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  • 1.
    Carrasco-Marginet, Marta
    et al.
    INEFC-Barcelona Sports Sciences Research Group, National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Castizo-Olier, Jorge
    INEFC-Barcelona Sports Sciences Research Group, National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Rodríguez-Zamora, Lara
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre, Mid Sweden University,Östersund, Sweden.
    Iglesias, Xavier
    INEFC-Barcelona Sports Sciences Research Group, National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Rodríguez, Ferran A.
    INEFC-Barcelona Sports Sciences Research Group, National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Chaverri, Diego
    INEFC-Barcelona Sports Sciences Research Group, National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Brotons, Daniel
    Sport and Health Area of the Catalan Sport Council, Government of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain.
    Irurtia, Alfredo
    INEFC-Barcelona Sports Sciences Research Group, National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) for measuring the hydration status in young elite synchronized swimmers2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 6, article id e0178819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The assessment of body hydration is a complex process, and no measurement is valid for all situations. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) has emerged as a relatively novel technique for assessing hydration status in sports. We applied BIVA a) to determine hydration changes evoked by an intense synchronized swimming (SS) training session; b) to characterize the sample of young elite swimmers in relation with a nonathletic reference population; and c) to generate its 50%, 75% and 95% percentiles of the bioelectrical variables.

    METHODS: Forty-nine elite SS female swimmers of two age categories, comen (Co: 13.9 ± 0.9 years, n = 34) and junior (Jr: 16.3 ± 0.6 years, n = 15), performed a long, high intensity training session. Body mass (BM) and bioelectrical variables (R, resistance; Xc, reactance; PA, phase angle; and Z, impedance module) were assessed pre- and post-training. BIVA was used to characterize 1) the distribution pattern of the bioelectrical vector (BIA vector) for both age groups, and 2) pre- to post-training BIA vector migration. Bioelectrical variables were also correlated with BM change values.

    RESULTS: Most swimmers were mostly located outside the 75% and some beyond the 95% percentile of the bioelectrical tolerance ellipses of the general population. The BIA vector showed statistically significant differences in both Co (T2 = 134.7, p = 0.0001) and Jr (T2 = 126.2, p < 0.001). Both groups were also bioelectrically different (T2 = 17.6, p < 0.001). After the training session, a decrease in BM (p = 0.0001) and an increase in BIA variables (p = 0.01) was observed. BIVA also showed a significant pre-post vector migration both in Co (T2 = 82.1; p < 0.001) and Jr (T2 = 41.8; p < 0.001). No correlations were observed between BM changes and bioelectrical variables.

    CONCLUSIONS: BIVA showed specific bioelectrical characteristics in young elite SS athletes. Considering the decrease in BM and the migration of the BIA vector, we conclude that the homeostatic hydration status of these young elite female swimmers was affected by the execution of intense training sessions. From a methodological perspective, BIVA appears to be sensitive enough to detect subtle hydration changes, but further research is needed to ensure its validity and reliability. Moreover, these findings highlight the importance of ensuring adequate fluid intake during training in young SS athletes.

