the sodium/potassium ratio as well as to changes in the contents of other single charged metal ions.

  • 2.
    Juranović Cindrić, Iva
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Zeiner, Michaela
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Elemental characterisation of the Goji berries (Lycium barbarum)2018Ingår i: Book of abstract, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Goji berries or wolfberries (Lycium barbarum) are colloquially called superfoods. Due to their remarkable high concentration of antioxidants, dietary fiber, phytosterols, essential amino acids, monounsaturated fats, vitamins and especially valuable trace minerals these fruits are nutrient valuble and have a positive impact on human health. The interest in inorganic analysis of food products mainly stems from nutritional concerns covering up to 14 nutrient (or essential) elements and associated requirements for proper labelling stipulated by national regulatory bodies. In presented study goji fruits wildly grown as well as commercially available ones have been analysed. The element content of the dried goji berries have been determined using inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy and flame emission photometry after acidic microwave assisted digestion. Considering macronutrient elements important for humans, the goji berries analyzed contain Ca, K, Mg and Na in mg g-1 concentration, while the microelements (essential and non essential) B, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, V and Zn are present at µg g-1 level. Apart from the nutritional beneficial content of essential elements, the concentrations of metal contaminants (e.g. Cd, Pb) transfered through food processing and packaging, are valuble information on the general food safety. The obtained results show that the potentially toxic elements are present in berries samples below the maximum allowed values.

  • 3.
    Juranović Cindrić, Iva
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Zeiner, Michaela
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Division of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, BOKU—University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Hlebec, Dora
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Mineral Composition of Elements in Walnuts and Walnut Oils2018Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, nr 12, artikel-id 2674Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Walnuts (Juglans nigra) are considered to be a functional food. In the present study, twenty one macro-, micro-, and trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn) were selected to be determined in walnuts and walnut oils. The beneficial content of essential elements could be shown by the obtained results, the macro-elements Ca, K, Mg, and Na being present in nuts with 1062 mg/kg, 2771 mg/kg, 1426 mg/kg, and 42.3 mg/kg, respectively. Regarding micro- and trace elements, the following order (decreasing content) was found: Mn > Fe > Zn > B, Mo > Cu > Ni > Co > Al > Sr > Ba > Li > Pb > Se > Cr > As > Cd. Furthermore, the potentially toxic trace elements (As, Cd, Pb) determined were below the maximum allowed values in most of the investigated walnut samples. A comparison of oils and nuts revealed that the former contain lower concentrations of all elements analyzed except for Fe and Zn. This suggested the origin from contamination during oil processing. Fe influences the oil oxidation rate, thus its entry during production should be avoided.

  • 4.
    Juranović Cindrić, Iva
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Zeiner, Michaela
    Department of Chemistry, BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Starčević, Ana
    Department of Botany, Division of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Liber, Zlatko
    Department of Botany, Division of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Rusak, Gordana
    Department of Botany, Division of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Idžojtić, Marilena
    Department of Forest Genetics, Dendrology and Botany, Faculty of Forestry, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Stingeder, Gerhard
    Department of Chemistry, BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Influence of F1 hybridization on the metal uptake behaviour of pine trees (Pinus nigra x Pinus thunbergiana; Pinus thunbergiana x Pinus nigra)2018Ingår i: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0946-672X, E-ISSN 1878-3252, Vol. 48, s. 190-195Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pine needles have been considered to be useful bio-indicators for air pollution. This phenomenon can be used for environmental studies for monitoring purposes. Additionally, this fact offers the possibility to study uptake and accumulation behaviour not only in different species, but also in hybrids obtained from common pine trees to inheritage processes. Therefore, needles of Pinus nigra Arnold and Pinus thunbergiana Franco as well as of their F1 hybrids were investigated for essential and non-essential metals, such as Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn. The samples underwent acidic microwave-assisted digestion prior to analysis inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Furthermore flavonoids were quantitatively determined to prove hybrid character.

