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  • 1.
    Barnes, Paul W.
    et al.
    Loyola University, New Orleans, USA.
    Morales, Luis Orlando
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Robson, T. M.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    The importance and direction of current and future plant-UV research2018Inngår i: UV4Plants Bulletin, ISSN 2343-323X, Vol. 2, s. 19-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    To stimulate how to move the field of plant-UV research forward, and create a coherent framework to highlight valuable future directions in plant UV research we had a group discussion of the most prescient questions and how to address them.

    The following sections are broken-down into those from the molecular, biochemical and physiological discussions followed by those from the ecological and plant production discussions. In each case, first basic research questions are considered and then applications and methodological considerations put forward. Finally, some common ground bringing together the two perspectives is proposed, aimed at solving scaling problems and ways in which the UV4Plants network might be put to good use.

  • 2.
    Brelsford, Craig C.
    et al.
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, Viikki Plant Science Center (ViPS), Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Morales, Luis Orlando
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, Viikki Plant Science Center (ViPS), Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nezval, Jakub
    Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic.
    Kotilainen, Titta K.
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, Viikki Plant Science Center (ViPS), Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hartikainen, Saara M.
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, Viikki Plant Science Center (ViPS), Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Aphalo, Pedro J.
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, Viikki Plant Science Center (ViPS), Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Robson, Matthew
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, Viikki Plant Science Center (ViPS), Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Do UV‐A radiation and blue light during growth prime leaves to cope with acute high light in photoreceptor mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana?2019Inngår i: Physiologia Plantarum: An International Journal for Plant Biology, ISSN 0031-9317, E-ISSN 1399-3054, Vol. 165, nr 3, s. 537-554Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied how plants acclimated to growing conditions that included combinations of blue light (BL) and ultraviolet (UV)‐A radiation, and whether their growing environment affected their photosynthetic capacity during and after a brief period of acute high light (as might happen during an under‐canopy sunfleck). Arabidopsis thaliana Landsberg erecta wild‐type were compared with mutants lacking functional blue light and UV photoreceptors: phototropin 1, cryptochromes (CRY1 and CRY2) and UV RESISTANT LOCUS 8 (uvr8). This was achieved using light‐emitting‐diode (LED) lamps in a controlled environment to create treatments with or without BL, in a split‐plot design with or without UV‐A radiation. We compared the accumulation of phenolic compounds under growth conditions and after exposure to 30 min of high light at the end of the experiment (46 days), and likewise measured the operational efficiency of photosystem II (ϕPSII, a proxy for photosynthetic performance) and dark‐adapted maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm to assess PSII damage). Our results indicate that cryptochromes are the main photoreceptors regulating phenolic compound accumulation in response to BL and UV‐A radiation, and a lack of functional cryptochromes impairs photosynthetic performance under high light. Our findings also reveal a role for UVR8 in accumulating flavonoids in response to a low UV‐A dose. Interestingly, phototropin 1 partially mediated constitutive accumulation of phenolic compounds in the absence of BL. Low‐irradiance BL and UV‐A did not improve ϕPSII and Fv/Fm upon our acute high‐light treatment; however, CRYs played an important role in ameliorating high‐light stress.

  • 3.
    Järvinen, Pia
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, Joensuu, Finland.
    Palmé, Anna
    Department of Conservation Biology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Morales, Luis Orlando
    Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, Joensuu, Finland.
    Lännenpää, Mika
    Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, Joensuu, Finland.
    Keinänen, Markku
    Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, Joensuu, Finland.
    Sopanen, Tuomas
    Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, Joensuu, Finland.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Department of Conservation Biology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Phylogenetic relationships of Betula species (Betulaceae) based on nuclear Adh and chloroplast matK sequences2004Inngår i: American Journal of Botany, ISSN 0002-9122, E-ISSN 1537-2197, Vol. 91, nr 11, s. 1834-1845Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The phylogenetic relationships within the genus Betula (Betulaceae) were investigated using a part of the nuclear ADH gene and DNA sequences of the chloroplast matK gene with parts of its flanking regions. Two well‐supported phylogenetic groups could be identified in the chloroplast DNA sequence: one containing the three American species B. lenta, B. alleghaniensis, and B. papyrifera and the other including all the other species studied. The ADH gene displayed more variation, and three main groups could be identified. In disagreement with the classical division of the genus Betula, B. schmidtii and B. nana grouped with the species in subgenus Betula, and B. ermanii grouped with species in subgenus Chamaebetula, including B. humilis and B. fruticosa. The ADH phylogeny suggests that several independent polyploidizations within the genus Betula could have taken place. The ADH and chloroplast phylogenies were in part incongruent due to the placement of B. papyrifera. The most likely reason for this seems to be cytoplasmic introgression.