  • 2.
    de Asis Fernandez, Fran
    et al.
    Departament of Health, Centro Superior de Estudios Universitarios La Salle, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Rodríguez-Zamora, Lara
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Hook Breathing Facilitates SaO(2) Recovery After Deep Dives in Freedivers With Slow Recovery2019In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, article id 1076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (SaO2)To facilitate recovery from hypoxia, many freedivers use a breathing method called "hook breathing" (HB) after diving, involving an interrupted exhale to build up intrapulmonary pressure. Some divers experience a delay in recovery of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) after diving, interpreted as symptoms of mild pulmonary edema, and facilitated recovery may be especially important in this group to avoid hypoxic "blackout." We examined the influence of HB on recovery of (SaO2) in freedivers with slow recovery (SR) and fast recovery (FR) of (SaO2) after deep "free immersion" (FIM) apnea dives to 30 m depth. Twenty-two male freedivers, with a mean (SD) personal best in the discipline FIM of 57(26) m, performed two 30 m deep dives, one followed by HB and one using normal breathing (NB) during recovery, at different days and weighted order. (SaO2) and heart rate (HR) were measured via pulse oximetry during recovery. The SR group (n = 5) had a faster (SaO2) recovery using HB, while the FR group (n = 17) showed no difference between breathing techniques. At 105 s, the SR group reached a mean (SD) SaO(2) of 95(5)% using HB, while using NB, their (SaO2) was 87(5)% (p < 0.05), and 105-120 s after surfacing(SaO2) was higher with HB (p < 0.05). In SR subjects, the average time needed to reach 95% (SaO2) with HB was 60 s, while it was 120 s at NB (p < 0.05). HR was similar in the SR group, while it was initially elevated at HB in the FR group (p < 0.05). We conclude that HB efficiently increases (SaO2) recovery in SR individuals, but not in the FR group. The proposed mechanism is that increased pulmonary pressure with HB will reverse any pulmonary edema and facilitate oxygen uptake in divers with delayed recovery.

  • 3.
    Iglesias, Xavier
    et al.
    Barcelona Sports Sciences Research Group, National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia (INEFC ), University of Barcelona, Barceöona, Spain.
    Rodríguez, Ferran A.
    Barcelona Sports Sciences Research Group, National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia (INEFC ), University of Barcelona, Barceöona, Spain.
    Tarragó, Rafael
    2Social and Educational Research Group of Physical Activity and Sports (GISEAFE ), National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia (INEFC ), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Bottoms, Lindsay
    3School of Life and Medical Science, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK.
    Vallejo, Lisímaco
    Barcelona Sports Sciences Research Group, National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia (INEFC ), University of Barcelona, Barceöona, Spain.
    Rodríguez-Zamora, Lara
    Barcelona Sports Sciences Research Group, National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia (INEFC ), University of Barcelona, Barceöona, Spain.
    Price, Michael
    Department of Biomolecular and Sports Sciences, Coventry University, Coventry, UK.
    Physiological demands of standing and wheelchair fencing in able-bodied fencers2019In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 569-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the cardiorespiratory demands of standing and wheelchair (seated) fencing in a group of able-bodied fencers during simulated competitive bouts.

    METHODS: Participants were ten male able-bodied fencers of regional level with previous training experience in wheelchair fencing. After a standardised warm-up participants performed two series of simulated competitive épée bouts (5 and 15 touches) in a random order, either while standing or while sitting in a wheelchair. Expired gas was analyzed for oxygen consumption (V̇ O2) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and heart rate were continually monitored. Energy expenditure (EE) was subsequently calculated.

    RESULTS: V̇ O2, HR and EE peak responses were greater during standing than seated fencing (p< .05). Mean V̇ O2 during all ST bouts (5 and 15 touch) was 43% greater than in WC fencing (44.2 ± 7.8 vs. 25.1 ± 5.4 ml·kg-1·min-1). Mean HR during the standing 5 and 15 touch bouts was 91% ± 20% and 84% ± 7% of that recorded during the seated bouts. HR,V̇O2 and EE data also indicated that the 15-touch bouts were more physiologically demanding than the 5-touch bouts (P < .01). The HR-V̇ O2 relationship was similar between both fencing modes. The duration of the 5 and 15 touch bouts were shorter for the seated than the standing bouts (P < .01).

    CONCLUSIONS: The physiological demands of wheelchair fencing are lower than those for standing fencing. Furthermore, the physiology of 5 vs. 15 touch bouts, similar to those undertaken in fencing competition, also differs.