    Regarding all determined analytes, increase and decrease of uptake in the needles of the hybrids were evaluated in comparison to the needles of the parent pine species to see which parent is the dominant one. In the hybrids higher amounts of Al, Cd, Mo, Ni, Mg, Mn, and Zn were found. Different behaviour was registered for flavonoids than for metals, due to different metabolic pathways.

  • 5.
    Juranović Cindrić, Iva
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Zeiner, Michaela
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Chemistry, BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Starčević, Ana
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Stingeder, Gerhard
    Department of Chemistry, BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Metals in pine needles: characterisation of bio-indicators depending on species2019Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1735-1472, E-ISSN 1735-2630, Vol. 16, nr 8, s. 4339-4346Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Air pollution can be studied by appropriate bio-indicators, such as pine needles due to their waxy surface. Metal uptake and accumulation is determined by on growing area, but also on the respective species. Scope of the study was to analyse needles of Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zucc., Pinus nigra Arnold, Pinus sylvestris L., and Pinus thunbergiana Franco for metals and metalloids, namely Aluminum, Arsenic, Boron, Barium, Calcium, Cadmium, Cobalt, Copper, Chromium, Iron, Potassium, Lithium, Magnesium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Sodium, Nickel, Lead, Selenium, Strontium, and Zinc. Quantitation of the analytes was performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry after acidic microwave-assisted digestion.

    The obtained data were checked for statistically significant differences. The metal levels differ between the various species, but no general tendency was found for all metals. Since the environmental conditions were the same for all sampled trees, the differences in metal accumulation are supposed to be linked to species of pine tree.

    The diverse accumulation behaviour can be used for treating polluted soil.

  • 6.
    Zeiner, Michaela
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Division of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, BOKU—University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Juranović Cindrić, Iva
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Harmful Elements (Al, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) in Wild Berries and Fruits Collected in Croatia2018Ingår i: Toxics, E-ISSN 2305-6304, Vol. 6, nr 2, artikel-id 31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fruits and vegetables are considered a beneficial contribution to the human diet. Especially, berries contain a great deal of bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins, organic acids, tannins, phenols, and antioxidants. Apart from organic substances, inorganic nutrients are also present in fruits. Some metals and metalloids are essential for humans, whilst others may exhibit harmful effects. Wild grown berries, collected in so-called unpolluted areas, are considered to be free of any potentially toxic ingredients. However, due to transmission processes pollutants can also reach remote areas and, furthermore, metal uptake from the soil via roots has to be taken into account. Thus, the presented study focused on the determination of Al, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb in lingonberries, blueberries, and rose hips collected in a non-polluted area in Croatia. Neither Cd nor Cr could be found in any sample. Ni levels were mainly up to 25 mg/kg, in a comparable range to the literature data. No health threat is to be expected by eating these fruits and berries regarding Cd, Cr, and Ni. Rose hips, however, contain Pb beyond the stipulated limit in fruits, and also Al is present at a high level (8 mg/g).

  • 7.
    Zeiner, Michaela
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Juranović Cindrić, Iva
    University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Accumulation of major and trace elements in pine needles (Pinus nigra) in the Viennese Conurbation2019Ingår i: Book of Abstracts, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increasing heavy metal pollution in the environment as well as to the fact that pine needles are considered as good bio-monitors for air pollutants, their accumulation in pine needles in Vienna (Austria) was investigated. P. nigra J. F. Arnold, also called Austrian pine, is widespread in the city, thus allowing the study of different parameters influencing metal accumulation. The sampling sites were chosen based on traffic volume (low, medium, high). Fresh needles were collected alongside one-year-old needles once per week from May to August 2015, to test for changes in space and time.

    Washed and dried samples underwent acidic microwave assisted digestion prior to quantitative determination by spectrometric methods. The investigation was focused on 22 elements, namely Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, U, V, and Zn.

    Older needles mainly contained higher contents of elements, especially of Ag, B, Ba, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Li, Pb, Se, Sr, U, and V, whose values even differed statistically significantly.

