To Örebro University

oru.seÖrebro University Publications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 23 of 23
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    The DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Suchan, Jakob
    The DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    The DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    The DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Embodied visuo-locomotive experience analysis: immersive reality based summarisation of experiments in environment-behaviour studies2016In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Perception (SAP 2016), USA: ACM Digital Library , 2016, p. 133-133Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence-based design (EBD) for architecture involves the study of post-occupancy behaviour of building users with the aim to provide an empirical basis for improving building performance [Hamilton and Watkins 2009]. Within EBD, the high-level, qualitative analysis of the embodied visuo-locomotive experience of representative groups of building users (e.g., children, senior citizens, individuals facing physical challenges) constitutes a foundational approach for understanding the impact of architectural design decisions, and functional building performance from the viewpoint of areas such as environmental psychology, wayfinding research, human visual perception studies, spatial cognition, and the built environment [Bhatt and Schultz 2016].

  • 2.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Suchan, Jakob
    DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Goyal, Saurabh
    DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Artificial Intelligence for Predictive and Evidence Based Architecture Design2016In: Proceedings of the Thirtieth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-16), AAAI press , 2016, Vol. 30, p. 4349-4350Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evidence-based analysis of people's navigation and wayfinding behaviour in large-scale built-up environments (e.g., hospitals, airports) encompasses the measurement and qualitative analysis of a range of aspects including people's visual perception in new and familiar surroundings, their decision-making procedures and intentions, the affordances of the environment itself, etc. In our research on large-scale evidence-based qualitative analysis of wayfinding behaviour, we construe visual perception and navigation in built-up environments as a dynamic narrative construction process of movement and exploration driven by situation-dependent goals, guided by visual aids such as signage and landmarks, and influenced by environmental (e.g., presence of other people, time of day, lighting) and personal (e.g., age, physical attributes) factors. We employ a range of sensors for measuring the embodied visuo-locomotive experience of building users: eye-tracking, egocentric gaze analysis, external camera based visual analysis to interpret fine-grained behaviour (e.g., stopping, looking around, interacting with other people), and also manual observations made by human experimenters. Observations are processed, analysed, and integrated in a holistic model of the visuo-locomotive narrative experience at the individual and group level. Our model also combines embodied visual perception analysis with analysis of the structure and layout of the environment (e.g., topology, routes, isovists) computed from available 3D models of the building. In this framework, abstract regions like the visibility space, regions of attention, eye movement clusters, are treated as first class visuo-spatial and iconic objects that can be used for interpreting the visual experience of subjects in a high-level qualitative manner. The final integrated analysis of the wayfinding experience is such that it can even be presented in a virtual reality environment thereby providing an immersive experience (e.g., using tools such as the Oculus Rift) of the qualitative analysis for single participants, as well as for a combined analysis of large group. This capability is especially important for experiments in post-occupancy analysis of building performance. Our construction of indoor wayfinding experience as a form of moving image analysis centralizes the role and influence of perceptual visuo-spatial characteristics and morphological features of the built environment into the discourse on wayfinding research. We will demonstrate the impact of this work with several case-studies, particularly focussing on a large-scale experiment conducted at the New Parkland Hospital in Dallas Texas, USA.

  • 3.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Behavioural Principles for the Design of Human-Centred Cognitive Technologies: The Case of Visuo-Locomotive Experience2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The successful application, usability, and social emancipation of AI technologies necessitates that the design and implementation of technical systems be founded on human-centred principles, be it cognitive or behavioural, social, ethical etc. Towards this objective, this thesis develops an interdisciplinary methodology for embedding cognitive behavioural principles in the design and development of next-generation human-centred AI technologies that aim to assist and empower humans in everyday life.

    The interdisciplinary methodology developed in this research categorically focusses on two key aspects pertaining to human-centred technology design and engineering: (1) human behavioural precedents; and (2) cognitively founded representational and computational modalities:

    • Human behavioural precedents are established by systematically analysing human visuo-locomotive experience during everyday activities involving (embodied) multimodal interactions. We conduct naturalistic behavioural experiments focusing on aspects of visual perception (e.g., inattention blindness) and spatial cognition (e.g., orientation, navigation) in diverse settings of everyday mobility. As specific -in-the-wild- experimental contexts, we focus on behavioural aspects involved in everyday (human) navigation and driving.
    • Representational and computational modalities are developed based on cognitively-driven articulation of behavioural precedents. Particularly, a cognitive model of visuospatial complexity for grounding embodied multimodal interactions is developed by incorporating behavioural precedents pertaining to representations of space, motion, and interaction. Furthermore, precedents concerning human preferences are used as a basis for semantically-driven computational synthesis (e.g. in the generation and manipulation of spatial morphologies), and in the articulation of human-centred evaluation and standardisation of AI systems.

    As case studies we demonstrate the developed methodology in the backdrop of two application domains: (a) design assistance technologies, and (b) autonomous driving. More broadly, this thesis emphasises the need for embedding ecologically valid behavioural knowledge within the development of "human-centred" technologies.  Furthermore, this research paves the way for the development of systems that understand, interpret and anticipate human behaviour under ecologically valid naturalistic circumstances.

    List of papers
    1. Grounding Embodied Multimodal Interaction: Towards Behaviourally Established Semantic Foundations for Human-Centered AI
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Grounding Embodied Multimodal Interaction: Towards Behaviourally Established Semantic Foundations for Human-Centered AI
    2022 (English)In: The 1st International Workshop on Knowledge Representation for Hybrid Intelligence (KR4HI 2022), 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We position recent and emerging research in cognitive vision and perception addressing three key questions: (1) What kind of relational abstraction mechanisms are needed to perform (explainable) grounded inference --e.g., question-answering, qualitative generalisation, hypothetical reasoning-- relevant to embodied multimodal interaction? (2) How can such abstraction mechanisms be founded on behaviourally established cognitive human-factors emanating from naturalistic empirical observation? and (3) How to articulate behaviourally established abstraction mechanisms as formal declarative models suited for grounded knowledge representation and reasoning (KR) as part of large-scale hybrid AI and computational cognitive systems.