  • 4. Morales, Luis O.
    et al.
    Brosché, Mikael
    Aphalo, Pedro José
    Plant acclimation to sunlight: solar UV, phenolics and UV photoreceptors2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5. Morales, Luis Orlando
    Accumulation of epidermal flavonoids in Betula pendula leaves of different ages under altered solar UV radiation2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6. Morales, Luis Orlando
    Bacterial cellulose as biomolecule carrier2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7. Morales, Luis Orlando
    Effects of lignin and hemicelluloses on the enzymatic hydrolysis of nanofibrillated softwood lignocellulose after SO2-ethanol-water (SEW) fractionation2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Morales, Luis Orlando
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Molecular responses of plants to solar UV-B and UV-A radiation2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant responses to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV, 280-400 nm) were assessed at different molecular levels using Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) and Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) as model species in outdoor experiments to assess the possibly interacting roles of the UV-B and UV-A wavebands in acclimation to sunlight. Solar UV-B (280-315 nm) and UV-A (315-400 nm) irradiance was attenuated with plastic films. Both solar UV-B and UV-A promoted the acclimation of silver birch and Arabidopsis to UV in sunlight by regulating the expression of genes with functions in UV protection and also by inducing the accumulation of phenolic compounds in the leaves. Solar UV also regulated transcript accumulation of genes involved in the signaling and biosynthesis of auxin, brassinosteroids and jasmonic acid (JA) in Arabidopsis. A new role of Arabidopsis UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) in the regulation of some responses to solar UV-A radiation was observed in addition to its previously described role in UV-B perception. High UV-A irradiance as present in sunlight, had a large effect on plant metabolism and modulated some of the previously characterized UV-B responses most probably through interaction between UVR8 and CRY pathways. In contrast to UVR8, under UV-B irradiation conditions not inducing stress, RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 (RCD1) played no active role in UV signaling and acclimation, but rather modulated UV responses under sunlight. We demonstrated that solar UV-A makes an important contribution to acclimation of plants to sunlight, independently and interacting with UV-B.

  • 9. Morales, Luis Orlando
    ROS regulation of gene expression and cell death in Arabidopsis: From natural variation to miRNAs2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10. Morales, Luis Orlando
    UVR8 and cryptochromes promote sunlight acclimation in Arabidopsis thaliana2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Morales, Luis Orlando
    et al.
    Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Brosché, Mikael
    Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vainonen, Julia
    Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Jenkins, Gareth I
    Glasgow University, Glasgow, UK.
    Wargent, Jason J
    Massey University, Palmerston North, Nya Zeeland.
    Sipari, Nina
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Strid, Åke
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lindfors, Anders V
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Kuopio, Finland.
    Tegelberg, Riita
    University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Aphalo, Pedro J
    Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Multiple Roles for UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 in Regulating Gene Expression and Metabolite Accumulation in Arabidopsis under Solar UV Radiation2013Inngår i: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 161, nr 2, s. 744-759Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Photomorphogenic responses triggered by low fluence rates of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-315 nm) are mediated by the UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8). Beyond our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of UV-B perception by UVR8, there is still limited information on how the UVR8 pathway functions under natural sunlight. Here, wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the uvr8-2 mutant were used in an experiment outdoors where UV-A (315-400 nm) and UV-B irradiances were attenuated using plastic films. Gene expression, PYRIDOXINE BIOSYNTHESIS 1 (PDX1) accumulation and leaf metabolite signatures were analyzed. The results show that UVR8 is required for transcript accumulation of genes involved in UV protection, oxidative stress, hormone signal transduction and defence against herbivores under solar UV. Under natural UV-A irradiance, UVR8 is likely to interact with UV-A/blue light signaling pathways to moderate UV-B driven transcript and PDX1 accumulation. UVR8 both positively and negatively affects UV-A-regulated gene expression and metabolite accumulation, but is required for the UV-B induction of phenolics. Moreover, UVR8-dependent UV-B acclimation during the early stages of plant development may enhance normal growth under long-term exposure to solar UV.