  • 4.
    Iglesias, Xavier
    et al.
    Institut Nacional d’Educació Física de Catalunya, INEFC - Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Rodríguez-Zamora, Lara
    Institut Nacional d’Educació Física de Catalunya, INEFC - Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Chaverri, Diego
    Institut Nacional d’Educació Física de Catalunya, INEFC - Universitat de Barcelona, barcelona, Spain.
    Clapés, Pilar
    Institut Nacional d’Educació Física de Catalunya, INEFC - Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Rodríguez, Ferran A.
    Institut Nacional d’Educació Física de Catalunya, INEFC - Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Anguera, María Teresa
    Departamento de Metodología de las Ciencias del Comportamiento, Facultad de Psicología. Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Diversificación de patrones en rutinas de solo en natación sincronizada de alto nivel [Patterns of solo routines in high-performance synchronized swimming]2015In: Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte, ISSN 1578-8423, E-ISSN 1989-5879, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 89-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to identify and characterize the structural differences and T-Patterns of body posture in technical and free solo routines of high-performance synchronized swimming. The study is observational, punctual, nomotetic and multidimensional. Data were registered using LINCE v.1.1. with a fiability intra- and inter-observer of 90% (Kappa index). The participants were 26 female swimmers (15 finalists in the World Championship 2011 and 11 analists from the Spanish Championship) and the sample are 19 routines of technical solo and 23 routines of free solo. A descriptive and an inferential analysis were performed, as well as a pattern analysis according to THEME 6 Edu. More T-patterns were detected in the technical solo routines than in the free solo. Results show that in 69,3% (± 5,7) of the routine’s time, swimmers are in apnea, and this percentage is higher in technical routines than in free routines (p<0,05). Significant diferences were also found in the body posture and levels of immersion between the two types of routines considered. In conclusion, results suggest that free solo and technical solo routines present significant differences in regard to the temporal structure and in the sequential patterns detected. The technical routines are characterized by longer apnea episodes, more elements in low immersion and more performances in inferior positions, and more T-patterns.

  • 5.
    Rodríguez-Zamora, Lara
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Engan, Harald K.
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; LHL Health Röros Rehabilitation, The Norwegian Heart and Lung Patient Organization, Norway.
    Lodin-Sundström, Angelica
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Schagatay, Fanny
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Iglesias, Xavier
    INEFC - Barcelona Sports Sciences Research Group, Institut Nacional d'Educació Física de Catalunya, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Rodríguez, Ferran A.
    INEFC - Barcelona Sports Sciences Research Group, Institut Nacional d'Educació Física de Catalunya, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Blood lactate accumulation during competitive freediving and synchronized swimming2018In: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine, ISSN 1066-2936, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of competitive water sports are performed while breath-holding (apnea). Such performances put large demands on the anaerobic system, but the study of lactate accumulation in apneic sports is limited. We therefore aimed to determine and compare the net lactate accumulation (NLA) during competition events in six disciplines of competitive freediving (FD) and three disciplines of synchronized swimming (SSW). The FD disciplines were: static apnea (STA; n = 14); dynamic apnea (DYN; n = 19); dynamic apnea no fins (DNF; n = 16); constant weight (CWT; n = 12); constant weight no fins (CNF; n = 8); free immersion (FIM; n =10). The SSW disciplines were solo (n = 21), duet (n = 31) and team (n = 34). Capillary blood lactate concentration was measured before and three minutes after competition performances, and apneic duration and performance variables were recorded. In all nine disciplines NLA was observed. The highest mean (SD) NLA (mmol·L-1) was found in CNF at 6.3 (2.2), followed by CWT at 5.9 (2.3) and SSW solo at 5 (1.9). STA showed the lowest NLA 0.7 (0.7) mmol·L-1 compared to all other disciplines (P ⟨ 0.001). The NLA recorded shows that sports involving apnea involve high levels of anaerobic activity. The highest NLA was related to both work done by large muscle groups and long apneic periods, suggesting that NLA is influenced by both the type of work and apnea duration, with lower NLA in SSW due to shorter apneic episodes with intermittent breathing.