    We contextualise (1--3) in the backdrop of recent results at the interface of AI/KR, and Spatial Cognition and Computation. Our main purpose is to emphasise the importance of behavioural research based foundations for next-generation, human-centred AI, e.g., as relevant to applications in Autonomous Vehicles, Social and Industrial Robots, and Visuo-Auditory Media.

    Keywords
    Multimodal Interaction, Commonsense Reasoning, Declarative Spatial Reasoning, Declarative AI, Explainable AI, Cognitive Human-Factors, Cognitive Systems
    National Category
    Computer Sciences Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems) Human Computer Interaction Psychology
    Research subject
    Computer Science; Psychology; Human-Computer Interaction
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-99641 (URN)
    Conference
    The 1st International Workshop on Knowledge Representation for Hybrid Intelligence (KR4HI 2022), part of International Conference on Hybrid Human-Artificial Intelligence (HHAI 2022), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, June 13-17, 2022
    Available from: 2022-06-18 Created: 2022-06-18 Last updated: 2023-09-27Bibliographically approved
    2. Towards a Human-Centred Cognitive Model of Visuospatial Complexity in Everyday Driving
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a Human-Centred Cognitive Model of Visuospatial Complexity in Everyday Driving
    2020 (English)In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings / [ed] Rudolph S., Marreiros G., CEUR-WS.org , 2020, Vol. 2655Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a human-centred, cognitive model of visuospatial complexity in everyday, naturalistic driving conditions. With a focus on visual perception, the model incorporates quantitative, structural, and dynamic attributes identifiable in the chosen context; the human-centred basis of the model lies in its behavioural evaluation with human subjects with respect to psychophysical measures pertaining to embodied visuoauditory attention. We report preliminary steps to apply the developed cognitive model of visuospatial complexity for human-factors guided dataset creation and benchmarking, and for its use as a semantic template for the (explainable) computational analysis of visuospatial complexity.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    CEUR-WS.org, 2020
    Series
    CEUR Workshop Proceedings, E-ISSN 1613-0073 ; 2655
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction Computer Sciences Applied Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-85904 (URN)2-s2.0-85090911230 (Scopus ID)
    Conference
    9th European Starting AI Researchers’ Symposium 2020 co-located with 24th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI 2020), Santiago Compostela, Spain, August 29 - September 8, 2020
    Available from: 2020-09-23 Created: 2020-09-23 Last updated: 2023-09-27Bibliographically approved
    3. Evidence-Based Parametric Design: Computationally Generated Spatial Morphologies Satisfying Behavioural-Based Design Constraints
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evidence-Based Parametric Design: Computationally Generated Spatial Morphologies Satisfying Behavioural-Based Design Constraints
    2017 (English)In: 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017), Springer International Publishing AG , 2017, Vol. 86, p. 11:1-11:14Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parametric design is an established method in engineering and architecture facilitating the rapid generation and evaluation of a large number of configurations and shapes of complex physical structures according to constraints specified by the designer. However, the emphasis of parametric design systems, particularly in the context of architectural design of large-scale spaces, is on numerical aspects (e.g., maximising areas, specifying dimensions of walls) and does not address human-centred design criteria, for example, as developed from behavioural evidence-based studies. This paper aims at providing an evidence-based human-centred approach for defining design constraints for parametric modelling systems. We determine design rules that address wayfinding issues through behavioural multi-modal data analysis of a wayfinding case study in two healthcare environments of the Parkland hospital (Dallas). Our rules are related to the environmental factors of visibility and positioning of manifest cues along the navigation route. We implement our rules in FreeCAD, an open-source parametric system.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer International Publishing AG, 2017
    Series
    Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs, E-ISSN 1868-8969 ; 86
    Keywords
    parametric modelling, behavioural studies, Evidence-Based Design, design computing, wayfinding, spatial cognition
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63587 (URN)10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.11 (DOI)2-s2.0-85026824906 (Scopus ID)9783959770439 (ISBN)
    Conference
    13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017), L'Aquila, Italy, September 4-8, 2017
    Available from: 2017-12-21 Created: 2017-12-21 Last updated: 2023-09-27Bibliographically approved
    4. Precedent Based Design Foundations for Parametric Design: The Case of Navigation and Wayfinding
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Precedent Based Design Foundations for Parametric Design: The Case of Navigation and Wayfinding
    2018 (English)In: Advances in Computational Design, ISSN 2383-8477, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 339-366Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Parametric design systems serve as powerful assistive tools in the design process by providing a flexible approach for the generation of a vast number of design alternatives. However, contemporary parametric design systems focus primarily on low-level engineering and structural forms, without an explicit means to also take into account high-level, cognitively motivated people-centred design goals.

    We present a precedent-based parametric design method that integrates people-centred design “precedents” rooted in empirical evidence directly within state of the art parametric design systems. As a use-case, we illustrate the general method in the context of an empirical study focusing on the multi-modal analysis of wayfinding behaviour in two large-scale healthcare environments. With this use-case, we demonstrate the manner in which: (1). a range of empirically established design precedents —e.g., pertaining to visibility and navigation— may be articulated as design constraints to be embedded directly within state of the art parametric design tools (e.g., Grasshopper); and (2). embedded design precedents lead to the (parametric) generation of a number of morphologies that satisfy people-centred design criteria (in this case, pertaining to wayfinding).