  • 12.
    Morales, Luis Orlando
    et al.
    Division of Plant Biology, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; School of Chemical Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, Aalto University, Espo, Finland .
    Brosché, Mikael
    Division of Plant Biology, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia .
    Vainonen, Julia P
    Division of Plant Biology, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland .
    Sipari, Nina
    Metabolomics Unit, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland .
    Lindfors, Anders
    Kuopio Unit, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Kuopio, Finland .
    Strid, Åke
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Aphalo, Pedro J
    Division of Plant Biology, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland .
    Are solar UV-B- and UV-A-dependent gene expression and metabolite accumulation in Arabidopsis mediated by the stress response regulator RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1?2015Inngår i: Plant, Cell and Environment, ISSN 0140-7791, E-ISSN 1365-3040, Vol. 38, nr 5, s. 878-891Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wavelengths in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the solar spectrum, UV-B (280-315nm) and UV-A (315-400nm), are key environmental signals modifying several aspects of plant physiology. Despite significant advances in the understanding of plant responses to UV-B and the identification of signalling components involved, there is limited information on the molecular mechanisms that control UV-B signalling in plants under natural sunlight. Here, we aimed to corroborate the previous suggested role for RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 (RCD1) in UV-B signalling under full spectrum sunlight. Wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the rcd1-1 mutant were used in an experimental design outdoors where UV-B and UV-A irradiances were manipulated using plastic films, and gene expression, PYRIDOXINE BIOSYNTHESIS1 (PDX1) accumulation and metabolite profiles were analysed in the leaves. At the level of transcription, RCD1 was not directly involved in the solar UV-B regulation of genes with functions in UV acclimation, hormone signalling and stress-related markers. Furthermore, RCD1 had no role on PDX1 accumulation but modulated the UV-B induction of flavonoid accumulation in leaves of Arabidopsis exposed to solar UV. We conclude that RCD1 does not play an active role in UV-B signalling but rather modulates UV-B responses under full spectrum sunlight.

  • 13.
    Morales, Luis Orlando
    et al.
    Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, Aalto, Finland.
    Iakovlev, Mikhail
    Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, Aalto, Finland.
    Martin-Sampedro, Raquel
    Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria INIA, Madrid, Spain.
    Rahikainen, Jenni L.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland.
    Laine, Janne
    Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, Aalto, Finland.
    van Heiningen, Adriaan
    Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, Aalto, Finland; Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Maine, Orono, USA.
    Rojas, Orlando J.
    Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, Aalto, Finland; Departments of Forest Biomaterials and Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA.
    Effects of residual lignin and heteropolysaccharides on the bioconversion of softwood lignocellulose nanofibrils after SO2-ethanol-water fractionation2014Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 161, s. 55-62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of residual lignin and hemicelluloses in softwood fibers was systematically varied by SO2-ethanol–water fractionation for integrated biorefinery with nanomaterial and biofuel production. On the basis of their low energy demand in mechanical processing, the fibers were deconstructed to lignocellulose nanofibrils (LCNF) and used as substrate for bioconversion. The effect of LCNF composition on saccharification via multicomponent enzymes was investigated at different loadings. LCNF digestibility was compared with the enzyme activity measured with a quartz crystal microbalance. LCNF hydrolysis rate gradually decreased with lignin and hemicellulose concentration, both of which limited enzyme accessibility. Enzyme inhibition resulted from non-productive binding of proteins onto lignin. Near complete LCNF hydrolysis was achieved, even at high lignin and hemicellulose content. Sugar yields for LCNF were higher than those for precursor SEW fibers, highlighting the benefits of high surface area in LCNF.

  • 14.
    Morales, Luis Orlando
    et al.
    Department of Biosciences, Division of Plant Biology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Tegelberg, Riita
    Department of Biosciences, Division of Plant Biology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Brosché, Mikael
    Department of Biosciences, Division of Plant Biology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Keinänen, Markku
    Faculty of Biosciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Lindfors, Anders
    School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Aphalo, Pedro J.
    Department of Biosciences, Division of Plant Biology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Effects of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on gene expression and phenolic accumulation in Betula pendula leaves2010Inngår i: Tree Physiology, ISSN 0829-318X, E-ISSN 1758-4469, Vol. 30, nr 7, s. 923-934Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important environmental factor for plant communities; however, plant responses to solar UV are not fully understood. Here, we report differential effects of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on the expression of flavonoid pathway genes and phenolic accumulation in leaves of Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) seedlings grown outdoors. Plants were exposed for 30 days to six UV treatments created using three types of plastic film. Epidermal flavonoids measured in vivo decreased when UV-B was excluded. In addition, the concentrations of six flavonoids determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry declined linearly with UV-B exclusion, and transcripts of PAL and HYH measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were expressed at lower levels. UV-A linearly regulated the accumulation of quercetin-3-galactoside and quercetin-3-arabinopyranoside and had a quadratic effect on HYH expression. Furthermore, there were strong positive correlations between PAL expression and accumulation of four flavonols under the UV treatments. Our findings in silver birch contribute to a more detailed understanding of plant responses to solar UV radiation at both molecular and metabolite levels.