    Correlating needle elemental contents with sampling site, i.e. traffic volume, only negligible influence by this parameter was found. These findings show that not only the local traffic situation determines the metal impact, but also soil elemental levels and translocation processes and/or not traffic related sources even in remote places have to be taken into account. Furthermore, no general trend of metal accumulation from spring to summer was registered.

  • 8.
    Zeiner, Michaela
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Juranović Cindrić, Iva
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Metal uptake by Betula pendula (silver birch) grown on contaminated sites2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Zeiner, Michaela
    et al.
    Division of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Juranović Cindrić, Iva
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Kandler, Wolfgang
    Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department of Agrobiotechnology, IFA-Tulln, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences in Vienna, Tulln, Austria.
    Stingeder, Gerhard
    Division of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Trace determination of skin-irritating metals in tea tree oil by GFAAS2018Ingår i: Microchemical journal (Print), ISSN 0026-265X, E-ISSN 1095-9149, Vol. 136, s. 101-105Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tea tree oil, originating from Australia, is nowadays used worldwide as all-round home remedy. It is applied diluted or undiluted for the treatment of skin and nail infections, against lice, scabies, athlete's foot, and ringworms. Furthermore it is used topically as a local antiseptic for cuts and abrasions, for burns and insect bites. Tea tree oil is considered safe when put on the skin, but it may cause also skin irritation and swelling. In rare cases skin dryness, itching, stinging, burning, and redness have been observed. Skin irritation is mainly associated with the organic compounds, but may also be caused by allergenic metals, such as nickel, cobalt or chromium. Thus, the presented study focuses on the determination of selected skin-irritating metals in tea tree oil samples available on the European market.

  • 10.
    Zeiner, Michaela
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Division of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, BOKU ⁻ University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Kuhar, Ana
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Juranović Cindrić, Iva
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Geographic Differences in Element Accumulation in Needles of Aleppo Pines (Pinus halepensis Mill.) Grown in Mediterranean Region2019Ingår i: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 24, nr 10, artikel-id E1877Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Miller is a pine species native to the Mediterranean region, which has been used for restoration activities in arid and semiarid areas leading to vast spatial expansion. Needles from pine trees collected in the southeastern to northwestern extension of Croatia's coastal area at twelve sampling sites were analysed for twenty-one metals and metalloids. Statistical evaluation of the obtained data revealed significant differences for Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se, and Sr between the different regions. Needles from trees growing on islands did not show elevated levels of Mg and/or Na as a result of the sea spray influence. The differences in metal accumulation are supposed to be linked to the environmental conditions at the respective sampling site, since the species was the same everywhere. By comparing the elemental contents of the soil those of with needles, it can be clearly seen, that the root as well as the foliar uptake contribute to the final amount.

  • 11.
    Zeiner, Michaela
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Division of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Pirkl, Raimund
    Division of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Juranovic Cindric, Iva
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Field-Tests versus Laboratory Methods for Determining Metal Pollutants in Soil Extracts2020Ingår i: Soil & sediment contamination, ISSN 1532-0383, E-ISSN 1549-7887, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 53-68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil is one of the vehicles by which metals enter plants and groundwater. Compared to organic pollutants, metals do not biodegrade and are usually not mobile. In order to estimate the potential impact on groundwater, the amount of extractable metals from soil are thus of concern. Soil matrices represent quite a complex matrix; thus, the appropriate choice of sample preparation and analytical method is of great importance and challenging to ensure reliable and fast data while keeping labor and time need as low as possible. Soil extracts using acetic acid were analyzed, on the one hand, using classical analytical methods such as titrimetry (complexometry) and spectrophotometry, and on the other hand, by instrumental methods, including inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). The classical methods are characterized by higher limits of detection (LODs), nevertheless their application as screening method on-site is promising. Applying specific reagents, precise measurements can be obtained by photometry with LODs about 0.1 mg/L. Titrimetric methods can be used for specific single element determination and for determining the sum of certain metals at contaminated sites due to LODs around 60 mg/L.