    Our research presents an exemplar for the integration of cognitively motivated design goals with parametric design-space exploration methods. We posit that this opens-up a range of technological challenges for the engineering and development of next-generation computer aided architecture design systems.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Techno-Press, 2018
    Keywords
    human behaviour studies, navigation, wayfinding, architecture design, spatial cognition, visual perception, parametric design, architectural computing, design computing
    National Category
    Computer and Information Sciences Human Aspects of ICT Architectural Engineering
    Research subject
    Computer Science; Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69940 (URN)10.12989/acd.2018.3.4.339 (DOI)000448366300002 ()2-s2.0-85058064689 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-10-29 Created: 2018-10-29 Last updated: 2023-10-19Bibliographically approved
    5. Visuo-Locomotive Complexity as a Component of Parametric Design for Architecture
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visuo-Locomotive Complexity as a Component of Parametric Design for Architecture
    2021 (English)In: Design for Tomorrow — Volume 2: Proceedings of ICoRD 2021 / [ed] Amaresh Chakrabarti; Ravi Poovaiah; Prasad Bokil; Vivek Kant, Springer, 2021, Vol. 2, p. 993-1004Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A people-centred approach for designing large-scale built-up spaces necessitates systematic anticipation of user’s embodied visuo-locomotive experience from the viewpoint of human-environment interaction factors pertaining to aspects such as navigation, wayfinding, usability. In this context, we develop a behaviour-based visuo-locomotive complexity model that functions as a key correlate of cognitive performance vis-a-vis internal navigation in built-up spaces. We also demonstrate the model’s implementation and application as a parametric tool for the identification and manipulation of the architectural morphology along a navigation path as per the parameters of the proposed visuospatial complexity model. We present examples based on an empirical study in two healthcare buildings and showcase the manner in which a dynamic and interactive parametric (complexity) model can promote behaviour-based decision-making throughout the design process to maintain desired levels of visuospatial complexity as part of a navigation or wayfinding experience. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2021
    Series
    Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies, ISSN 2190-3018, E-ISSN 2190-3026 ; 222
    Keywords
    Visual Perception, Environmental Psychology, Architecture Design, Parametric Design, Cognitive Computational Modelling, Spatial Cognition, AI and Design
    National Category
    Computer Sciences Human Computer Interaction Applied Psychology Architecture Design
    Research subject
    Computer Science; Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-92156 (URN)10.1007/978-981-16-0119-4_80 (DOI)9789811601194 (ISBN)9789811601187 (ISBN)
    Conference
    8th International Conference on Research into Design (ICoRD 2021, Online Conference), IDC School of Design, IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, January 7-10, 2021
    Available from: 2021-07-05 Created: 2021-07-05 Last updated: 2023-09-27Bibliographically approved
    6. Visuospatial Commonsense as a Practical Benchmark in Autonomous Driving: On the Role of Human-Centred Explainability in Evaluation and Standardisation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visuospatial Commonsense as a Practical Benchmark in Autonomous Driving: On the Role of Human-Centred Explainability in Evaluation and Standardisation
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-108582 (URN)
    Available from: 2023-09-27 Created: 2023-09-27 Last updated: 2023-09-27Bibliographically approved
    7. Rotational Locomotion in Large-Scale Environments: A Survey and Implications for Evidence-Based Design Practice
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rotational Locomotion in Large-Scale Environments: A Survey and Implications for Evidence-Based Design Practice
    2018 (English)In: Built Environment, ISSN 0263-7960, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 241-258Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Navigation performance in urban and large-scale built-up spaces (e.g. airports, train-stations, hospitals) depends on gradual environmental perception during locomotion, and spatial knowledge acquisition, update/integration at different times along a path. Rotational locomotion is regularly involved in everyday navigation; this, combined with the fact that people cannot perceive the whole of a large-scale setting at once often leads to incidents of cognitive loading and disorientation. Our research explores the mechanisms involved in rotational locomotion for human navigators, and the role of familiarity as well as the cost of cognitive load on orientation accuracy and spatial memory. We examine the impact of structural and featural cues on spatial knowledge updating in relation to egorotations from the viewpoint of behaviour-based design practice and evidencebased design interventions. The results are based on a case study in a train station, experimenting on rotational problems in navigation. Here we present preliminary results emphasizing the role of environmental cues in rotational location, outline possibilities for further study, and discuss implications for evidence-based design practice and cognitive design assistance technology development.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Alexandrine Press, 2018
    National Category
    Architectural Engineering Computer Sciences Building Technologies Psychology
    Research subject
    Computer Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69937 (URN)10.2148/benv.44.2.241 (DOI)2-s2.0-85057429371 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-10-29 Created: 2018-10-29 Last updated: 2023-12-08Bibliographically approved
    8. Visuo-Locomotive Update in the Wild: The Role of (Un)Familiarity in Choice of Navigation Strategy, and its Application in Computational Spatial Design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visuo-Locomotive Update in the Wild: The Role of (Un)Familiarity in Choice of Navigation Strategy, and its Application in Computational Spatial Design
    2021 (English)In: Proceedings of the ... Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, ISSN 1069-7977, Vol. 43, p. 2017-2023Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We study active human visuo-locomotive experience in everyday navigation from the viewpoints of environmental familiarity, embodied reorientation, and (sensorimotor) spatial update. Following a naturalistic, in situ, embodied multimodal behaviour analysis method, we conclude that familiar users rely on environmental cues as a navigation-aid and exhibit proactive decision-making, whereas unfamiliar users rely on manifest cues, are late in decision-making, and show no sign of sensorimotor spatial update. Qualitative analysis reveals that both groups are able to sketch-map their route and consider path integration: i.e., conscious spatial representation updating was possible but not preferred during active navigation. Overall, the experimental task did not trigger automatic or reflexlike spatial updating, as subjects preferred strategies involving memory of perceptual cues and available manifest cues instead of relying on motor simulation and continuous spatial update. Rooted in the behavioural outcomes, we also position applications in computational modelling of navigation within cognitive technologies for architectural design synthesis.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    University of California, 2021
    Keywords
    visual attention, spatial update, familiarity, memory, naturalistic perception, visuospatial cognition, embodied cognition, rotation, navigation, built environment
    National Category
    Applied Psychology Architectural Engineering Human Computer Interaction Computer Sciences
    Research subject
    Computer Science; Human-Computer Interaction; Building Technology; Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-93152 (URN)
    Available from: 2021-07-27 Created: 2021-07-27 Last updated: 2023-10-19Bibliographically approved
    9. Multimodality on the Road: Towards Evidence-Based Cognitive Modelling of Everyday Roadside Human Interactions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multimodality on the Road: Towards Evidence-Based Cognitive Modelling of Everyday Roadside Human Interactions
    2020 (English)In: Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering / [ed] Lars Hanson, Dan Högberg, Erik Brolin, IOS Press , 2020, Vol. 11, p. 131-142Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose an evidence based methodology for the systematic analysis and cognitive characterisation of multimodal interactions in naturalistic roadside situations such as driving, crossing a street etc. Founded on basic human modalities of embodied interaction, the proposed methodology utilises three key characteristics crucial to roadside situations, namely: explicit and implicit mode of interaction, formal and informal means of signalling, and levels of context-specific (visual) attention. Driven by the fine-grained interpretation and modelling of human behaviour in naturalistic settings, we present an application of the proposed model with examples from a work-in-progress dataset consisting of baseline multimodal interaction scenarios and variations built therefrom with a particular emphasis on joint attention and diversity of modalities employed. Our research aims to open up an interdisciplinary frontier for the human-centred design and evaluation of artificial cognitive technologies (e.g., autonomous vehicles, robotics) where embodied (multimodal) human interaction and normative compliance are of central significance.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IOS Press, 2020
    Series
    Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-751X ; 11
    Keywords
    multimodal interaction, interpersonal communication, naturalistic perception, joint attention, virtual reality, autonomous driving
    National Category
    Interaction Technologies Computer Sciences Human Computer Interaction Applied Psychology
    Research subject
    Human-Computer Interaction; Computer Science; Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-85902 (URN)10.3233/ATDE200018 (DOI)000680825700015 ()2-s2.0-85091197233 (Scopus ID)978-1-64368-104-7 (ISBN)978-1-64368-105-4 (ISBN)
    Conference
    6th International Digital Human Modeling Symposium (DHM 2020 Online), Skövde, Sweden, August 31 - September 2, 2020
    Available from: 2020-09-23 Created: 2020-09-23 Last updated: 2023-09-27Bibliographically approved
    10. How do drivers mitigate the effects of naturalistic visual complexity? On attentional strategies and their implications under a change blindness protocol
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How do drivers mitigate the effects of naturalistic visual complexity? On attentional strategies and their implications under a change blindness protocol
    2023 (English)In: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, E-ISSN 2365-7464, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    How do the limits of high-level visual processing affect human performance in naturalistic, dynamic settings of (multimodal) interaction where observers can draw on experience to strategically adapt attention to familiar forms of complexity? In this backdrop, we investigate change detection in a driving context to study attentional allocation aimed at overcoming environmental complexity and temporal load. Results indicate that visuospatial complexity substantially increases change blindness but also that participants effectively respond to this load by increasing their focus on safety-relevant events, by adjusting their driving, and by avoiding non-productive forms of attentional elaboration, thereby also controlling “looked-but-failed-to-see” errors. Furthermore, analyses of gaze patterns reveal that drivers occasionally, but effectively, limit attentional monitoring and lingering for irrelevant changes. Overall, the experimental outcomes reveal how drivers exhibit effective attentional compensation in highly complex situations. Our findings uncover implications for driving education and development of driving skill-testing methods, as well as for human-factors guided development of AI-based driving assistance systems.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2023
    Keywords
    Visual perception, Change blindness, Visuospatial complexity, Attentional strategies, Naturalistic observation, Everyday driving
    National Category
    Psychology Computer Sciences Transport Systems and Logistics
    Research subject
    Psychology; Computer Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-107517 (URN)10.1186/s41235-023-00501-1 (DOI)001044388200001 ()37556047 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85167370133 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    Counterfactual Commonsense
    Funder
    Örebro UniversitySwedish Research CouncilEU, Horizon 2020, 754285
    Available from: 2023-08-10 Created: 2023-08-10 Last updated: 2023-09-27Bibliographically approved
    Download full text (pdf)
    Behavioural Principles for the Design of Human-Centred Cognitive Technologies: The Case of Visuo-Locomotive Experience
    Download (png)
    Bild
    Download (pdf)
    Cover
    Download (pdf)
    Spikblad
  • 4.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analysing Driver (In)Attentiveness: Towards a Cognitive Complexity Model Combining Visuospatial and Interactional Parameters2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the role of visuospatial environmental cues on driver (in)attention in everyday naturalistic driving situations. We develop a cognitive model of visuospatial complexity incorporating two critical aspects influencing visual (in)attention: (1) multimodal interaction mechanisms such as gesture, joint attention amongst roadside stakeholders (e.g. pedestrians, cyclists, drivers); and (2) visuospatial environmental features such as clutter, motion, environmental structure. 