  • 15.
    Morales, Luis Orlando
    et al.
    Department of Biosciences, Plant Biology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Tegelberg, Riitta
    Department of Biosciences, Plant Biology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Brosché, Mikael
    Department of Biosciences, Plant Biology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Lindfors, Anders
    School of Geosciences, University of Edinburg, Edinburgh, UK, Climate Change Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Siipola, Sari
    Department of Biosciences, Plant Biology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Aphalo, Pedro J.
    Department of Biosciences, Plant Biology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Temporal variation in epidermal flavonoids due to altered solar UV radiation is moderated by the leaf position in Betula pendula2011Inngår i: Physiologia Plantarum: An International Journal for Plant Biology, ISSN 0031-9317, E-ISSN 1399-3054, Vol. 143, nr 3, s. 261-270Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The physiological mechanisms controlling plant responses to dynamic changes in ambient solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation are not fully understood: this information is important to further comprehend plant adaptation to their natural habitats. We used the fluorimeter Dualex to estimate in vivo the epidermal flavonoid contents by measuring epidermal UV absorbance (A375) in Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) leaves of different ages under altered UV. Seedlings were grown in a greenhouse for 15 days without UV and transferred outdoors under three UV treatments (UV‐0, UV‐A and UV‐A+B) created by three types of plastic film. After 7 and 13 days, Dualex measurements were taken at adaxial and abaxial epidermis of the first three leaves (L1, L2 and L3) of the seedlings. After 14 days, some of the seedlings were reciprocally swapped amongst the treatments to study the accumulation of epidermal flavonoids in the youngest unfolded leaves (L3) during leaf expansion under changing solar UV environments. A375 of the leaves responded differently to the UV treatment depending on their position. UV‐B increased the A375 in the leaves independently of leaf position. L3 quickly adjusted A375 in their epidermis according to the UV they received and these adjustments were affected by previous UV exposure. The initial absence of UV‐A+B or UV‐A, followed by exposure to UV‐A+B, particularly enhanced leaf A375. Silver birch leaves modulate their protective pigments in response to changes in the UV environment during their expansion, and their previous UV exposure history affects the epidermal‐absorbance achieved during later UV exposure.

  • 16.
    O'Hara, Andrew
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Institute of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
    Headland, Lauren R.
    Institute of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
    Díaz-Ramos, L. Aranzazú
    Institute of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
    Morales, Luis Orlando
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Strid, Åke
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Jenkins, Gareth I.
    Institute of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
    Regulation of Arabidopsis gene expression by low fluence rate UV-B independently of UVR8 and stress signaling2019Inngår i: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, ISSN 1474-905X, E-ISSN 1474-9092, Vol. 18, nr 7, s. 1675-1684Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    UV-B exposure of plants regulates expression of numerous genes concerned with various responses. Sudden exposure of non-acclimated plants to high fluence rate, short wavelength UV-B induces expression via stress-related signaling pathways that are not specific to the UV-B stimulus, whereas low fluence rates of UV-B can regulate expression via the UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8). However, there is little information about whether non-stressful, low fluence rate UV-B treatments can activate gene expression independently of UVR8. Here, transcriptomic analysis of wild-type and uvr8 mutant Arabidopsis exposed to low fluence rate UV-B showed that numerous genes were regulated independently of UVR8. Moreover, nearly all of these genes were distinct to those induced by stress treatments. A small number of genes were expressed at all UV-B fluence rates employed and may be concerned with activation of eustress responses that facilitate acclimation to changing conditions. Expression of the gene encoding the transcription factor ARABIDOPSIS NAC DOMAIN CONTAINING PROTEIN 13 (ANAC13) was studied to characterise a low fluence rate, UVR8-independent response. ANAC13 is induced by as little as 0.1 μmol m−2 s−1 UV-B and its regulation is independent of components of the canonical UVR8 signaling pathway COP1 and HY5/HYH. Furthermore, UV-B induced expression of ANAC13 is independent of the photoreceptors CRY1, CRY2, PHOT1 and PHOT2 and phytochromes A, B, D and E. ANAC13 expression is induced over a range of UV-B wavelengths at low doses, with maximum response at 310 nm. This study provides a basis for further investigation of UVR8 and stress independent, low fluence rate UV-B signaling pathway(s).