  • 6.
    Rodríguez-Zamora, Lara
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Environmental Physiology Group, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Padial, Paulino
    Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Schoenfeld, Brad John
    Department of Health Sciences, Lehman College, New York, NY, United States.
    Feriche, Belen
    Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Mean Propulsive Velocity Is a Viable Method for Adjusting the Resistance-Training Load at Moderate Altitude: Monitoring Resistance Load at Altitude2019In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 1, article id 52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the viability of using mean propulsive velocity (MPV) to adjust the load in the countermovement jump (CMJ) at moderate altitude. Twenty-four volunteers were assigned to a 4-week power-oriented resistance training (RT) program in either normoxia (N, 690 m) or intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IH, 2,320 m). The load was adjusted to maintain execution velocity of CMJ at 1m·s−1 of MPV. Relative peak power output (Prel), and percentage of velocity loss throughout the sets (VL) were determined for each session. The internal load was measured by the rating of perceived exertion (RPE). The absolute load lifted was higher in IH compared to N (75.6 ± 8.4 vs. 58.5 ± 12.3 kg P < 0.001). However, similar relative increases for both groups were found when comparing the final values (IH: 8.2%, P = 0.007; N: 9.8%, P = 0.03) with no changes in VL between groups (P = 0.36). Post-study Prel improved significantly only in IH (+7% W·kg−1P = 0.002). Mean RPE was greater in IH vs. N (6.8 ± 1.5 vs. 5.6 ± 2, P < 0.001). The MPV seems to be a viable method for adjusting external load during RT at moderate altitude. However, given that RT at moderate altitude increases RPE, it is prudent to monitor internal load when using the MPV to best determine the actual physiological stress of the session.

  • 7.
    Solana-Tramunt, Mònica
    et al.
    Dept of Sports Sciences, FPCEE Blanquerna, Ramon Llull University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Morales, Jose
    Dept of Sports Sciences, FPCEE Blanquerna, Ramon Llull University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Buscà, Bernat
    Dept of Sports Sciences, FPCEE Blanquerna, Ramon Llull University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Carbonell, Marina
    Clinical Biochemistry Dept, Germans Trias i Pujol Hospital, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Rodríguez-Zamora, Lara
    Environmental Physiology Group, Dept of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Heart Rate Variability in Elite Synchronized Swimmers2019In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 464-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To determine whether heart-rate variability (HRV) was correlated with other training-load and training-tolerance markers for monitoring the effect of a training session on elite synchronized swimmers.

    Methods: The authors recorded the resting HRV of 12 elite swimmers (mean age = 21.5 [3.5] y) 3 times over 1 wk with a cadence of 48 h prior to the 2015 World Swimming Championships. They continuously monitored heart rate and obtained salivary cortisol (SC) samples before and after the last training session of the week. The authors measured capillary blood lactate (La) 2, 4, and 8 min after the last training session and monitored recovery HRV. They assessed rating of perceived exertion (RPE) over the entire session and tested the association between the highest La concentration (Lapeak), SC, and RPE and relative changes (Δ%) in the natural logarithm of the root-mean-square successive difference of intervals (LnRMSSD). The authors also calculated the smallest worthwhile change of the averaged pre and post LnRMSSD measurements.

    Results: There were periods of pronounced bradycardia (60.5 [16.7] beats/ min) during training exercises corresponding to apneic exercise. The magnitude-based inferences showed nonclinically meaningful changes of LnRMSSD. Lapeak (6.8 [2.7] mmol/L) correlated positively with Δ%LnRMSSD and Δ%SC (r = .89, P = .001 and r = .61, P = .04, respectively). Conclusions: There was no change in LnRMSSD and Lapeak, Δ%SC, and RPE indicated reduced sympathetic activation and positive adaptation to the stress imposed by the session. Isolated HRV assessment may reveal a controversial interpretation of autonomic nervous system status or the training tolerance in elite synchronized swimming athletes due to the influence of the diving response.

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