    Our research emphasises the manner in which a cognitive human-factors guided model to analyse attentiveness can be applied to systematically explore the effects of a combination of environmental and interactional characteristics on visual attention in naturalistic driving. We position the application of the developed cognitive model to serve a foundational purpose in the training and testing of novel driver assistance technologies, e.g., from the viewpoint of systematic compliance with human-centered design guidelines.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Analysing Driver (In)Attentiveness: Towards a Cognitive Complexity Model Combining Visuospatial and Interactional Parameters
  • 5.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Cognitive Modelling of Visuospatial Complexity in the Streetscape2021In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Spatial Cognition: Cognition and Action in a Plurality of Spaces (ICSC 2021) / [ed] Thomas Hünefeldt; Marta Olivetti Belardinelli, Springer , 2021, Vol. 22, no Suppl. 1, p. 44-44, article id Suppl. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Incorporating knowledge about human behaviour and the effect of the environment is a major goal for the design and engineering of human-centred autonomous vehicles. Systems that aim to establish a common interaction ground with humans require systematic modelling of empirically established behavioural norms customised to specific contexts.

    Aims: Focusing on aspects pertaining to visual attention in driving, we develop a cognitive model of visuospatial complexity for naturalistic driving scenes and explore its effect on visual attention tasks (e.g., involving visual search) during everyday driving.

    Methods: By analyzing dynamic naturalistic scenes, we define a scale of visuospatial complexity based on a taxonomy of quantitative, structural, and dynamic attributes. We re-create real-world instances in virtual reality (VR) in four levels of visuospatial complexity. The human-centred basis of the model lies in its behavioural evaluation with human subjects with respect to psychophysical measures (e.g. eye-tracking) pertaining to embodied visuospatial attention.

    Results: Empirical results show the levels of visuospatial complexity of the scene correlate with visual search performance parameters, however different categories of attributes contribute differently to the overall effect. We report work-in-progress on the development of a (sample) dataset with the central emphasis on the evaluation of the visuospatial complexity levels on driving stimuli within VR.