  • 17.
    Orelma, Hannes
    et al.
    School of Chemical Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland .
    Morales, Luis Orlando
    School of Chemical Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland .
    Johansson, Leena-Sisko
    School of Chemical Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland .
    Hoeger, Ingrid C.
    Departments of Forest Biomaterials and Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA.
    Filpponen, Ilari
    School of Chemical Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland .
    Castro, Cristina
    School of Engineering, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia.
    Rojas, Orlando J.
    School of Chemical Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland; Departments of Forest Biomaterials and Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA.
    Laine, Janne
    School of Chemical Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Affibody conjugation onto bacterial cellulose tubes and bioseparation of human serum albumin2014Inngår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 4, nr 93, s. 51440-51450Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We attached anti-human serum albumin (anti-HSA) affibody ligands on bacterial cellulose (BC) by EDC–NHS-mediated covalent conjugation and physical adsorption and demonstrate their application for tubular biofiltration of blood proteins. The BC fibrils were first modified by carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) by incorporation of CMC in the BC culture medium, producing in situ a CMC–BC tubular network that was used as biofilter. Alternatively, BC carboxylation was carried out by alkaline TEMPO–NaBr–NaClO oxidation. The BC and modified BC, grown in the form of tubes or flat films, were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and conductometric titration. Anti-HSA affibody conjugation onto carboxylated cellulose thin film was verified from sensogram data obtained by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The HSA specific binding capacity of the carboxylated cellulose conjugated with anti-HSA via EDC–NHS was approximately eight-fold larger when compared to the carboxylated cellulose surface carrying physically adsorbed anti-HSA (∼81 compared to 10 ng cm−2, respectively). Further proof of protein binding via anti-HSA affibody conjugated on tubules of CMC- and TEMPO-oxidized BC was obtained by fluorescence imaging. Specific binding of tagged HSA resulted in a linear increase of fluorescence intensity as a function of tagged HSA concentration in the contacting solution.

  • 18.
    Puentes Rodriguez, Yohama
    et al.
    Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Morales, Luis Orlando
    Department of Biosciences, Division of Plant Biology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Willför, Stefan
    Chemical Engineering, Wood and Paper Chemistry, Åbo Akademi University, Turku/Åbo, Finland.
    Pulkkinen, Pertti
    Finnish Forest Research Institute - Metla, Haapastensyrjä Research Unit, Läyliäinen, Finland.
    Peltola, Heli
    Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Pappinen, Ari
    Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Wood decay caused by Heterobasidion parviporum in juvenile wood specimens from normal and narrow crowned Norway spruce2013Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 331-339Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterobasidion parviporum (Fr.) Niemelä & Korhonen is a serious forest pathogen affecting the quality of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst), especially in northern hemisphere. Here, we studied the wood decay caused by this pathogen in small wood specimens of 19-year-old normal (P. abies) and narrow crowned (P. abies f. pendula) Norway spruce trees. After six months of incubation, wood specimens taken next to pith (inner) and bark (outer) at 1 m height from the stem base were measured to obtain the percent dry weight loss. The fungal development was also analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). We found that the crown type (or genetic entry) had no effects on the weight loss. However, outer wood specimens lost, on average, more weight than inner ones. Similarly, wood density and content of lignans were lower at outer sections, opposite to the free glucose content. Wood density correlated negatively with the weight loss of wood specimens, regardless of crown type. Considering that narrow- and normal-crowned trees responded similarly to H. parviporum wood decay, our findings support the potential use of narrow-crowned Norway spruce in practical forestry since they can produce higher stem yield at very dense plantation and without thinning requirements.