  • 12.
    Zeiner, Michaela
    et al.
    BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Pirkl, Raimund
    BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Juranović Cindrić, Iva
    University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Comparison of methods for determining metal pollutants in soil extracts to estimate potential impact on ground water2018Ingår i: XVI Hungarian-Italian symposium on spectrochemistry: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Viktor Gábor Mihucz, Magyar Kémikusok Egyesülete , 2018, s. 50-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil is one of the vehicles by which metals enter plants and ground water. Compared to organic pollutants, metals do not biodegrade and are usually not mobile. In order to estimate the potential impact on ground water, the amounts of extractable metals from soil are thus of concern.

    Soil matrices may represent a quite complex matrix, thus the appropriate choice of sample preparation and analytical method is of great importance and challenging to ensure reliable and fast data, and keeping labour and time need as low as possible.

    To quantitatively determine bioavailable metals, selected soil samples were dried and homogenised, then extracted using acetic acid (c = 0.1 mol/L). These extracts were then analysed on the one hand using classical analytical methods, such as titrimetry (complexometry) and spectrophotometry as well as the other hand by instrumental methods, including inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS), in order to investigate their applicability for the determination of certain soil pollutants, which may have a negative impact on the environment, animals and humans, when entering water bodies.

    Regarding the methods, ICP-OES and ICP-MS are multi-element methods offering advantages like low detection limits, good precision and repeatability, but suffer from drawbacks, like high costs due (ultra clean laboratory, supra pure chemicals, high argon consumption) and low tolerance to high matrix loading. This drawback is minimised using GF-AAS, which conversely is only a single-element method, but giving the possibility to overcome problems with concentrations below limits of detection (LOD) due to repetitive sample introduction. The classical methods are characterised by higher LODs, but applying specific reagents precise measurements with low interferences even in complex matrices can be obtained by photometry. Titrimetric methods can be used not only for specific single element determination, but also for determining the sum of certain metals.

  • 13.
    Zeiner, Michaela
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Mountain pine needles as a bio-monitor of potentially toxic elements in higher elevations2019Ingår i: Books of Abstracts, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pine needles are considered useful bio-monitors. Their waxy surface allows them to accumulate various air pollutants. Furthermore, long-term studies are possible, since the needles can reach an age of up to ten years. Mountain pines (Pinus mugo), locally called Latschen, grow amongst others in the Alps in a height of approx. 1000 m to 2200 m. Thus, they seem appropriate specimens to monitor air pollution by potentially toxic elements in higher elevations.

    Needle samples were collected on the northern slopes in the Lower Inn Valley (Tirol, Austria). Different sampling sites were selected between Münster and Innsbruck, the altitude ranging from 1200 m to 2000 m. From each sample tree fresh needles, one-year-old and two and more year old needles were taken. The elemental contents in all samples were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave assisted acid digestion.

    Compared to results for pines needles from lower altitudes, differences were mainly found in the contents of essential macro elements, but less regarding potentially toxic elements, such as Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb.

  • 14.
    Zeiner, Michaela
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Chemistry, BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Viehauser, Petra
    Department of Chemistry, BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Steiner-Friedmann, Christina
    Department of Chemistry, BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Teaching Laboratories at a Slower Pace: Introduction of Photocomics as Easy-to-Use Laboratory Instructions2019Ingår i: Journal of Chemical Education, ISSN 0021-9584, E-ISSN 1938-1328, Vol. 96, nr 11, s. 2518-2523Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays the majority of young people are exposed to a wide and constantly rising range of stimuli by different media. This sensory overload leads to higher stress levels and therefore decreases the ability to concentrate and focus. Laboratory work, however, requires high concentration in order to achieve reliable results under safe conditions. The tendency toward students showing up in the laboratory without proper preparation is rising, resulting in higher risks of errors when performing experiments. Thus, simple and self-explaining instructions are needed to ensure the requested learning outcome, especially when facing laboratories with high course enrollments. A photocomic combines the ease of presentation with clear pictures showing the relevant steps of experimental work.

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