    Conclusion: The presented cognitive model of visuospatial complexity in everyday driving situations can be used as a basis to design, and evaluate visuospatial sensemaking capabilities of autonomous vehicles. We posit that our methodology encapsulates key cognitive principles founded on empirically established behavioural patterns under naturalistic conditions.

  • 6.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    et al.
    DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. DesignSpace Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Decision points in architectural space: How they affect users' visuo-locomotive experience during wayfinding2018In: Cognitive Processing, ISSN 1612-4782, E-ISSN 1612-4790, Vol. 19, no Suppl. 1, p. S43-S43Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision points in a wayfinding path are considered not only the intersections but also changes in geometry and in directions, merging of paths, or transitions. Carpman and Simmon (1986) pinpoint the need for environmental cues in these points where users’ confusion arises. In this study, we investigate the morphology and the manifest cues of the decision points in relation to the visuo-locomotive behaviour of users recorded during a wayfinding case-study conducted in two healthcare buildings at the Parkland Hospital (Dallas).

    We collect and analyse the embodied visuo-locomotive experience of 25 participants, using eye-tracking, external cameras, behavioural mapping, questionnaires, interviews, and orientations tasks. In our multi-modal qualitative analysis, founded in Spatial Reasoning, Cognitive Vision, and Environmental Psychology, we focus on the aspects of visual perception, decision making, orientation, and spatial knowledge acquisition. The comparison between users’ transition in eight decision points involves correlations between occurrences of confusion-related events, detection and categorisation of manifest cues, navigation performance, as well as visual attention analysis in relation to the available spatial features.

    Primary results suggest that (1) stop and looking-around behaviour mostly emerge in the decision points; (2) behaviour that indicates confusion is mostly encoded in narrow and enclosed decision points; (3) transitional spaces intensify visual search; (4) visibility ahead of time, and visual disruptions affect the visuo-locomotive behaviour; and (5) detection of manifest cues is affected by the morphology of decision points. The correlations between behavioural and morphological data encoded to conceptual language can be useful as a baseline for computationally-driven behavioural analysis.

  • 7.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Evaluating Artificial Vision in AI Systems: The Case of Autonomous Driving2021In: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 50, no 1 Suppl., p. 221-222Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a cognitive evaluation schema for analysing the diversity and nuances of visuospatial complexity and multimodal interactions encountered in naturalistic everyday driving conditions. The proposed schema is based on a finegrained empirical analysis of real-world everyday driving situations involving stakeholders such as drivers, pedestrians, cyclists. Our method involves a semantic analysis of egocentric POVs of stakeholders, focusing on the sequence and duration of events (e.g. velocity or direction change), the combination of modalities used (e.g., gestures, gaze, head-movements), audio, quantity and variety of moving and static objects in the scene e.g., (cars, signs), behavioural metrics from the stakeholders (e.g. gaze allocation, steering), etc. The proposed cognitive evaluation schema consists of three key aspects: (1) Scene characteristics consisting of a combination of quantitative (e.g., clutter, size), structural (e.g. symmetry), and dynamic attributes (e.g. motion), (2) Multimodal interactions consisting of the mode and method of interaction, as well as the level of joint attention achieved, (3) Recipient effects characterising subject’s behaviour and driving performance through physiological measurements (e.g. eye-tracking, head rotation) in a series of virtual reality (VR) environments replicating a number of naturalistic scenarios (and variations therefrom). Driven by behavioural methods in visual perception, we aim to open-up an interdisciplinary frontier for the human-centred design, evaluation / testing of artificial vision modules within AI-technologies for autonomous driving, cognitive robotics etc., where embodied, multimodal human-machine interaction is of the essence. We also demonstrate the practical application of basic visual perception research towards technology-centric settings of social significance.

  • 8.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Multimodality on the Road: Towards Evidence-Based Cognitive Modelling of Everyday Roadside Human Interactions2020In: Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering / [ed] Lars Hanson, Dan Högberg, Erik Brolin, IOS Press , 2020, Vol. 11, p. 131-142Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose an evidence based methodology for the systematic analysis and cognitive characterisation of multimodal interactions in naturalistic roadside situations such as driving, crossing a street etc. Founded on basic human modalities of embodied interaction, the proposed methodology utilises three key characteristics crucial to roadside situations, namely: explicit and implicit mode of interaction, formal and informal means of signalling, and levels of context-specific (visual) attention. Driven by the fine-grained interpretation and modelling of human behaviour in naturalistic settings, we present an application of the proposed model with examples from a work-in-progress dataset consisting of baseline multimodal interaction scenarios and variations built therefrom with a particular emphasis on joint attention and diversity of modalities employed. Our research aims to open up an interdisciplinary frontier for the human-centred design and evaluation of artificial cognitive technologies (e.g., autonomous vehicles, robotics) where embodied (multimodal) human interaction and normative compliance are of central significance.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Multimodality on the Road: Towards Evidence-Based Cognitive Modelling of Everyday Roadside Human Interactions
  • 9. Kondyli, Vasiliki
    et al.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotational Locomotion in Large-Scale Environments: A Survey and Implications for Evidence-Based Design Practice2018In: Built Environment, ISSN 0263-7960, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 241-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Navigation performance in urban and large-scale built-up spaces (e.g. airports, train-stations, hospitals) depends on gradual environmental perception during locomotion, and spatial knowledge acquisition, update/integration at different times along a path. Rotational locomotion is regularly involved in everyday navigation; this, combined with the fact that people cannot perceive the whole of a large-scale setting at once often leads to incidents of cognitive loading and disorientation. Our research explores the mechanisms involved in rotational locomotion for human navigators, and the role of familiarity as well as the cost of cognitive load on orientation accuracy and spatial memory. We examine the impact of structural and featural cues on spatial knowledge updating in relation to egorotations from the viewpoint of behaviour-based design practice and evidencebased design interventions. The results are based on a case study in a train station, experimenting on rotational problems in navigation. Here we present preliminary results emphasizing the role of environmental cues in rotational location, outline possibilities for further study, and discuss implications for evidence-based design practice and cognitive design assistance technology development.