  • 19.
    Rai, Neha
    et al.
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, Viikki Plant Science Centre (ViPS), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Neugart, Susanne
    Research Area of Plant Quality and Food Security, Leibniz Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops e. V., Grossbeeren, Germany.
    Yan, Yan
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, Viikki Plant Science Centre (ViPS), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Wang, Fang
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, Viikki Plant Science Centre (ViPS), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Siipola, Sari M.
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, Viikki Plant Science Centre (ViPS), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lindfors, Anders V.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Winkler, Jana Barbro
    Research Unit Environmental Simulation, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Albert, Andreas
    Research Unit Environmental Simulation, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Brosché, Mikael
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, Viikki Plant Science Centre (ViPS), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lehto, Tarja
    School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Morales, Luis Orlando
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, Viikki Plant Science Centre (ViPS), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Aphalo, Pedro J.
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, Viikki Plant Science Centre (ViPS), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    How do cryptochromes and UVR8 interact in natural and simulated sunlight?2019Inngår i: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 70, nr 18, s. 4975-4990Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cryptochromes (CRYs) and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) photoreceptors perceive UV-A/blue (315–500 nm) and UV-B (280–315 nm) radiation in plants, respectively. While the roles of CRYs and UVR8 have been studied in separate controlled environment experiments, little is known about the interaction between these photoreceptors. Here, Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type Ler, CRYs and UVR8 photoreceptor mutants (uvr82, cry1cry2 and cry1cry2uvr82), and a flavonoid biosynthesis defective mutant (tt4) were grown in a sun simulator. Plants were exposed to filtered radiation for 17 d or for 6 h, to study the effects of blue, UV-A and UV-B radiation. Both CRYs and UVR8 independently enabled growth and survival of plants under solar levels of UV, while their joint absence was lethal under UV-B. CRYs mediated gene expression under blue light. UVR8 mediated gene expression under UV-B radiation, and in the absence of CRYs, also under UV-A. This negative regulation of UVR8-mediated gene expression by CRYs was also observed for UV-B. The accumulation of flavonoids was also consistent with this interaction between CRYs and UVR8. In conclusion, we provide evidence for an antagonistic interaction between CRYs and UVR8 and a role of UVR8 in UV-A perception.

  • 20.
    Robson, T. Matthew
    et al.
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology, Viikki Plant Science Centre (ViPS), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Aphalo, Pedro J.
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology, Viikki Plant Science Centre (ViPS), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Banas, Agnieszka Katyrzyna
    Department of Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.
    Barnes, Paul W.
    Department of Biological Sciences and Environment Program, Loyola University New Orleans New Orleans, USA.
    Brelsford, Craig C.
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology, Viikki Plant Science Centre (ViPS), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Jenkins, Gareth I.
    Institute of Molecular Cell and Systems Biology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
    Kotilainen, Titta K.
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology, Viikki Plant Science Centre (ViPS), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Turku, Finland.
    Labuz, Justyna
    Laboratory of Photobiology, Malopolska Centre of Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.
    Martínez-Abaigar, Javier
    Faculty of Science and Technology, University of La Rioja, La Rioja, Spain.
    Morales, Luis Orlando
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Organismal and Evolutionary Biology, Viikki Plant Science Centre (ViPS), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Neugart, Susanne
    Leibniz-Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops, Grossbeeren, Germany.
    Pieristè, Marta
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology, Viikki Plant Science Centre (ViPS), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Normandie Université, UNIROUEN, Ecodiv URA/EA1293, IRSTEA, Rouen, France.
    Rai, Neha
    Organismal and Evolutionary Biology, Viikki Plant Science Centre (ViPS), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vandenbussche, Filip
    Laboratory of Functional Plant Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Jansen, Marchel A. K.
    School of Biological Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    A perspective on ecologically relevant plant-UV research and its practical application2019Inngår i: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, ISSN 1474-905X, E-ISSN 1474-9092, Vol. 18, nr 5, s. 970-988Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants perceive ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation through the UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8), and initiate regulatory responses via associated signalling networks, gene expression and metabolic pathways. Various regulatory adaptations to UV-B radiation enable plants to harvest information about fluctuations in UV-B irradiance and spectral composition in natural environments, and to defend themselves against UV-B exposure. Given that UVR8 is present across plant organs and tissues, knowledge of the systemic signalling involved in its activation and function throughout the plant is important for understanding the context of specific responses. Fine-scale understanding of both UV-B irradiance and perception within tissues and cells requires improved application of knowledge about UV-attenuation in leaves and canopies, warranting greater consideration when designing experiments. In this context, reciprocal crosstalk among photoreceptor-induced pathways also needs to be considered, as this appears to produce particularly complex patterns of physiological and morphological response. Through crosstalk, plant responses to UV-B radiation go beyond simply UV-protection or amelioration of damage, but may give cross-protection over a suite of environmental stressors. Overall, there is emerging knowledge showing how information captured by UVR8 is used to regulate molecular and physiological processes, although understanding of upscaling to higher levels of organisation, i.e. organisms, canopies and communities remains poor. Achieving this will require further studies using model plant species beyond Arabidopsis, and that represent a broad range of functional types. More attention should also be given to plants in natural environments in all their complexity, as such studies are needed to acquire an improved understanding of the impact of climate change in the context of plant-UV responses. Furthermore, broadening the scope of experiments into the regulation of plant-UV responses will facilitate the application of UV radiation in commercial plant production. By considering the progress made in plant-UV research, this perspective highlights prescient topics in plant-UV photobiology where future research efforts can profitably be focussed. This perspective also emphasises burgeoning interdisciplinary links that will assist in understanding of UV-B effects across organisational scales and gaps in knowledge that need to be filled so as to achieve an integrated vision of plant responses to UV-radiation.

  • 21.
    Rodriguez, Yohama Puentes
    et al.
    School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Puhakka-Tarvainen, Helena
    School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Pastinen, Ossi
    Department of Biotechnology and Chemical Technology, Aalto University, Aalto, Finland.
    Siika-Aho, Matti
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Alvila, Leila
    Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Turunen, Ossi
    Department of Biotechnology and Chemical Technology, Aalto University, Aalto, Finland.
    Morales, Luis Orlando
    Division of Plant Biology, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pappinen, Ari
    School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Susceptibility of pre-treated wood sections of Norway spruce (Picea abies) clones to enzymatic hydrolysis2012Inngår i: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 42, nr 1, s. 38-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of softwoods, which confers resistance to degradation through hydrolysis and decay, currently limits their use for the production of biofuels. However, since wood is very heterogeneous, it is possible that differences in wood properties within and between trees could differentially affect its processability. In this research, heartwood (inner) and sapwood (outer) from Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) clones were enzymatically hydrolyzed by Trichoderma viride cellulases after concentrated acid pretreatment. Wood sections with two particle sizes were compared based on their susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis, evaluated by assaying the formation of hydrolysis products and measured as reducing sugar yield (RSY). We also studied the relationship between RSY and the susceptibility to Heterobasidion parviporum wood decay and whether these traits are reflected in wood density and yield. Wood from the outer section produced more RSY with higher glucan but lower lignin content than wood from the inner section. Furthermore, susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis was positively correlated with H. parviporum wood decay, while both processes were negatively correlated with wood density. Our results revealed the importance of clonal trials for identifying suitable lignocellulosic biomass when considering wood properties and indicate that potential genotypes for the production of biofuels are not necessarily the most productive.

  • 22.
    Siipola, Sari M.
    et al.
    Plant Biology Division, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, , Helsinki, Finland.
    Kotilainen, Titta
    Valoya Ltd, , Helsinki, Finland.
    Sipari, Nina
    Viikki Metabolomics Unit, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, , Helsinki, Finland.
    Morales, Luis Orlando
    Plant Biology Division, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, , Helsinki, Finland.
    Lindfors, Anders V.
    Kuopio Unit, Finnish Meteorological Institute, , Kuopio, Finland.
    Robson, Matthew
    Plant Biology Division, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, , Helsinki, Finland.
    Aphalo, Pedro J.
    Plant Biology Division, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, , Helsinki, Finland.
    Epidermal UV-A absorbance and whole leaf flavonoid composition in pea respond more to solar blue light than solar UV radiation2015Inngår i: Plant, Cell and Environment, ISSN 0140-7791, E-ISSN 1365-3040, Vol. 38, nr 5, s. 941-952Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants synthesize phenolic compounds in response to certain environmental signals or stresses. One large group of phenolics, flavonoids, is considered particularly responsive to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, here we demonstrate that solar blue light stimulates flavonoid biosynthesis in the absence of UV‐A and UV‐B radiation. We grew pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Meteor) outdoors, in Finland during the summer, under five types of filters differing in their spectral transmittance. These filters were used to (1) attenuate UV‐B; (2) attenuate UV‐B and UV‐A < 370 nm; (3) attenuate UV‐B and UV‐A; (4) attenuate UV‐B, UV‐A and blue light; and (5) as a control not attenuating these wavebands. Attenuation of blue light significantly reduced the flavonoid content in leaf adaxial epidermis and reduced the whole‐leaf concentrations of quercetin derivatives relative to kaempferol derivatives. In contrast, UV‐B responses were not significant. These results show that pea plants regulate epidermal UV‐A absorbance and accumulation of individual flavonoids by perceiving complex radiation signals that extend into the visible region of the solar spectrum. Furthermore, solar blue light instead of solar UV‐B radiation can be the main regulator of phenolic compound accumulation in plants that germinate and develop outdoors.