  • 10.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    et al.
    DesignSpace Group, Germany.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Spatial knowledge update in rotational locomotion: On the role of visuo-spatial cues and familiarity: A case-study at the Bremen train-station2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial knowledge updating is the ability to keep track of one’s position and orientation while moving with respect to the locations such as the starting point. In everyday navigation tasks that involve rotational locomotion, spatial updating frequently fails as a result of the alignment effect, referring to human’s inability to coordinate various spatial representations and reference frames, and human’s tendency to ignore proprioceptive, visual and auditory cues, as a result of changes in perspective, scale, or orientation.

    In our empirical study conducted in a large-scale built-up environment, the railway station in Bremen, we investigate if and how rotational locomotion affects the navigation performance in a naturalist every-day task of departure and arrival. The experimental group performs an ego-turn of 360◦ as part of the route while they are able to use all the proprioceptive, visual and auditory cues available to initiate a corresponding counter-rotation of the world. The control group performs the same task without rotational locomotion. Participants were categorised according to the level of familiarity with the environment. We use a multi-modal approach (e.g. orientation task, eye-tracking, questionnaires, videos) to investigate user’s spatial behaviour, focusing on the disorientation effect, and the visuo-spatial features they use for reorientation.

    Primary results confirm previous studies suggested that spatial updating is not automatic, it is affected by rotational locomotion and it depends on the level of familiarity of users with the environment. Familiar users tend to proceed an instantaneous spatial updating using different visuo-spatial features than unfamiliar users. Individual differences (gender, mental rotation abilities) are excluded in this study but they are considered significant as a next step. We conclude that people are affected differently by the rotational locomotion, they follow various strategies for reorientation, and so the environment should provide a range of visuo-spatial information to address the user groups.

  • 11.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Visuo-locomotive Update in Naturalistic Navigation: Multimodal analysis examining the role of familiarity and rotational locomotion2022In: 8th Annual Conference of Cognitive Science (ACCS8): Conference Proceedings, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham , 2022, p. 139-140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial (memory) update strategies depend on situational factors, such as availability of external information, familiarity with the environment, and cognitive demand. Of key interest to this research is the multimodal integration of environmental and individual characteristics in visuospatial update and reorientation in situations of extensive (embodied) rotational locomotion in naturalistic conditions. We investigate active visuo-locomotive experience and reorientation performance in everyday navigation in natural urban settings.

    We examine navigation and update strategy adaptation in relation to familiarity, the difficulty of the task (as articulated via a ``rotation metric´´), and available external visuospatial cues. In two behavioral studies in large-scale built environments, two healthcare facilities and a train station, 45 participants (aged 18-83) performed a navigation task under natural conditions. A multimodal analysis of visuolocomotive behavior was conducted including eye-tracking, video analyses, sketch-mapping task, orientation pointing task, and post-questionnaires.

    In the first study conducted in two healthcare facilities, namely the Old and New Parkland hospitals in Dallas (USA), 25 participants were asked to find their way in an unfamiliar environment. We focused on an average of 2 events of confusion or disorientation per participant throughout the route. The environmental analysis of the path reveals correlations between the disorientation events and the visuospatial characteristics of the path at key locations and decision points. Three key results were reported after the combination of the behavioral and the environmental analysis: (1) visual accessibility at key locations (e.g., intersection, entrance hall, atrium lobby) of the path towards manifest cues (e.g. signages, landmarks) and environmental cues (e.g. geometry, symmetry) is critical for better navigation performance and reduced numbers of confusion events, (2) narrow enclosed spaces have a negative impact on navigation experience, (3) extensive ego-rotations, defined as rotation metric of the path, influence orientation performance.

    In the second study, we further explore the impact of rotations in navigation performance, and the reorientation strategies used actively during the navigation task at a train station in Bremen (Germany); the task is a part of a typical everyday commuting scenario. More than 60% of the participants experience a confusing event, especially while performing 360-degree ego-rotation. The multimodal analysis also suggests that the level of familiarity is related to the choice of navigation-aids used for reorientation (between environmental cues, and manifest cues) and the timing where these strategies were adopted. Results suggest that familiar navigators rely on environmental cues and exhibit proactive decision-making, whereas unfamiliar ones rely on manifest cues, are late in decision-making, and show no sign of sensorimotor spatial update. Moreover, the visual attention analysis shows that the direction of movement affected the gaze close to the decision points, and the extent of rotation negatively affected the spatial update performance.

    Active locomotion where a full-range of combined perceptual and cognitive processes are involved suggests that subjects do not demonstrate spatial updating strategies based on spatial representations, instead explicitly relying on external visuospatial cues. However, the extent of rotational locomotion, the visual accessibility to navigation-aid cues (e.g. signage, landmarks), and the level of familiarity play a fundamental role in the choice of the updating strategies people use for effective reorientation. Next steps of our research involve embodied navigation behavioral studies in virtual environments (VR) where the conditions of the rotation angle tested and the positioning of cues can be systematically manipulated to provide a metric for the extent of which they influence navigation performance.

  • 12.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Visuo-Locomotive Update in the Wild: The Role of (Un)Familiarity in Choice of Navigation Strategy, and its Application in Computational Spatial Design2021In: Proceedings of the ... Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, ISSN 1069-7977, Vol. 43, p. 2017-2023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study active human visuo-locomotive experience in everyday navigation from the viewpoints of environmental familiarity, embodied reorientation, and (sensorimotor) spatial update. Following a naturalistic, in situ, embodied multimodal behaviour analysis method, we conclude that familiar users rely on environmental cues as a navigation-aid and exhibit proactive decision-making, whereas unfamiliar users rely on manifest cues, are late in decision-making, and show no sign of sensorimotor spatial update. Qualitative analysis reveals that both groups are able to sketch-map their route and consider path integration: i.e., conscious spatial representation updating was possible but not preferred during active navigation. Overall, the experimental task did not trigger automatic or reflexlike spatial updating, as subjects preferred strategies involving memory of perceptual cues and available manifest cues instead of relying on motor simulation and continuous spatial update. Rooted in the behavioural outcomes, we also position applications in computational modelling of navigation within cognitive technologies for architectural design synthesis.