  • 23.
    Verdaguer, Dolors
    et al.
    Environmental Sciences Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Girona, Campus de Montilivi, Girona, Spain.
    Jansen, Marcel A.K.
    School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Llorens, Laura
    Environmental Sciences Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Girona, Campus de Montilivi, Girona, Spain.
    Morales, Luis Orlando
    Division of Plant Biology, Department of Biosciences, Viikki Plant Science Center, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Neugart, Susanne
    Leibniz-Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Grossbeeren/Erfurt e.V., Grossbeeren, Germany.
    UV-A radiation effects on higher plants: Exploring the known unknown2017Inngår i: Plant Science, ISSN 0168-9452, E-ISSN 1873-2259, Vol. 255, s. 72-81Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultraviolet-A radiation (UV-A: 315–400 nm) is a component of solar radiation that exerts a wide range of physiological responses in plants. Currently, field attenuation experiments are the most reliable source of information on the effects of UV-A. Common plant responses to UV-A include both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on biomass accumulation and morphology. UV-A effects on biomass accumulation can differ from those on root: shoot ratio, and distinct responses are described for different leaf tissues. Inhibitory and enhancing effects of UV-A on photosynthesis are also analysed, as well as activation of photoprotective responses, including UV-absorbing pigments. UV-A-induced leaf flavonoids are highly compound-specific and species-dependent. Many of the effects on growth and development exerted by UV-A are distinct to those triggered by UV-B and vary considerably in terms of the direction the response takes. Such differences may reflect diverse UV-perception mechanisms with multiple photoreceptors operating in the UV-A range and/or variations in the experimental approaches used. This review highlights a role that various photoreceptors (UVR8, phototropins, phytochromes and cryptochromes) may play in plant responses to UV-A when dose, wavelength and other conditions are taken into account.

  • 24.
    Yan, Yan
    et al.
    Viikki Plant Science Centre (ViPS), Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland.
    Stoddard, Frederick L.
    Viikki Plant Science Centre (ViPS), Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland.
    Neugart, Susanne
    Leibniz-Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops, Grossbeeren, Germany.
    Sadras, Victor O.
    South Australian Research and Development Institute, Australia.
    Lindfors, Anders
    Finnish Meteorological institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Morales, Luis Orlando
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Örebro Life Science Centre.
    Aphalo, Pedro J.
    Viikki Plant Science Centre (ViPS), Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland.
    Responses of flavonoid profile and associated gene expression to solar blue and UV radiation in two accessions of Vicia faba L. from contrasting UV environments2019Inngår i: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, ISSN 1474-905X, E-ISSN 1474-9092, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 434-447Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Blue light and UV radiation shape a plant's morphology and development, but accession-dependent responses under natural conditions are unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that two faba bean (Vicia faba L.) accessions adapted to different latitudes and altitudes vary in their responses to solar blue and UV light. We measured growth, physiological traits, phenolic profiles and expression of associated genes in a factorial experiment combining two accessions (Aurora, a Swedish cultivar adapted to high latitude and low altitude; ILB938, from the Andean region of Colombia and Ecuador, adapted to low latitude and high altitude) and four filter treatments created with plastic sheets: 1. transparent as control; 2. attenuated short UV (290-350 nm); 3. attenuated UV (290-400 nm); 4. attenuated blue and UV light. In both accessions, the exclusion of blue and UV light increased plant height and leaf area, and decreased transcript abundance of ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) and TYROSINE AMINOTRANSFERASE 3 (TAT3). Blue light and short UV induced the accumulation of epidermal and whole-leaf flavonoids, mainly quercetins, and the responses in the two accessions were through different glycosides. Filter treatments did not affect kaempferol concentration, but there were more tri-glycosides in Aurora and di-glycosides in ILB938. Furthermore, fewer quercetin glycosides were identified in ILB938. The transcript abundance was consistently higher in Aurora than in ILB938 for all seven investigated genes: HY5, TAT3, CHALCONE SYNTHASE (CHS), CHALCONE ISOMERASE (CHI), DON-GLUCOSYLTRANSFERASE 1 (DOGT1), ABA INSENSITIVE 2 (ABI2), AUXIN-INDUCIBLE 2-27 (IAA5). The two largest differences in transcript abundance between the two accessions across treatments were 132-fold in CHS and 30-fold in DOGT1 which may explain the accession-dependent glycosylation patterns. Our findings suggest that agronomic selection for adaptation to high altitude may favour phenotypes with particular adaptations to the light environment, including solar UV and blue light.

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