  • 13.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hartmann, Timo
    Systems Engineering, Civil Engineering Institute, TU Berlin, Germany.
    Precedent Based Design Foundations for Parametric Design: The Case of Navigation and Wayfinding2018In: Advances in Computational Design, ISSN 2383-8477, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 339-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parametric design systems serve as powerful assistive tools in the design process by providing a flexible approach for the generation of a vast number of design alternatives. However, contemporary parametric design systems focus primarily on low-level engineering and structural forms, without an explicit means to also take into account high-level, cognitively motivated people-centred design goals.

    We present a precedent-based parametric design method that integrates people-centred design “precedents” rooted in empirical evidence directly within state of the art parametric design systems. As a use-case, we illustrate the general method in the context of an empirical study focusing on the multi-modal analysis of wayfinding behaviour in two large-scale healthcare environments. With this use-case, we demonstrate the manner in which: (1). a range of empirically established design precedents —e.g., pertaining to visibility and navigation— may be articulated as design constraints to be embedded directly within state of the art parametric design tools (e.g., Grasshopper); and (2). embedded design precedents lead to the (parametric) generation of a number of morphologies that satisfy people-centred design criteria (in this case, pertaining to wayfinding).

    Our research presents an exemplar for the integration of cognitively motivated design goals with parametric design-space exploration methods. We posit that this opens-up a range of technological challenges for the engineering and development of next-generation computer aided architecture design systems.

  • 14.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Hartmann, Timo
    Teknische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Towards People-Centred Precedents for Parametric Design: The Case of Wayfinding in Large Scale Buildings2017In: Proceedings of the Joint Conference on Computing in Construction (JC3) / [ed] Fréderic Bosché; Ioannis Brilakis; Rafael Sacks, Edinburgh, UK: Heriot-Watt University , 2017, Vol. 1, p. 803-810Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale public buildings need to ensure an effective wayfinding performance for different user groups. Recent precedent based design approaches take spatial cognition into account by analysing the visuo-locomotive experience of users with the aim to interpret their behaviour and integrate it into a people-centred design. The paper focuses on the process from the analysis of precedents and the visuo-locomotive experience to the definition of design constraints that can be embedded into a parametric design for wayfinding. Primarily, we pursue a qualitative analysis of the visuo-locomotive experience of wayfinders in a healthcare built environment, with the use of cognitive-assistive and immersive/ virtual reality technologies. The outcome, presented through immersive reality, is correlated with the morphological analysis of the space and leads to precedents evaluation about design for wayfinding and the definition of new design constraints. The process is approached through an example, the environmental aspect of visual range. We conclude that this practice can overcome some of the experience based design practices of today but is not yet ingrained in the architectural and engineering design processes of public buildings.

  • 15.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Hartmann, Timo
    Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Towards Precedent Based Design Foundations for Parametric Design Systems2017In: Proceedings of the 24th EG-ICE International Workshop on Intelligent Computing in Engineering (EG-ICE 2017) / [ed] Christian Koch; Walid Tizani; Jelena Ninic, European Group for Intelligent Computing in Engineering (EG-ICE) , 2017, p. 178-187Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Levin, Daniel
    Vanderbilt University, Nashville, USA.
    Suchan, Jakob
    German Aerospace Center - DLR, Institute of Systems Engineering for Future Mobility, Oldenburg, Germany.
    How do drivers mitigate the effects of naturalistic visual complexity? On attentional strategies and their implications under a change blindness protocol2023In: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, E-ISSN 2365-7464, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do the limits of high-level visual processing affect human performance in naturalistic, dynamic settings of (multimodal) interaction where observers can draw on experience to strategically adapt attention to familiar forms of complexity? In this backdrop, we investigate change detection in a driving context to study attentional allocation aimed at overcoming environmental complexity and temporal load. Results indicate that visuospatial complexity substantially increases change blindness but also that participants effectively respond to this load by increasing their focus on safety-relevant events, by adjusting their driving, and by avoiding non-productive forms of attentional elaboration, thereby also controlling “looked-but-failed-to-see” errors. Furthermore, analyses of gaze patterns reveal that drivers occasionally, but effectively, limit attentional monitoring and lingering for irrelevant changes. Overall, the experimental outcomes reveal how drivers exhibit effective attentional compensation in highly complex situations. Our findings uncover implications for driving education and development of driving skill-testing methods, as well as for human-factors guided development of AI-based driving assistance systems.

  • 17.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Spyridonos, Evgenia
    University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Visuo-Locomotive Complexity as a Component of Parametric Design for Architecture2021In: Design for Tomorrow — Volume 2: Proceedings of ICoRD 2021 / [ed] Amaresh Chakrabarti; Ravi Poovaiah; Prasad Bokil; Vivek Kant, Springer, 2021, Vol. 2, p. 993-1004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A people-centred approach for designing large-scale built-up spaces necessitates systematic anticipation of user’s embodied visuo-locomotive experience from the viewpoint of human-environment interaction factors pertaining to aspects such as navigation, wayfinding, usability. In this context, we develop a behaviour-based visuo-locomotive complexity model that functions as a key correlate of cognitive performance vis-a-vis internal navigation in built-up spaces. We also demonstrate the model’s implementation and application as a parametric tool for the identification and manipulation of the architectural morphology along a navigation path as per the parameters of the proposed visuospatial complexity model. We present examples based on an empirical study in two healthcare buildings and showcase the manner in which a dynamic and interactive parametric (complexity) model can promote behaviour-based decision-making throughout the design process to maintain desired levels of visuospatial complexity as part of a navigation or wayfinding experience. 

  • 18.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Suchan, Jakob
    German Aerospace Center (DLR), Köln, Germany.
    A Cognitive Model of Visuospatial Complexity for Interactive Immersive Media Design2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of immersive visuoauditory media brings to the fore several design challenges concerning cognitive human factors, such as visual perception, embodied interaction, and emotional engagement. With a focus on visual perception, our research emphasises a systematic study of embodied multimodal interaction in immersive settings and provides a cognitive model of visuospatial complexity through a series of behavioural studies in VR with human subjects. We report preliminary results on the effect of levels of visuospatial complexity on visuospatial attention patterns and visual search performance. The proposed methodology provides a general foundation for conducting naturalistic studies in immersive perception and interaction, e.g., in the context of established paradigms such as event perception, ensemble perception, visual search and foraging, change blindness. Moreover, we posit that the demonstrated confluence of computational and behavioural studies is needed to better appreciate the complexity and spectrum of varied human-centred challenges in the design of immersive media.

  • 19.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Suchan, Jakob
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Towards a Human-Centred Cognitive Model of Visuospatial Complexity in Everyday Driving2020In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings / [ed] Rudolph S., Marreiros G., CEUR-WS.org , 2020, Vol. 2655Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a human-centred, cognitive model of visuospatial complexity in everyday, naturalistic driving conditions. With a focus on visual perception, the model incorporates quantitative, structural, and dynamic attributes identifiable in the chosen context; the human-centred basis of the model lies in its behavioural evaluation with human subjects with respect to psychophysical measures pertaining to embodied visuoauditory attention. We report preliminary steps to apply the developed cognitive model of visuospatial complexity for human-factors guided dataset creation and benchmarking, and for its use as a semantic template for the (explainable) computational analysis of visuospatial complexity.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Towards a human-centred cognitive model of visuospatial complexity in everyday driving
  • 20.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Daniel, Levin
    Vanderbilt University, Nashville, USA.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Drivers avoid attentional elaboration under safety-critical situations and complex environments2023In: 17th European Workshop on Imagery and Cognition, 2023, p. 18-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In everyday activities where continuous visual awareness is critical such as driving, several cognitive processes pertaining to visual attention are of the essence, for instance, change detection, anticipation, monitoring, etc. Research suggests that environmental load and task difficulty contribute to failures in visual perception that can be essential for detecting and reacting to safety-critical incidents. However, it is unclear how gaze patterns and attentional strategies are compromised because of environmental complexity in naturalistic driving. In a change detection task during everyday simulated driving, we investigate inattention blindness in relation to environmental complexity and the kind of interaction incidents drivers address. We systematically analyse and evaluate safety-critical situations from real-world driving videos and replicate a number of them in a virtual driving experience. Participants (N= 80) aged 23-45 years old, drove along three levels of environmental complexity (low-medium-high) and various incidents of interaction with roadside users (e.g., pedestrians, cyclists, pedestrians in a wheelchair), categorized as safety critical or not. Participants detected changes in the behaviour of road users and in object properties. We collect multimodal data including eye-tracking, egocentric view videos, movement trace, head movements, driving behaviour, and detection button presses. Results suggest that gaze behaviour (number and duration of fixations, 1st fixation on AOI) is affected negatively by an increase in environmental complexity, but the effect is moderate for safety-critical incidents. Moreover, anticipatory and monitoring attention was crucial for detecting critical changes in behaviour and reacting on time. However, in highly complex environments participants effectively limit attentional monitoring and lingering for non-critical changes and they also controlled “look-but-fail-to-see errors", especially while addressing a safety-related event. We conclude that drivers change attentional strategies, avoiding non-productive forms of attentional elaboration (anticipatory and monitoring) and efficiently disengaging from targets when the task difficulty is high. We discuss the implications for driving education and research driven development of autonomous driving. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    17th European Workshop on Imagery and Cognition
  • 21.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    et al.
    Human-Centred Cognitive Assistance Research Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    University of Münster, Münster, Germany.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Human-Centred Cognitive Assistance Research Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Evidence-Based Parametric Design: Computationally Generated Spatial Morphologies Satisfying Behavioural-Based Design Constraints2017In: 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017), Springer International Publishing AG , 2017, Vol. 86, p. 11:1-11:14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parametric design is an established method in engineering and architecture facilitating the rapid generation and evaluation of a large number of configurations and shapes of complex physical structures according to constraints specified by the designer. However, the emphasis of parametric design systems, particularly in the context of architectural design of large-scale spaces, is on numerical aspects (e.g., maximising areas, specifying dimensions of walls) and does not address human-centred design criteria, for example, as developed from behavioural evidence-based studies. This paper aims at providing an evidence-based human-centred approach for defining design constraints for parametric modelling systems. We determine design rules that address wayfinding issues through behavioural multi-modal data analysis of a wayfinding case study in two healthcare environments of the Parkland hospital (Dallas). Our rules are related to the environmental factors of visibility and positioning of manifest cues along the navigation route. We implement our rules in FreeCAD, an open-source parametric system.

  • 22.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Suchan, Jakob
    German Aerospace Research Center (DLR), Germany.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Grounding Embodied Multimodal Interaction: Towards Behaviourally Established Semantic Foundations for Human-Centered AI2022In: The 1st International Workshop on Knowledge Representation for Hybrid Intelligence (KR4HI 2022), 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We position recent and emerging research in cognitive vision and perception addressing three key questions: (1) What kind of relational abstraction mechanisms are needed to perform (explainable) grounded inference --e.g., question-answering, qualitative generalisation, hypothetical reasoning-- relevant to embodied multimodal interaction? (2) How can such abstraction mechanisms be founded on behaviourally established cognitive human-factors emanating from naturalistic empirical observation? and (3) How to articulate behaviourally established abstraction mechanisms as formal declarative models suited for grounded knowledge representation and reasoning (KR) as part of large-scale hybrid AI and computational cognitive systems.

    We contextualise (1--3) in the backdrop of recent results at the interface of AI/KR, and Spatial Cognition and Computation. Our main purpose is to emphasise the importance of behavioural research based foundations for next-generation, human-centred AI, e.g., as relevant to applications in Autonomous Vehicles, Social and Industrial Robots, and Visuo-Auditory Media.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Grounding Embodied Multimodal Interaction: Towards Behaviourally Established Semantic Foundations for Human-Centred AI
  • 23.
    Kondyli, Vasiliki
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Suchan, Jakob
    German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany; CoDesign Lab EU – Cognitive Vision.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Visuospatial Commonsense as a Practical Benchmark in Autonomous Driving: On the Role of Human-Centred Explainability in Evaluation and StandardisationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
1 - 23 of 23
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf